Understand Safeguarding of Children and Young People Essay
1. Understand the policies, procedures and practises for safe working with children and young people
1.1 Explain the policies, procedures and practises for safe working with children and young people
A policy is a statement of what an organisation will do to safeguard a child or young person to keep them safe. A procedure will describe the actions the organisation will take to put the actions into place. A practise is generally written methods outlining who will perform a task with minimum risk.
Every organisation whom supports children and young people in any capacity should have a policy on “child protection” or “safeguarding” which will help in protecting children and young people from harm and abuse. With this should also be a procedure which will enable staff, workers, volunteers and children and young people and their representatives to know what do if they are worried. It will also underpin what is expected of the individual in relation to recognising and reporting concerns.
In England, the law states that children are to be kept safe by the individuals who work with them. This legislation is covered in The Childrens Act 1989 & 2004, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013 document by the Department of Health and The Children’s and Young Persons Act 1933.
There is also as part of the five outcomes every child matters, staying safe
Safe from maltreatment, neglect, violence and sexual exploitation
Safe from accidental injury and death
Safe from bullying and discrimination
Safe from crime and anti-social behaviour in and out of school
Have security, stability and are well cared for
In terms of keeping children safe within my service, we asked all visitors to sign themselves and their children into the home, we ask children to stay with their adult representative’s at all times and do not go into bedrooms and stay in the communal areas. All concerns are reported to the manager or senior member of staff, if the manager is unavailable. The service does not allow groups of young children to visit unless prior arrangements have been made, for example,for attendance at a birthday party.
2. Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused or harmed
2.1 Describe possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding Emotional or psychological abuse: coercion, humiliation, intimidation. Where one person uses emotional or psychological manipulation to compel another to do something they do not want, or is not in their best interests; or when one person manipulates another’s emotional or psychological state for their own ends Emotional abuse can be difficult to observe when it is perpetrated in the privacy of someone else’s home, or in a closed institution. However, personal awareness and understanding of the issue is key to recognising it. The following is a list of possible indicators of emotional abuse:
Low self-esteemSevere anxiety,
Fearfulness,Failure to thrive in infancy,
Sleep disturbances,Physical complaints with no
Inappropriate behaviour for age or development,
Overly passive/compliant,Suicide attempts or discussion,
Inability to trust,Stealing,
Other forms of abuse present or suspected,
Feelings of shame and guilt,Frequent crying,
Self-blame or self-deprecation,
Delay or refusal of medical treatment,
Discomfort or nervousness around career or relative,
Substance abuse,Avoidance of eye contact
Institutional / Organised abuse: is ‘abuse involving one or more abuser and a number of related or non-related young people. The abusers concerned may be acting in concert to abuse children, or may be using an institutional framework or position of authority to recruit children for abuse’. Allegations concerning organised abuse may also relate to historical events involving victims who are now adults. Some organised groups may use bizarre or ritualised behaviour, sometimes associated with particular belief systems.
Neglect is the failure of caregivers to fulfil their responsibilities to provide needed care. Neglect can be hard to recognise as it is often a gradual process, the effects of serious neglect can be very damaging for children. A child suffering from neglect may: Be regularly hungry and steal food from others
Be dressed in unsuitable clothes for the weather; be unkempt, dirty or smelly
Not receive treatment for ill health or injuries.
A child experiencing neglect may:
Be tired all the time
Have few friends and miss a lot of school
Miss hospital and medical appointments
Be left alone at home, sometimes caring for other children
Be found wandering alone and unsupervised
“Active” neglect refers to behaviour that is wilful – that is, the caregiver intentionally withholds care or necessities. The neglect may be motivated by financial gain (e.g. the caregiver stands to inherit) or reflect interpersonal conflicts “Passive” neglect refers to situations in which the caregiver is unable to fulfil his or her care giving responsibilities as a result of illness, disability, stress, ignorance, lack of maturity, or lack of resources.
Self-neglect refers to situations in which there is no perpetrator and neglect is the result of the person refusing care. Self-neglect is often associated with mental health problems, including substance abuse, dementia, and depression.
What are the indicators?
Indicators are signs or clues that neglect has occurred. Indicators of neglect include the condition of the person’s home (environmental indicators), physical signs of poor care, and behavioural characteristics of the caregiver and/or person. Some of the indicators listed below may not signal neglect but rather reflect lifestyle choices, lack of resources, or mental health problems, etc. One should look for patterns or clusters of indicators that suggest a problem.
Signs of neglect observed in the home
Absence of necessities including food, water, heat
Inadequate living environment evidenced by lack of utilities, sufficient space, and ventilation
Animal or insect infestations
Signs of medication mismanagement, including empty or unmarked bottles or outdated prescriptions
Housing is unsafe as a result of disrepair, faulty wiring, inadequate sanitation, substandard cleanliness, or architectural barriers
2.2 Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting All concerns should be reported to the manager, either in person or on the telephone.
The manager will then:
Listen to the child and respect their point of view and offer support
Try to clarify the information without over questioning
Be honest and explain what will happen next and do not promise confidentiality
Ensure the safety of the child
Consult with the adult safeguarding team for clarity and direction
Consult with police or ambulance service if required
Do not do anything which could aggravate the situation
Record all information
Keep any evidence for example, clothing,
2.3 Explain the rights that children, young people and families have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged
Children, young people and families have the rights to the following in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged:
To be responded to with care and urgency
To be believed
To be supported
To be listened to in a calm and caring environment
For the problem to be dealt with
To be safe
To be given help
To be given opportunity to vent their anger appropriately
To be given medical assistance
Understand Safeguarding of Children and Young People Essay
1.1 All organisations that provide care for children and young people must have policies and procedures in place that cover the safeguarding of children and young people from harm and abuse. Which cover: Policies for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. Protection policies and procedures.
Whistle Blowing procedures. An organisations policies and procedures must meet the set standard requirements which are laid out from their local government. All policies and procedures must state the legal duties and responsibilities that an organisation has. The child protection policies which organisations develop will be heavily influenced by the legal framework.
2.1 There are certain indicators that may suggest a form of abuse is happening to a certain someone but at the same time you cannot jump to the conclusion that someone may being abused just because they are showing potential indicators of abuse. Some indicators may be:
Physical Signs may involve bruises, burns, human bite marks, fractures, swelling and lack of normal use of limbs, serious injury with no explanation, untreated injuries, no consistency in the explanation, delayed physical hygiene, appearance, damage to genitalia or anus, sexually transmitted infection, unexplained recurrent discharge and emaciation, pot belly, short stature.
Behavioural Signs may involve some accepting punishment which appears excessive, over reaction, continual self – deprecation, neurotic behaviour, extremes of passivity or aggression, hostility to others, constant criticism of others, constant hunger, destructive tendencies, sexual knowledge at an inappropriate age, sexualised behaviour in young children, sexually provocative behaviour / promiscuity, hinting at sexual activity, inexplicable falling off in school performance, sudden apparent changes in personality, lack of concentration, social withdrawal, overly compliant behaviour, aggressive behaviour, onset of wetting day or night, unusually fearful of adults, unnaturally complaint with parents, refusal to discuss injuries, withdrawal from physical contact and aggression towards others.
Emotional Signs may involve low self-esteem, social withdrawal, insecure behaviour, inappropriate emotional responses to painful situations, poor trust in significant adults, regressive behaviour, onset of wetting day or night and onset of insecure clinging behaviour.
2.2 Within our organisation if a safeguarding issues occurs we are to follow protocol, which means we follow our policies and procedures. Our policies and procedures state our purpose is to ensure that abuse of service user rights is avoided, to comply with the independent safeguarding authority (ISA) requirements, to comply with the guidance contained in the publication “no secrets”, to comply with the protection of children (Scotland) Act 2003 (POCSA), to comply with regulations 18 of the CQC (Registration) Regulations 2009 and to ensure awareness of the wider safeguarding powers.
Our policies and procedures state are first protocol would be to ensure the service users is our priority and their safety is maintained, if medical attention is required this must be sought immediately. Our next step would be to report, it is everyone responsibility to act on suspicion or evidence of abuse or neglect and refer to the local Social Services Adult Protection Team. The social services adult protection team will take lead and will take responsibility for managing the process by establishing facts of the case, identify who needs to be involved and coordinate the response. When complaints of alleged abuse are made Police are to be notified it’s imperative the police are notified straight away with a matter of urgency.
In some cases the Police may ask the providers to carry out an initial investigation before referral. Any incidents of abuse and allegations of abuse, as well as any incident which is reported to the police CQC must be notified by the organisation without delay. We are to involve the alleged victim and ensure they understand the process of the investigation. Arrangements should be made to have a relative, friend or independent advocate present if the person desires. The friend, relative or independent advocate should not be a person suspected of being anyway involved or implicated in the abuse.
The service users care plan should be reviewed to ensure they are getting the correct support that’s needed from our organisation. Consideration must be given to enlisting the services or advice or personnel with specific skills or knowledge, particularly where people involved have limited communication skills, or where English is not their first language. The social service district team, as the lead agency, coordinating the response, must notify other agencies and identify those who need to be involved and ensure the following processes are addressed: Investigation of the incident using guidelines
Action to ensure immediate safety of the alleged victim Early involvement of key agencies through a strategy meeting or discussion (by telephone if appropriate) Agreement with other agencies who should take the lead in the investigation Assessment and care planning for the vulnerable person who has been abused Action with regard to criminal proceeding
Action by employers, such as, suspension, disciplinary proceedings, use of complaints and grievance procedures and action to remove the perpetrator from the professional register Arrangements for treatment or care of the abuser, if appropriate Consideration of implications relating to regulations, inspection and contract monitoring Appropriate measures to reassure and support carers and in keeping them informed Development, implementation and monitoring of a care plan Maintain appropriate records.
The investigation will take place after the investigation or throughout the investigation a case conference will be arranged for all agencies involved to attend. Throughout the process of following are policies and procedures confidentiality is not to be breached at any time unless we are following our sharing information policy. The Social Services District Team Manager must ensure feedback is given to the referring organisation and family as appropriate.
As an organisation we are to follow our policies and procedures and try to limit safeguarding issues by following our General Procedures for the Prevention of Abuse during Employment. Protocol changes when it involves children and young people instead of notifying the Adult Protection Team within social services, you would notify the Children / Young People Protection Team. Other than them we would notify the police and the person’s case manager. You would follow your organisations policies and procedures at all times and the child / young person’s safety comes first and is imperative.
2.3 Under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Working Together to Safeguard Children, A child / young person has the right not to be subjected to repeat medical examinations or questions following suspected abuse. Children and young people have the right to be listened to and their safety is paramount. They have the right to be consulted on with whom information will be shared with but the duty to report concerns can override this. Under the Children Act those with parental responsibility have the right to be informed and to make decisions about their child’s welfare but this right is removed where their abuse is proved. Where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged they have the right to be informed – who informs them and when will depend on the suspicion or allegation. Again they must be consulted about who the information is shared with but this can be overridden in certain circumstances.