The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Essay

Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection. Employees have a duty of care to everyone including themselves and their families to do all they can to prevent infections and infestations from spreading. Staff should adhere to the policies and procedures set down by the company to help to prevent and control infections. This should include effective hand washing. Cleaning and the procedures for the cleaning of spillages The use of Personal Protective Clothing, Food Handling. The handling and storing of specimens. The handling and correct disposal of clinical and soiled waste and the disposal of sharps. Particularly for Care at Home there is a policy on pets and pests and infestations.

All gloves and aprons worn should be removed and disposed of correctly. All soiled items if disposable should be disposed of correctly. Effective hand washing and not coming into work when not feeling well are ways of preventing staff from passing on infections, ..All staff have a duty to read the infection control policy. All staff should renew their training annually. 2. Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection. The employer has a responsibility to provide PPE equipment, the employer should organise training for all staff, and annual updates, and supervision.

The employer is also responsible for the general health and safety of all staff at work under the health and safety law and regulations. The employer should provide copies of infection control policies and procedures. Employers must carry out risk assessments and must ensure putting procedures in place and ensure procedures are followed by regular supervision. The employer should provide and maintain all necessary equipment and materials to staff. Employers should provide a COSHH file and provide training and supervision where necessary.

Outcome 2Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infection It is a legal requirement that staff have access to up to date policies guidelines, procedures and risk assessments. Staff should be aware of reporting immediately outbreaks of disease. /Staff should understand safe disposal of waste and food hygiene standards. The main legislation regarding infection control is :-The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 The Health and Safety Executive (HSE)

Food safety act 1990

The Public Health (control of diseases) Act 1984

The Environmental Protection Act to dispose of clinical waste safely The Public Health (infections Diseases) regulations 1988 – it is a legal requirement to report specific infectious diseases under the Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act the list can be found on the web site at www,hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/noids/menu.htmHazardous Waste Regulations 2005 Health Protection Agency 2008 now part of Public Health England as from 1 April 2013 RIDDOR- Reporting of accidents or suspicion of diseases and dangerous occurrences Environmental Protection

2,Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection The local policies relevant to the control of infection are :- the Local Health Protection Team . HPT . The Team are at Fareham in Hampshire which covers Dorset, Hampshire and IOW Health and Safety at Work act 1974, employees to inform employers of any work related incident which could pose a risk of health and safety to themselves and others. Food Standards Agency – provides standards for information on infection prevention and controls practices RIDDOR – Reporting of injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences which requires the reporting of work related accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences. The organisational policies are Health and /safety policy. The MRSA policy, The infection control policy, Personal Hygiene Policy, Clinical Waste Policy, Spillage Policy, Scabies Policy, Uniform Policy.

Protective Clothing Policy, Pets, pests and infestations policy. The registered Manager is responsible for advising the Local Health Protection Team and Care Quality Commission immediately of any communicable Diseases. and RIDDOR. The Care Quality Commission Essential Standards which is based on regulation12 of the Health and social care act 2008. Outcome 3Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections 1.Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Using risk assessments – considering the susceptible service user and any risk that their environment and other users may pose to them.

Providing a clean and appropriate environment to prevent the spread of infection. Provide accurate information on infections to staff and any person visiting the premises. Ensure that anyone who develops an infection receives the appropriate treatment and care to reduce the risk of passing on the infection. Effective hand washing and personal hygiene covered by the Personal /hygiene policy and is to be carried out at all times. After using the toilet before handling food stuff between seeing each and every client and direct clinical contact is involved after handing any body fluids or waste or soiled items after handling specimens

Staff should wash their uniform in accordance with the uniform policy Cleaning and procedures for cleaning spillages –  all staff should clean up body fluids / body waste as quickly as possible, in accordance with the spillage policy The use of protective clothing all gloves and aprons are provided for staff and the protective clothing policy gives details of when they should be used. Food handling all staff should adhere to the food handling and food safety policy staff who are ill should refrain from working and should only return to work when the GP states that they are safe to do so. Staff should use effective hand washing and wear PPE no jewellery and tie hair back. handling and storing of specimens – Specimens should only ever be collected if order by GP they should be labelled clearly and packed in a self sealing bag.

Gloves should be worn and hands should be washed afterwards. Clinical waste should be disposed of in sealed yellow bags.- ref:- clinical waste policy. Health care providers are responsible for immunisation programmes and monitoring and controlling outbreaks of infections. 2, Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation. The potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual could be fatal for example if they contracted the MRSA infection and passed on to staff, other individuals and the organisation. Staff would need time off work. the staff could possibly have no salary. They could pass the infection on to family and friends.

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The potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the organisation could be clients may have to be hospitalised or nursed at home. Could possibly die. Staff could become ill through contact. Further infections due to elderly becoming more susceptible to infection. Risk to the organisations business. The companies reputation could be at stake. The organisation could be fined if not complying with the law. Outcome 4Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections 1, Define the term risk

The likelihood of a hazard or an activity that could cause harm. A situation involving exposure to danger. For example the risk of catching an infection from a client is greater if not wearing PPE and vigorously washing of hands. 2. Outline potential risk of infection within the work place Supporting clients with personal care involves coming into contact with their bodily fluids. Handling laundry that may be dirty, contaminated with bodily fluids. Being close to a client to administer personal care that may have an infection is a risk to staff. Cooking meals for clients in their kitchen where their hygiene processes are not as stringent as staffs’ may be a risk for infection. Emptying clinical waste containers may be a risk. 3.describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment

A risk assessment is carefully looking at the processes that could cause harm to people. It is weighing up whether you have taken enough precautions or should more be done to prevent harm. Clients, staff and visitors have a right to be protected from harm. Failure to take reasonable control measures could result in harm. Where workers are required to go into a place of work the company is legally required to assess the risks and put a plan in place to control the risk. 4. Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment There are 5 steps to the process of risk assessment

1, identify the hazards ie. speaking with clients staff and members of the family if appropriate 2. Decide who might be harmed and how ie consider everyone who may visit the workplace, staff visitors family. 3. evaluate the risk and decide on precautions deciding what precautions must be taken to remove reduce or avoid the hazard. e.g wearing PPE 4. Record findings and implement the assessment. all those involved with the client should be informed and given explanations on how the risk can be prevented or controlled 5. review the assessment and update as necessary. The risk assessment should be reviewed regularly to check they are sufficient.

It is important to carry out a risk assessment for every client that has a care plan and a copy of the risk assessment is included in the care plan so that staff are aware of any hazards that they may come into contact with during the course of their visit. Having a risk assessment completed for each client may avoid infection or possible injury to the client. Outcome 5 Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections 1.Demonstrate the correct use of PPE

Put on apron and gloves when giving personal care. To remove PPE, remove apron first, then holding apron in a screwed ball remove by the cuff the glove on one hand so that the apron goes inside the first glove transfer this to the other gloved hand and remove second glove by enclosing first glove and apron. Dispose of in bin correctly. 2,Describe the different types of PPE

The uniform trousers and tunic is worn to work. Gloves and Aprons are worn to protect the uniform from becoming soiled. Over the shoe protectors can be worn if perhaps there is soiling on the floor to protect shoes that will be worn out in the community, and prevent infection. Hats in some establishments may be worn when cooking food. 3.Explain the reasons for use of PPE

The reason for using PPE is to reduce the risk of infection and pathogens being transferred from the client to the member of staff and from one individual to another. PPE are a physical barrier to protect both staff and clients. 4.State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE The regulations for PPE come under the Health and Safety at Work Act – protection and prevention The legislation relating to PPE is the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulation which sets out how PPE should be worn in the workplace and responsibilities of both the Employee and employers. COSSH control of substances hazardous to Health Regulations Infection Control Policy at work

5.Describe the employees responsibilities regarding the use of PPE Employees must attend training in their induction regarding the correct use of PPE, employees must report any loss or defect immediately. 6.Describe the employers responsibilities regarding the use of PPE Employers are responsible for ensuring suitable and appropriate PPE is provided and available. It should be appropriate for the risks and conditions used. Details of PPE available for staff should be available in the staff handbook and detailed in the Protective Clothing Policy. 7.Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE Hands should be first washed clean and drive well.

Put on aprons first its easier than trying to tie an apron with gloves on. hold the wrist end of the glove and put fingers in glove using other hand pull on glove to wrist repeat proceedure with other hand. Once the care or domestic has been completed remove the apron by carefull pulling roll into ball carefull remove one glove from the wrist and pull down over the apron. Hold the glove enclosed with the apron in the gloved hand and repeat the proceedure by pulling from the wrist and enclosing both the glove and apron again turning inside out. Dispose of correctly in a bin. Wash hands. 8.Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE

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Removed PPE should avoid touching any surface or being handed to someone else to dispose of, to avoid risk of cross contamination and infection. PPE should be placed in the correct bin if provided and then wash and dry hands afterwards. Outcome 6Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections 1.Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene

Washing hands before and after the task. Bathing regularly to prevent the spread of infection and body odour. Wearing clean uniform, and only to be worn in the work place to reduce the risk of spreading infections. Hair tied back if long. Clean and short finger nails and no nail varnish. No jewellery. 2,Demonstrate good hand washing technique

3.Describe the correct sequence for hand washing.

Remove Jewellery.

Turn on tap and run for the correct water temperature, wet both hands and apply soap. Lather both hands palm to palm. rub the back of each hand over one another.Interlock fingers and rubs fingers, then thumbs. Ru b fingers into palms. Rinse hands to remove soap and dry if possible with paper towel. 4.Explain why and when hand washing should be carried out

Hand washing should be carried out regularly to control and prevent the spread of infection, Hand washing should be carried out before commencing work and before and after using PPE. Before and after handling or serving food. Hand washing should be carried after using the toilet. Before and after any activity with a client. 5.Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing. The products that should be used for hand washing are soap (preferably from a dispenser to avoid cross contamination) and water. Alcohol based hand gel / Antiseptic hand gel. Alcohol based hand gels are an addition to hand washing and not a substitute. 6.Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare

The main function of the skin is to act as a barrier to the body. Broken skin increases the risk of infection. Staff are at risk of skin conditions because of the use of protective gloves. Staff with existing skin conditions need to take extra care of their skin and may need to take special precautions. Adequate hand washing reduces the risk of infection. If hands are left damp or with products such as soap still on them this may increase the risk of infection. Hands should always be washed after removal of gloves. Gloves should be worn for the shortest possible period of time . Do not wear torn gloves or another persons gloves.

Cover cuts and wounds with waterproof self adhesive plaster when at work and change at least daily.After washing hands an emollient cream can be used, to protect the hands from becoming dry and cracked which in turn could become the route for infections. Using an emolient keeps the skin moisturised and prevents cracking.

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The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Essay

Employees roles and responsibilities

Maintain high standards personal care and hygiene

Be aware of polices surrounding infection in the work place

Practice prevention and control

Report risks to employer

Up to date training

Employers roles and responsibilities

Risk assessment taking place

Produce prevention and control procedures

Provide equipment

Identify hazards and provide prevention methods

Provide training

Keep records

Legislation and standard

Health and safety at work act 1974

Public health act 1984

Food safety act 1990

Environmental protection act 1990

Management of health and safety at work act 1999

Prevention of infection

PPE equipment must be supplied – PPE at work regulation act 1992 Introduce good hygiene practices

Report handling of body fluids – Reporting of injury, diseases, and dangerous occurrences 1995 Store chemicals safely – the control of substances hazardous to health 2002

Disposal of clinical waste and sharps – hazardous waste regulations 2005 Code of practice for the prevention and control of the healthcare associated infection regulation 2010

Wash your hand correctly

Risk assessment

Clean and disinfect items and areas

Impact of infection

Healthcare places such as hospital, care homes, doctors or supported living are particularly vulnerable to infection outbreaks. With sick, elderly, young and disabled people being the most at risk. Infection can be localised and systemic and can be identified by signs and symptoms. Causing:-

Reduced mobility

Death

Infection to others

Time of work

Financial loss

What is “risk”

Risk is when the chance of infection developing is higher.

Potential risks an hazards

Moist conditions

Warmth

Lack of oxygen

Time for infection to take place

Bathrooms

Kitchens

Reusable ppe

Communal areas

Risk assessments

Risk assessment are legally required and are important to keep a infection free environment. They high light the hazards, who is at risk, how to reduce risk, record findings such as changes in condition an help review final out come an weather there is a new potential hazards. They draw attention to high risk areas such as activities or behaviour which means the risk can be reduced or even removed. This can result in further staff training and amendment to company policies.

Personal protection equipment

PPE is disposable gloves, aprons, masks, goggles or paper hair covers which stop or reduce the risk of spread of infection. These do so by creating a barrier against the pathogens that cause infection. A employer has a legal obligation to supply PPE equipment which is covered by “personal protective equipment at work regulations act 1992”. They must supply an maintain PPE, carry out risk assessment and make sure PPE is being used correctly.

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As the employee you must use PPE correctly and appropriately, report faulty or low levels of PPE, follow out risk assessment results and dispose of PPE safely an appropriately

Correct use of PPE

Wash hands before use

Use appropriate PPE and only use it once

Make such PPE is undamaged

Makes it covers the area it is intended to cover.

Remove, taking care no contact is made with infected item and dispose immediately after use by appropriate means, don’t touch the bin with contaminated PPE.

Wash hands after disposal

Key principles of good hygiene

Maintain stands of personal hygiene

Bathing, washing hair stops spread of bacteria

Hair care reduces risk of problems such as head lice

Dental care an visits to the dentist prevent build up of bacteria in the mouth which may cause bad breath, tooth decay or even lose. Hand an nail care prevents or reduces risks of spread of infection

Hand washing technique

Washing your hands is important to stop the spread of infection, remove dirt, protect others, clean away unseen pathogens. There are two types of wash areas:-

Soap based for low risk infection areas

Antimicrobial for high risk areas

Alcohol based solution may be used when there is on access to sink areas

1. Check sink an taps are clean

2. Check there is the right equipment such as soap

3. Remove jewellery which my hide bacteria

4. Roll sleeve up

5. Turn on tap

6. Wet hand

7. Apply soap covering all areas

8. Rub hands together

9. Pay attention to in-between fingers, under nails an wrists 10. Dry hands thoroughly

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The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Essay

Outcome 1 Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections 1.The main roles and responsibilities of the employee in relation to prevention and control of infection are as follows: To use protective clothing when needed to stop cross contamination. This includes gloves, aprons and masks. To wash hands regularly and effectively. This needs to be done after handling food, personal care, toileting etc. To ensure your health doesn’t pose a risk to others. This can be if you have been vomiting, cold symptoms etc. To avoid cross contamination. To ensure your hygiene is good at all times as not to pose a risk to others by passing on germs and cross contaminating.

2.The main roles and responsibilities of the employer in relation to prevention and control of infection are as follows: To ensure protective equipment is available at all times, and that they have plenty in stock. To make sure the employees are aware of all health and safety aspects of the job. This can include having posters around, having files for the employees to read and putting the employees through training. Keep all records related to infection control using the appropriate documentation and keeping them in a safe place. The employer needs to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available in the work place.

Outcome 2 Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections 1.The current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection are as follows: Health and safety at work act 1974

Health and social care act 2008

The public health (control of diseases) act 1984

Personal protective equipment (PPE) regulations 1992

Controlled waste regulations 1992

Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999

Food Safety Act 1990

The NICE guidelines

COSHH

RIDDOR

Relevant codes of practice

National Minimum Standards (CQC)

2.The following local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The public health (control of disease) act 1984, The social care act, The NICE guidelines and also company policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control. Our company states that anyone suffering from and infectious disease must have clearance from a doctor or you should seek guidance from your manager.

Outcome 3 Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections 1.Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection are as follows: Hand washing – Hand washing is important in the work place as it stops cross contamination with residents and other members of staff. You should wash your hands after touching anyone, after handling food, after being to the toilet and after using equipment. Using PPE – PPE is important in the care home as it protects you and others from infection. You should always use PPE when dealing with food and when dealing with personal care. You should always dispose of PPE before leaving a room or dealing with someone else. This stops cross contamination, protecting yourself and others. Disposal of clinical waste – The correct disposal of clinical waste is important. Clinical Waste should be disposed if in yellow bags and tied straight away. This stops cross contamination.

2.An outbreak of infection can effect the organisation and the individual. The impact it can have is as follows: Impact on organisation – The impact on the organisation can be costly, this is due to staff being sick and cover being needed for them. There can be a loss of confidence from the public and the residents giving the home a bad reputation. There is also a risk of infecting family members and visitors. Impact on individual – There is a big impact on the individual as their health deteriorates meaning they need time to recover. It can effect their eating and drinking habits leading them to lose weight and become more ill. It could be fatal resulting in death.

Outcome 4 Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections 1.Risk is a situation, action or event that may cause harm or damage to an individual or to yourself. Risk of infection can be not hand washing, not cleaning equipment after use and not disposing of clinical waste safely and properly as not to cause cross contamination.

2.Infections are unavoidable in the care home as there are so many risks. Potential risks can include the poor hygiene of a resident. This can be caused by them refusing to wash or bathe. Food poisoning is a risk if the kitchen and food surface aren’t kept clean at all times. Another potential risk is not cleaning equipment after use, as this can cross contaminate others causing harm to them. You must also make sure you dispose of clinical waste in the correct way, in the correct bins and tie bags up straight away as this can lead to a risk of infection.

3. Five steps to risk assessment can be followed to ensure that your risk assessment is carried out correctly, these steps are as follows: Identify the hazards – Hazards can be identified by using a number of different techniques. This can include walking around the workplace, asking employees and asking family members. Who might be harmed and how? – Once hazards have been identified you need to understand who will be harmed and how. This could be the resident themselves, the staff or visitors. Evaluate Risks – After identifying the hazards and deciding who may be harmed, you then have to protect the people from harm. This is done by removing the hazards or controlling the risk so an injury is unlikely. Record findings – Recording your findings shows that you have identified hazards and shows how you plan on removing the hazards. It is a legal requirement to record your documents to prove you are stopping any harm to others. Your recordings should be stored in a safe and locked place. Review and update regularly – It’s important to regularly review risk assessments so you can update any changes immediately. This is so the risk assessment is always accurate.

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4.It is important to carry out risk assessments as it’s aim is to make sure that no one comes to harm and that nobody becomes ill. Risk assessments will not prevent accidents and illnesses but play a crucial part in reducing the likelihood of it happening. They should be reviewed by all members of staff and kept up to date at all times so all changes are documented. Risk assessments are essential for legal reasons, ethical reasons and for financial reasons. This is so nobody can sue you.

Outcome 5 Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections. 2.Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a term which covers all equipment intended to be worn, or held by employees that protects them against risks to their own and others health. There are different types of PPE used for different reasons. They are as follows: Gloves – Gloves prevent self-contamination when dealing with bodily fluids, chemicals or to protect breaks in the skin. Once gloves are removed you should discard them immediately into a clinical waste bin and thoroughly wash your hands. Aprons – Aprons should be worn whenever there is a risk of bacterial contamination. This includes bed making, toileting or barrier nursing. Aprons should be changed after every task. This includes resident contact, and between rooms. Masks – Masks should be worn when there is an increased risk of blood splashing or an other bodily fluids splashing. They also provide residents protection from staff who have a respiratory infection. Eye Protection – Eye protection (goggles, visors etc) should be worn when there is a risk of bodily fluid splashing to protect the eyes from infection.

3.Personal protective equipment is used to protect employees and residents from potential risk of harm. Everyone that uses PPE should be properly trained by the employer and follow all correct instructions and procedures. PPE should be used when handling contaminated items, to prevent cross contamination, to protect yourself from infections and to avoid diseases.

4.There are many relevant regulations and legislations relating to PPE. These should be read by everyone that uses PPE. They are as follows: Personal protective equipment at work regulations 1992

Control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) regulations 2002 National institute for health and clinical excellence (NICE) guidelines The public

health (control of diseases) Act

The public health (infectious diseases) regulations 1998

Health and safety at work act 1974

The management of health and safety at work act 1994

The environmental protection (Duty of care) regulations 1991 Hazardous waste regulations 2005

5.Employees must wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while performing tasks to prevent themselves and residents from getting an infection and to prevent cross contamination between individuals. The employees responsibilities are as follows: To use PPE appropriately and as instructed by their employer Check PPE for damage before and after use

Report any damage or wear to PPE

Make sure PPE is stored in the right facilities

6.Employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) required by employees for free of charge, and must provide training to all staff. The employers responsibilities are as follows: To make sure PPE is available to staff at all times

That staff know how to use PPE correctly

That all staff know the correct application of PPE

That all staff know the correct disposal of PPE

That all staff know the correct preparations for use of PPE

7.Before putting on PPE, you must always thoroughly wash your hands. Different protective equipment should be applied and removed differently. Staff should be trained in all different types of PPE. Gloves

Application –

Select the correct size of glove and correct type of glove (e.g. latex free) Wash hands thoroughly

Pull over hands far enough that your wrists are covered

Removal –

Grab the outside of the glove with the opposite gloved hand and peel off Hold the removed glove in the gloved hand

Slot your finger under the lip of the remaining glove and peel it off carefully making sure not to touch contaminated surface of glove. Dispose of the gloves in the clinical waste bin

Wash hands thoroughly

Aprons

Application –

Wash your hands thoroughly

Pull the apron over your head carefully by trying not to come into contact with your skin Tie the straps around your back carefully not to rip it

Removal –

Unfasten (or break) the ties around your back

Pull the apron away from your neck and shoulders taking care to touch the inside only and not the outer side that is contaminated Fold the apron into a bundle with the inner side on the outside Dispose in the clinical waste bin

Wash hands thoroughly

8.It is important that PPE is disposed of correctly to avoid contamination and infection to yourself and others. This is done as follows: Put on some medical gloves and place the PPE into a plastic garbage bag Tie the garbage bag tightly and securely to prevent dripping. If dripping does occur and touches your clothes or skin, make sure you wash them thoroughly to prevent infection. Place bag in the correct bin. These are normally labelled.

Clean waste containers regularly to stop infection growing.

Wash your hands thoroughly afterwards.

Outcome 6 Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections 1.There are many principles to maintain good personal hygiene. These help prevent infection and cross contamination. The main principles of good personal hygiene are as follows: Clothing – Uniforms must be clean and free from contamination and washed separately from other clothing on a high temperature. Uniforms should be changed before leaving the care home to avoid contamination. Nails – Nails should be kept short and clean with no polish on and no extensions. This can cause contamination if polish flakes onto an individual or into food. Hair – Hair should be kept clean at all times and tied up in a bobble out of the way. This is to prevent the risk of infection. Jewellery – Jewellery should not be worn as they harbour dangerous bacteria. Jewellery can also cause harm to the resident by causing damage to the skin.

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3. The correct hand washing sequence is as follows:

Remove all jewellery

Turn the water tap on making sure it’s at a comfortable temperature Wet both hands

Apply soap from a dispenser and lather both hands palm to palm Rub each hand over the back of each other

Interlock fingers and rub fingers thoroughly

Rub thumbs

Rinse hands to remove the soap

Dry your hands with a paper towel or hand dryer

4.The purpose of hand washing is to reduce the risk of carrying infection on your hands which could be a risk to yourself or to others. Washing hands with soap and water is the most effective measure in the prevention of infection. Routine hand washing should be done after the following: After using the toilet

After handling laundry or waste

After handling a resident

Before and after handling , preparing or eating food

Before and after giving medication

Before and after removing gloves

Before starting work and after leaving work

After touching animals

5.There are different types of products that should be used for hand washing. Soap, antiseptic gels and alcohol based hand rubs. Soap from a dispenser should be used in communal areas as bars of soap can carry bacteria that will then be passed around to different people. Antiseptic gels contain chemicals that destroy pathogens and these are used when there is a higher risk of infection. Alcohol based hand rubs should be used as well of and no instead of hand washing as these add an additional protective barrier against infections.

6.It is important that hand cream is applied regularly to the hands as frequent hand washing can cause skin problems. It can cause them to dry out which can cause the skin to develop cracks, this itself causing bacteria. Allergies to washing preparations and gloves can sometimes occur and need reporting to your manager straight away, in order for them to get you the equipment to protect your hands. If there are any cuts or grazes of the skin, they should be covered by a plaster or bandage at all times to prevent infection into the wound and from the wound to others.

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