Report on Brain Drain in Pakistan Essay

Chapter No 1

Introduction

Brain Draining means the out flow of the human capital from home country to the forign country. There is increasing rate of brain draining from the last decards1 Brain Draining has many causes like unemployment, lack of Govt. support, low facilities in home country, desire for better urban life etc lead the people toward migration which is loss for home country if they will not return to their home country. The expression ‘brain-drain migration’ was popularized in the 1960s with the loss of skilled labor-power from a number of poor countries, notably India.

The migration of skilled workers out of a country The emigration of a significant proportion of a country’s highly skilled, highly educated professional population, usually to other countries offering better economic and social opportunity (for example, physicians leaving a developing country to practice medicine in a developed country). Permanent migration of skilled group of population from one country to anotherit is long term migration The migration of educated or talented people from less economically advanced areas to more economically advanced areas, especially to large cities or richer countriesdepletion or loss of intellectual and technical personnel A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals (“human capital”) to other nations or jurisdictions, due to conflicts, lack of opportunity or health hazards where they are living. It parallels the term “capital flight” which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it. Spokesmen for the Royal Society of London coined the expression “brain drain” to describe the outflow of scientists and technologists to Canada and the United States in the early 1950s when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunitiesit drains more resources from the home country.

The UNESCO defines “brain drain” as an odd form of scientific exchange among states because it is characterized by a movement in one direction that inevitably flows to developed countries while encyclopedia Britannica defines the term as the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living condition 1.1 Problem Statement

“Brain draining”

“The emigration of a significant proportion of a country’s highly skilled, highly educated professional population, usually to other countries offering better economic and social opportunity” This study was designed to describe the loss of human capital due to BRAIN DRAIN.

1.2 Objective

In this report we conducted the research process on the topic of “BRAIN DRAIN”. We undertook the preparation of this report with the conviction that from past few decades there is a tremendous increase in the rate of brain drain in countries

We are also painfully aware that Pakistan According to official estimates of Pakistan’s Overseas Employment Corporation, close to 36,000 professionals, including doctors, engineers and teachers, has migrated to other countries in the last 30 years. Interestingly, this number is indicative of only a small proportion of actual migration, since the majority of emigrants do not register.

If countries are serious about stemming its alarming brain drain, it must provide better job opportunities that properly remunerate workers based on their skills and talents. Otherwise, it will continue to lose its skilled labor to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful and a system based on merit versus contacts is in place. We completed the eight steps of research process on “BRAIN DRAIN”. We completed the scientific research process to give our project a solid base and logical pattern.

1.3 Data Source

The study was involved about the feedback of BRAIN DRAINING from students . The major chunk of this research lies in the data collection that was involved primary data gathering from the students of different cities . The data was collected through a structured questionnaire distribute among the students. The questionnaire was presented to the students on the spot and given full assistance in understanding the different aspects asked in the

questionnaire.

Chapter No 2

Literature Review

Article Title:Reassesing The Impact of Brain Draining on D eveloping Countries By :Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah

Institute for Public Policy Rsearch

The main cause of brain drain is the migration of skilled worker from developing countries to developed countries. The poverty rate in developing countries rises day by day as average rate of brain drain in some countries become alarming. It sounds not ethic to nib brain drain into the soil but there should be some remedies against the reason behind migration of skill workers as it impacts on the economic condition of the country. Positive Aspects behind Brain Drain:-

But along with that there are some positive aspects behind brain drain 1- Some of those who migrate return with greater skill.

2- To receive education from elsewhere besides home country enable one to learn and gain vast exposure. 3- Some unemployed or underemployed can cause trouble in home country so the migrations become beneficial at this stage. 4- Some times the migration of skill from home country compensated by new skill arrival e.g. South African doctors’ move towards developed country replaced by Cuban doctors. 5- So other impacts if we consider i.e. remittances, inward investment, technology transfer, increased trade flows. Impacts of reducing the Brain Drain:-

1- 1-As some times brain drain is due to recruiting problem in home country so it is genuine problems which compel one to emigrate and to create hindrance in such situation create bad impacts. 2- Limits on migration from developing countries may be seen as a new form of “compassionate racism” in which the developed world restricts the opportunities of developing-country nationals. 3- Increasing wages, improving working conditions, and providing employment opportunities may be a far better approach than restricting mobility — and it is in supporting these efforts that developed countries might be most effective. Conclusion

1- The first is to devise methodologies for differentiating between brain drain and brain strain. 2- (Brain Strain is in which the net outflow of highly skilled workers from a particular sector in a country is very likely to obstacle economic development) 3- If the negative impact of brain drain over whelms the positive effects then there should be some methodology which locate information on vacancy rates in key sectors, differentiate among present and previous change e.g. teacher/1000 children, change in economy, and other reasons behind the migration experience of people who leaves home country. 4- Increase literacy in that area’s where emigration is not as important. 5- To gather all these information and data include both qualitative as well as quantitative model which is complex as it would be difficult to collect all information about inflow and outflow of people. 6- Hence to calculate the causes of brain drain in more important as compare to eradicate the brain drain.

According to IMF, the migration rate (from Pakistan to the EDC countries) of individuals with a tertiary education is 7.6 per cent, while for India it is about 2.7 per cent; these figures, however, fail to take into account the sizable flow of professionals from the subcontinent to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates and therefore neglect an important component of the brain drain from the relevant source countries. The estimates show that there is an overall tendency for migration rates to be higher for highly educated individuals.

Another important implication of the brain drain is that investment in education in a developing country may not lead to faster economic growth if a large number of its highly educated people leave the country. Also, efforts to reduce specific skill shortages through improved educational opportunities may be largely futile unless measures are taken to offset existing incentives for highly educated people to emigrate. According to Zahlan; Zahlan’s analysis of recent trends of flows and certain emerging problems are given as follows. Zahlan concludes; The migration of High Level Manpower (HLM) in the late 1970s and 1980s had been estimated by him to be of the order of 100,000 annually. The bulk of these were Europeans migrating to USA in the 1970s and 1980s. Since then majority of brain drain is both to Europe and USA from the third world.

Article Title:Situation of migration & potential available to reverse the brain drain —Case from Pakistan. Publication: Public Personnel Management.

PublicationDate: 22-Mar-05

Methodology:

This study is based on relevant literature review, interviews of concered individuals and writer”s own experience . The paper draws cases from Pakistan to illustrate arguments on Brain Drain. History:

Earliest examples of Brain Drain towards Europe was in time of Second World War. Findings:

B.D cannot be stopped by nor it can be legislated against the right of individuals to move fro one country to another country. Some industrialized countries like America and Canada, whose immigration policies tend to be more restrictive. The case of Pakistan is not different a sizeable number of highly qualified professionals leaving the country. Major causes of B.D are opportunities in travel, aspiring workers .Pakistan was never able to match the pays and perks offered by industrial countries. Results:

To minimize B.D there should be optimum chances of advancement created by government. Better Law and order situations.

Creation of National talent pool of professionals can also be helpful in Pakistan like in developed countries.

Article Title: How extensive is the Brain Drain.

Writer Name: William J. Carrington and Enrica Detragiache.

Methodolgy:

This study is based on the causes of migration from 61 developing countries accounting for about 70% of the total population of developing countries.

Findings:

By with census data 1990 U.S the writer finds the no of immigrants to U.S from each of these categories Primary:(0 to 8 years of schooling )

Secondary: (9 to 12 years of schooling)

Teritary: (more 12 years of schooling)

Immigrants of primary schooling level is quite small(about 500,000 individuals out of 7 million) With secondary education is about 3.7 million

Teritary education is 1.5 million.

Mostly immigrants from Africa are highly educated( about 95000 of the 128000) African immigrants. Among the source of highly educated people biggest source is Philippines with 730000 immigrants . Second largest source is China with 40000 immigrants.

For most countries people with teritary education have the highest migration rate, exception of central American countries. B.D to OECD countries:

Unlike U.S Census this data source dose not report the years of schooling that migrant have received. Immigrants to United States from such countries are likely to be better educated than immigrants to the other OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development) countries.

Conclusion:

The results derived for U.S.A remain essentially valid. Our research also indicates several ways in which estimate of the B.D could be improved using existing data.Together with U.S –Australia, Canada, France and Germany, these four countries account for abuot 93% of total migratory flows to OECD countries.

According to Andrew Mountford

Department of Economics, Southampton University Southampton S017 1B J, UK According to the writer ,Brain drain cause the developing country in a poverty trap as the average level of human capital wouldn’t grow because developed country suck its’ highly educated workers which increase the productivity of developed country but if successful emigration is not certainty then brain drain will increase the productivity of a developing country. The writer use the model in which two literatures are

discussed The growth and human capital accumulation literature

The migration and brain drain literature

So the brain drain literature is a branch of the migration literature which highlights the impact of migration when agents are not homogeneous. The large economy attract a small economy’s most able workers and the productivity externality is dependent upon the number of educated people and thus brain drain reduce the productivity in the original country. Writer sorted the immigration in two categories. 1-Effects of emigration for educated agents i.e. brain drain 2-Emigration for non educational agents i.e. a general emigration And it is clear that the effects of brain drain involve in one’s economy growth and thus growth depends upon human accumulation literature.

Writer model shows that wage per efficiency unit of labor in the world economy is always higher than in the small economy area. So capital and efficiency unit of labor contribute in the economy of one’s nation when educated worker migrates towards other nation. Hence the contribution margin of development rises. The conclusion of the article is that the human capital is without external cause and interaction between its accumulation decisions, growth and income distribution leads to the result that a brain drain either temporary or permanent, might increase the long run income level and income equality in a small open economy and in certain circumstances, may even be preferable to a non-selective “general” emigration.

Accoding to

Tikki Pang, director.

Research Policy and Cooperation, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Mary Ann Lansang, executive director.

NCLEN Trust, Manila, Philippines

Andy Haines, dean.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT The problem of migration of medical specialist from developing countries to developed countries increasing day by day. There are various factors influencing such situation including both on national and personal level. At national level include poor remuneration, bad working atmosphere, political instability, lack of funds and poor facilities, no career development , discrimination between researchers involve in brain drain. While at personal level, security problem, and threat of violence (personal enmity) and wish to provide a good education for their children Solution of the problem:

It include demanding compensation from departing professionals, provide compulsory service, increase salaries, provide educational benefits for their children ,funding agencies should provide more resources to improve condition and training of health care professionals and researchers. Role of Developed countries:

Developed countries should think of the consequences faced by the poorer countries due to brain drain on health care manpower. They should repay countries for the cost of training the health professional they import. So the impact on both countries should consider and the effectiveness of measures to deal with it. Role of International Organizations:

As brain drain become a global problem so international organizations should address the preservation of the intellectual property of a nation, including health profession. These organizations international organizations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Development Programmed, the World Bank, the World Medical Association, and the Council of International Organizations of Medical Societies. A global perspective, agreed ethical principles between countries, and a systematic approach using the convening power of international organizations should be the way to address the problem of brain drain.

According to Plumbing the brain drain

Nancy Gore Saravia1 & Juan Francisco Miranda

Brain drain is caused by “opportunities” either in getting better jobs or demand for higher education and skill provided by developed countries which attract most of the individual all around the world. The knowledge-intensive service industries and research centers include information, communication, finance, business, education and health draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. To control the movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries should implement strategies that must include world class education opportunities, develop knowledge based research and development industries so that it would lower down the migration rate of highly educated individual who seek its better future in other countries.

Brazil, China and India offer these strategies in their own country to stop the brain drain. Brain drain is not only concerned with developing countries but a serious challenge for developed countries in which Australia, Canada, the Russian Federation and countries in the European Union have all encountered the threat that migration poses to Economic growth. Here writer has introduced the term “Brain Recirculation”. Brain Recirculation is the process to fill the deficits in human resources in industrialized countries like Canada and Australia. Demand of higher education from developed countries enhance the effect of brain drain in which most of the individual from the age of 15 to 45 migrate towards developed counties and then the migration of talented individual affect any country and is intensified by social and economic crises, developing countries face the greatest challenge. Strategies developed against brain drain:-

Read also  Effects of Illiteracy on Society

To implement educational support and nurture these through targeted national programmers and training abroad. To invest in research and development and creating conditions that foster the growth of public and private sector demand for research result, technological development and innovation. To build leadership and national scientific community that advocates the development of scientific and technological capacity.

Chapter No 3

Methodology

In order to check the knowledge of people about BRAIN DRAINING(loss of human capital in home country). A questionnaire was presented to the purposive sample of students. The questionnaire was interviewed by the researchers themselves in different cities of Pakistan. The data were collected within the time span of one month during the working hours (9AM to 5PM) . The 200 students were contacted in University, from which 150 questionnaires were usable. This questionnaire helps the researcher to get the primary data from the respondent and researchers make sure that respondent are well known about Brain Draining.

3.1 Methods

This research involves the survey type methodology to collect the data through questionnaire to describe the effect of Brain Draining. Type of research we are conducting?

Basic Research or Fundamental Research because finding of research attempts to expand knowledge and is not directly involved in solution of pragmatic problem. As topic of our research is on

3.2 Sample

The population of the study was consisted of 150 students of different Universities. The name of the Universties where researches visited were The University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus, Gift University Gujranwala , GC University Lahore.For collecting the data the researchers used the cluster sampling technique (Area wise). For this purpose the researcher made two clusters of Gujranwala city and Lahore city consisted of The University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus,Gift University Gujranwala , GC University Lahore

3.3 Procedure

In first step researchers studied the related literature thoroughly and for this purpose different book, articles, journals and websites were consulted. On the basis of review of related literature a different scale questionnaire was developed for the students. These different scales helps students to easily elaborate their knowledge about the Brain Drainin

Chapter No 4

Theoretical Framework

Inventory of Variable

Skill shortage , Loss of home country,Desire for better urban life, Higher qualification, trend,Prestige, Unemloyment, Commitment level of people toward their country, Govt. suport, Limitted job opportunities, Patriotism, Individual own will, Foreign Educational system, Poverty & corruption and ideal life.

Specify the Direction Of Variables

Skill shortage , Loss of home country,Desire for better urban life, Higher qualification, trend,Prestige, Unemloyment are +vely related to Brain Draining. Commitment Level , Lack of Govt. suport, Patriotism are –vely related to Brain Draining.

Logic for Proposed Relationship

Skill shortage , Loss of home country,Desire for better urban life, Higher qualification, trend,Prestige, Unemloyment are +velly related to Brain Draining are positively related because need of people are not fulfil in home country so that people flight out to foreign country. Commitment level is negatively related, if people will commited to their job and their country they will not flight out and provided services to their own country.

Govt suport is negitively related, if Govt provide suport to educted & skilled people they will provide benefit to their own country. Job opportunities are negatively related , if high job opportunities in home country there will be low level of Brain Draining. Patriotism is negatively related, if people are patriotic then they will prefer to live in their own country.

Inventory of Proposition

Skill shortage , Loss of home country,Desire for better urban life, Higher qualification, trend,Prestige, Unemloyment are +velly related to Brain Draining are positively related because need of people are not fulfil in home country so that people flight out to foreign country. Commitment level is negatively related, if people will commited to their job and their country they will not flight out and provided services to their own country. Govt suport is negitively related , if Govt provide suport to educted & skilled people they will provide benefit to their own country. Job opportunities are negatively related , if high job opportunities in home country there will be low level of Brain Draining. Patriotism is negatively related, if people are patriotic then they will prefer to live in their own country.

Arrange Proposition Sequentiolly

If lack of Govt suport ,low qualification, unemployment, ,low job opportunities, low level of rewards,poverty, corruption, skill shortage lead to brain drain

Schematic Diagram

Theoretical Framework Independent Variable

Intervening Variable

Moderating Variable

Dependent Variable

Hypothesis Development

“A hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement” Relationship are conjectured on the basis of the network of association established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study

Statements of hypothesis: 3 Formats

If-Then statement

Directional or Non-directional Hypothesis

Null and alternative hypothesis

If-Then statement:

Too examine whether or not the conjectured relationships or differences exit,thesis hypothesis can be set either as a preposition or in the form of if-then statement. Directional or Non-directional Hypothesis:

If the direction of relationship (e.g. positive, negative, more than, less than) between 2or more variable is indicted then it is directional hypothesis If the direction of relationship (e.g. positive, negative, more than, less than) between 2or more variable is not indicted then it is non-directional hypothesis.

Null and alternative hypothesis:

Null hypothesis is a statement that expresses no significant relationship between two variables or doesn’t indicate difference between two groups. Alternative hypothesis is a statement that expresses significant relationship between two variables or indicates difference between two grou

Statements of Hypothesis

“If continuous outflow of educated workers than skill shortage in home country”

“We cannot achieve long-term economic growth by exporting our human resource”

“If Desire for a better urban life ,higher qualification and recognition then more brain drain”

“If Unemployment, limited job opportunities, lack of quality education, lack of satisfactory working conditions, low income and salary and lack of Intellectual freedom then more brain drains.”

“Unemployment decreases the commitment level of people towards their country.”

“Lack of Govt. support results in human capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful.”

“As a result of poor administrations, lack of motivation, discrimination, Rampant corruption, Poverty and crime there will be an exclusive increase in the rate of brain drains”

Chapter No 5

Data Analysis

Analysis of data consists on following steps.

1. Editing of Data

2. Handling Blank Responses

3. Coding of Data

4. Categorization

5. Entering Data

Editing of Data

Editing is a process by which we:

Detect errors and omissions

Correct them if possible

Certified that data quality standards are achieved

Editing is made in a research project off and on.By using these incomplete items can be completed. Types of Editing

1. Central Editing

2. Field Editing

3.

Handling Blank Responses

“Our respondents intentionally do not give response with respect to particular inquiries and such a situation is named as blank responses.” Coding of Data

In coding of data we convert the qualitative information into the quantitative form. And after the analysis, we convert it again into the qualitative form to give findings and recommendations. Categorization

It is useful to setup a scheme for categorizing the variables such that the several items measuring a concept are all grouped together.

The current chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data collected in order to find out the level of students information about the Brain Draining in Lahore, Gujranwala. For collecting the data a structured questionnaire was designed under the light of reviewed literature. The data was collected from the 150 students the different areas of Pakistan by using

cluster sampling technique.

After the collection of data it is presented in the form of Bar charts, analyzed and then interpreted on the basis of frequency analysis, simple percentage, Mean and value.

Data collection and data analysis is the essential part of any research with the help of data collection researcher get the data from the respondents and on the basis of respondent feed back researcher start analyzing about the data, after the analysis of data researcher come to know about the findings of their study whether the findings support the objectives of the study or not. After the findings from the data analysis recommendations are given in order to improve the standards.

Age

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Below 20

17

11.5

11.5

11.5

20-25

106

71.6

71.6

83.1

26-30

16

10.8

10.8

93.9

Above 30

9

6.1

6.1

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

5.a.1

More respondents were lie in the range of 20-25years the frequency is 106 and valid percent is 71.6 in this range. 5.b.1

5.a.2

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

84

56.8

56.8

56.8

Female

64

43.2

43.2

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

More respondents were male which are 84 in number having 56.8 cumulative percent and female respondent were 64 in number.

5.b.2

5.a.3

Occupation

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

student

125

84.5

84.5

84.5

salaried person

13

8.8

8.8

93.2

business man

5

3.4

3.4

96.6

others

5

3.4

3.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

More respondents were students 125 in number ,5 were businessman and 13 were salaried person. 5.b.3

5.a.4

Marital status

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

single

124

83.8

83.8

83.8

married

24

16.2

16.2

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

More respondents were single which are 124 in number and other 24 were married.

5.b.4

5.a.5

Continuous outflow of educated workers cause skill shortage in home country

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

strongly agree

58

39.2

39.2

39.2

agree

30

20.3

20.3

59.5

neutral

25

16.9

16.9

76.4

disagree

17

11.5

11.5

87.8

strongly disagree

18

12.2

12.2

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

58 respondents were strongly agree , 30 were agree , 25 are those who not have knowledge about this statement. 5.b.5

5.a.6

Do you think brain drain is loss for home country?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

98

66.2

66.2

66.2

no

13

8.8

8.8

75.0

I think so

29

19.6

19.6

94.6

I don’t know

8

5.4

5.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

98 respondents were agree with the statement that Brain Drain is loss for home country, 8 respondent have not knowledge about this statement and 13 were not agree with this statement.

5.b.6

5.a.7

Indicate which one of these is the biggest reason of brain drain .

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

desire for better urban life

55

37.2

37.2

37.2

higher qualification

21

14.2

14.2

51.4

trend

17

11.5

11.5

62.8

unemployment

55

37.2

37.2

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Desire for better urban life and unemployment were the strong reason of Brain Draining as 55 respondent agree this. 5.b.7

5.a.8

Unemployment decreases the commitment level of people towards their country.

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

strongly agree

54

36.5

36.5

36.5

agree

41

27.7

27.7

64.2

neutral

25

16.9

16.9

81.1

disagree

12

8.1

8.1

89.2

strongly disagree

16

10.8

10.8

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Unemployment decreases the commitment level of people towards their country 54 respondent were strongly agree with this statement, 41 respondent were simply agree,25 were not know about it and other were disagree by ths statement. 5.b.8

5.a.9

Lack of Govt. support results in human capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

91

61.5

61.5

61.5

To some extent

45

30.4

30.4

91.9

no

4

2.7

2.7

94.6

Not at all

8

5.4

5.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

91 respondents were agree with this statement that Lack of Govt. support results in human capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful, 45 agree to some extent, 4 respondent were disagree and 8 were strongly disagree.

5.a.10

Limited job opportunities are driving force toward brain draining

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

strongly agree

48

32.4

32.4

32.4

agree

52

35.1

35.1

67.6

neutral

27

18.2

18.2

85.8

disagree

10

6.8

6.8

92.6

strongly disagree

11

7.4

7.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Limited job opportunities are driving force toward brain draining 48 respondents were strongly agree by this statement, 52 were simply agree, 27 were neutral and others were disagree from this statement.

5.a.11

Brain Draining has inverse relationship with patriotism

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

strongly agree

36

24.3

24.3

24.3

agree

37

25.0

25.0

49.3

neutral

29

19.6

19.6

68.9

disagree

15

10.1

10.1

79.1

strongly disagree

31

20.9

20.9

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Brain Draining has inverse relationship with patriotism 36 respondent were strongly agree from this statement, 37 were simply agree, 29 were neutral, 15 were disagree and 31 respondent were strongly disagree.

5.a.12

Do you think brain drain may depend on the individual’s own will, means to say his or her own commitment

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

yes

69

46.6

46.6

46.6

To some extent

63

42.6

42.6

89.2

no

8

5.4

5.4

94.6

Not at all

8

5.4

5.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Brain drain may depend on the individual’s own will, means to say his or her own commitment 69 respondent were agree with this statement, 63 were to some extent.

5.a.13

Modern educational system and better opportunity for higher qualification in foreign countries is main reason of brain drain

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

strongly agree

96

64.9

64.9

64.9

agree

6

4.1

4.1

68.9

neutral

21

14.2

14.2

83.1

disagree

9

6.1

6.1

89.2

strongly disagree

16

10.8

10.8

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

Modern educational system and better opportunity for higher qualification in foreign countries is main reason of brain drain 96 respondent were strogly agree by this statement, 6 were simply agree, 21 were neutral about this statement and other were disagree.

5.a.14

What is probability that if highly educated and skilled people lead their own country, poverty and corruption is eradicated?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

0%

5

3.4

3.4

3.4

1-25%

24

16.2

16.2

19.6

26-50%

31

20.9

20.9

40.5

51-75%

60

40.5

40.5

81.1

76-99%

17

11.5

11.5

92.6

100%

11

7.4

7.4

100.0

Total

148

100.0

100.0

What is probability that if highly educated and skilled people lead their own country, poverty and corruption is eradicated? Among the 148 respondent 60 respondents were agree with the probability of range 51-75% in this range more respondents are agree than others.

5.a.15

Descriptive

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Age

148

1.00

4.00

2.1149

.6754

Gender

148

1.00

2.00

1.4324

.4971

Occupation

148

1.00

4.00

1.2568

.6814

Marital status

148

1.00

2.00

1.1622

.3699

Continuous outflow of educated workers cause skill shortage in home country 148

1.00

5.00

2.3716

1.4107

Do you think brain drain is loss for home country?

148

1.00

4.00

1.6419

.9760

Indicte whoch one of these is the biggest reason of braun drain . 148

1.00

4.00

2.4865

1.3222

unemployment decrese the comitment level of people towards their country. 148

1.00

5.00

2.2905

1.3261

Lack of Govt. support results in humen capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful 148

Read also  Reasons to Study Overseas

1.00

4.00

1.5203

.7951

Limited job opportunities are driving force toward brain draining 148

1.00

5.00

2.2162

1.1869

Brain Draining has inverse relationship with patriotism

148

1.00

5.00

2.7838

1.4594

Do you think braun drain may depend on the individual’s own will, means to say his or her own commitment 148

1.00

4.00

1.6959

.8052

Modren educational system and better opportunity for higher qualification in foreign countries is main reason of brain drain 148

1.00

5.00

1.9392

1.4201

What is probability that if highly educted and skilled people lead their own country,poverty and curroption is eradicated? 148

1.00

6.00

3.6284

1.2025

If you get a chance to settel abroad which country would you want to prefer 148

1.00

5.00

3.2162

1.4264

If you get a chance to settel abroad what would be the reason behind it? 148

1.00

6.00

3.2770

1.8802

If you are provided an ideal life abroad will you leave your home country? 148

1.00

5.00

3.1216

1.5689

Valid N (listwise)

148

5.a.16

Crosstabs

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

Missing

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

Age * Gender

148

100.0%

.0%

148

100.0%

Age * Occupation

148

100.0%

.0%

148

100.0%

Age * Marital status

148

100.0%

.0%

148

100.0%

All the demographic variables and age have 100% valid relationship since

there are no missing values.

Age * Gender Crosstabulation

Count

Gender

Total

Male

Female

Age

Below 20

6

11

17

20-25

65

41

106

26-30

8

8

16

Above 30

5

4

9

Total

84

64

148

Age * Occupation Crosstabulation

Count

Occupation

Total

student

salaried person

business man

others

Age

Below 20

17

17

20-25

101

5

106

26-30

6

7

1

2

16

Above 30

1

1

4

3

9

Total

125

13

5

5

148

Age * Marital status Crosstabulation

Count

Marital status

Total

single

married

Age

Below 20

17

17

20-25

99

7

106

26-30

8

8

16

Above 30

9

9

Total

124

24

148

I S – S C A L E (A L P H A)

Reliability Coefficients

N of Cases = 148.0 N of Items = 17

Alpha = .4313

Correlation

5.a.17

Correlations

Continuous outflow of educated workers cause skill shortage in home country Do you think brain drain is loss for home country?

Indicte whoch one of these is the biggest reason of braun drain . unemployment decrese the comitment level of people towards their country. Lack of Govt. support results in humen capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful Limited job opportunities are driving force toward brain draining Brain Draining has inverse relationship with patriotism

Do you think braun drain may depend on the individual’s own will, means to say his or her own commitment Modren educational system and better opportunity for higher qualification in foreign countries is main reason of brain drain What is probability that if highly educted and skilled people lead their own country,poverty and curroption is eradicated? If you get a chance to settel abroad which country would you want to prefer If you get a chance to settel abroad what would be the reason behind it? If you are provided an ideal life abroad will you leave your home country? Are you satisfied with present rate of Brain Draining?

Continuous outflow of educated workers cause skill shortage in home country Pearson Correlation

1.000

.191(*)

-.178(*)

.349(**)

.027

.342(**)

.145

.046

.062

-.058

-.121

.043

-.039

.022

Sig. (2-tailed)

.

.020

.031

.000

.748

.000

.079

.577

.452

.481

.142

.604

.638

.790

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Do you think brain drain is loss for home country?

Pearson Correlation

.191(*)

1.000

-.001

.018

.172(*)

.150

.084

.181(*)

-.016

-.091

-.022

-.094

-.127

-.012

Sig. (2-tailed)

.020

.

.989

.829

.037

.070

.311

.028

.849

.271

.789

.257

.124

.884

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Indicte whoch one of these is the biggest reason of braun drain . Pearson Correlation

-.178(*)

-.001

1.000

-.015

-.113

-.050

.041

.038

-.122

.093

.088

.008

.093

-.140

Sig. (2-tailed)

.031

.989

.

.854

.172

.545

.623

.650

.140

.260

.287

.920

.263

.091

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

unemployment decrese the comitment level of people towards their country. Pearson Correlation

.349(**)

.018

-.015

1.000

-.035

.344(**)

.289(**)

-.082

.118

-.009

-.231(**)

-.174(*)

.048

-.154

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.829

.854

.

.676

.000

.000

.320

.154

.917

.005

.034

.560

.062

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Lack of Govt. support results in humen capital flight to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful Pearson Correlation

.027

.172(*)

-.113

-.035

1.000

.219(**)

.086

.185(*)

.143

-.102

-.016

.121

-.018

.122

Sig. (2-tailed)

.748

.037

.172

.676

.

.008

.299

.024

.084

.216

.848

.142

.825

.141

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Limited job opportunities are driving force toward brain draining Pearson Correlation

.342(**)

.150

-.050

.344(**)

.219(**)

1.000

.290(**)

.098

.185(*)

-.158

-.116

-.003

.030

-.165(*)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.070

.545

.000

.008

.

.000

.237

.024

.055

.160

.975

.721

.045

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Brain Draining has inverse relationship with patriotism

Pearson Correlati

Unemoloyment decreaseon

.145

.084

.041

.289(**)

.086

.290(**)

1.000

.059

.266(**)

-.023

-.102

-.052

-.018

-.100

Sig. (2-tailed)

.079

.311

.623

.000

.299

.000

.

.473

.001

.783

.219

.527

.827

.228

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Do you think braun drain may depend on the individual’s own will, means to say his or her own commitment Pearson Correlation

.046

.181(*)

.038

-.082

.185(*)

.098

.059

1.000

.144

-.089

-.085

.025

-.008

.000

Sig. (2-tailed)

.577

.028

.650

.320

.024

.237

.473

.

.080

.280

.307

.767

.921

.998

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Modren educational system and better opportunity for higher qualification in foreign countries is main reason of brain drain Pearson Correlation

.062

-.016

-.122

.118

.143

.185(*)

.266(**)

.144

1.000

-.001

-.010

-.027

.089

.004

Sig. (2-tailed)

.452

.849

.140

.154

.084

.024

.001

.080

.

.987

.902

.747

.283

.963

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

What is probability that if highly educted and skilled people lead their own country,poverty and curroption is eradicated? Pearson Correlation

-.058

-.091

.093

-.009

-.102

-.158

-.023

-.089

-.001

1.000

.123

.109

.049

.064

Sig. (2-tailed)

.481

.271

.260

.917

.216

.055

.783

.280

.987

.

.138

.187

.551

.438

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

If you get a chance to settel abroad which country would you want to prefer Pearson Correlation

-.121

-.022

.088

-.231(**)

-.016

-.116

-.102

-.085

-.010

.123

1.000

.452(**)

.377(**)

.015

Sig. (2-tailed)

.142

.789

.287

.005

.848

.160

.219

.307

.902

.138

.

.000

.000

.859

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

If you get a chance to settel abroad what would be the reason behind it? Pearson Correlation

.043

-.094

.008

-.174(*)

.121

-.003

-.052

.025

-.027

.109

.452(**)

1.000

.358(**)

-.012

Sig. (2-tailed)

.604

.257

.920

.034

.142

.975

.527

.767

.747

.187

.000

.

.000

.885

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

If you are provided an ideal life abroad will you leave your home country? Pearson Correlation

-.039

-.127

.093

.048

-.018

.030

-.018

-.008

.089

.049

.377(**)

.358(**)

1.000

-.021

Sig. (2-tailed)

.638

.124

.263

.560

.825

.721

.827

.921

.283

.551

.000

.000

.

.802

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

Are you satisfied with present rate of Brain Draining?

Pearson Correlation

.022

-.012

-.140

-.154

.122

-.165(*)

-.100

.000

.004

.064

.015

-.012

-.021

1.000

Sig. (2-tailed)

.790

.884

.091

.062

.141

.045

.228

.998

.963

.438

.859

.885

.802

.

N

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

148

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Interpretation

Continuous outflow of skilled people has weak positive relationship with loss for home country(.19).

Unemployment decrease commitment level is strongly positively related with loss for home country(.892).

High qualification has weak positive relationship with ideal life abroad(.283)

Lack of Govt .support has weak negative relationship with skilled people lead their country , then poverty and corruption eradicated(-.102).

T-Test

5.a.18

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Gender

148

1.4324

.4971

4.086E-02

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Gender

35.056

147

.000

1.4324

1.3517

1.5132

5.a.19

ANOVA

Age

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

1.041

3

.347

.217

.885

Within Groups

230.601

144

1.601

Total

231.642

147

Interpretation:The significance level lies at 88.5% so our proposed Hypothesis is accepted.

ANOVA

Occupation

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.559

4

.140

.295

.881

Within Groups

67.684

143

.473

Total

68.243

147

Interpretation: The significance level lies at 88.1% so our proposed hypothesis is accepted. ANOVA

Marital Status

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.135

1

.135

.085

.771

Within Groups

231.507

146

1.586

Total

231.642

147

Interpretation: The significance level lies at 77.1% so our proposed hypothesis is rejected.

Chapter No 6

Conclusion and Recommendation

We give following recommendation on the basis of our results of research process: If Pakistan is serious about stemming its alarming brain drain, it must provide:

The country should be made stable regarding political conditions to avoid brain drain.

Discretion should not be supported at the time of appointment but merit should be preferred.

The country should try to enhance its technology so that people are satisfied regarding the prestige of their country.

Better job opportunities that properly remunerate workers based on their skills and talents.

Proper infrastructure is provided for research and development.

A system of merit be adopted, otherwise, it will continue to lose its skilled labor to countries where benefits and opportunities are plentiful

The graduates should be provided better future opportunities and better urban life, so that they become loyal towards there country and prefer to serve it.

The salaries and wages should be equivalent to the efforts made.

Employment rate should be increased to turn brain drain into brain grain.

Facilities should be provided for higher education i.e. PHD and Masters Level.

Limitations

The research project on Brain Drain has certain limitations and the results obtained are not as much accurate. The main reasons that lead towards limitations of our project are as follows:

As we had no experience of conducting a research before so being a new experiment certain flaws are there in the research project.

The main problem we have faced was that mostly people are unaware of the term “Brain drain”.

Although mostly people appreciated our topic but only a few people were keenly interested in filling out the questionnaire.

The time period was very short to cover such a conceptual topic. So in this short period of time we have tried our level best to make the research valid and reliable.

The most of the sample was taken from educational institutions i.e. Punjab University Gujranwala Campus and GC University Lhr.because of the shortage of time.

Summary of Report

In this report we conducted the research process under the topic of “BRAIN DRAIN”. We completed the eight steps of research process. We started our study with observation and gathered the data about different causes, effects, brain drain in different countries, remedies etc. with the help of literature survey using internet. After that we identified different variables in the step of theoretical framework, form hypothesis. We completed the scientific research process to give our project a solid base and logical pattern.

Then we perform step of data analysis. For this purpose we used a standard questionnaire that is prepared under the supervision of Prof. Rizwan and analyzed the different variables relevant to our topic. In this analysis we defined the central tendency and correlation among the variables. At the end some valuable findings and recommendations are given by our group.

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