Regulatory Agency Paper Essay
The agencies that are in charge of monitoring health care facilities and practitioners are known as health care regulation agencies. These agencies also provide the organizations with information about changes in the industry. At the federal, state, and local level the agencies establish rules and regulations that health care organizations have to follow mandatorily. Some agencies, especially those that provide accreditation for health care professionals, require no mandatory participation. The objective of this paper is to examine one of those health care regulatory agencies; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The audience will learn more about the history of the organization as well as responsibilities and effects of this agency on the health care industry. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was created on July 1st, 1946 under the name Communicable Disease Center in Atlanta, Georgia. The whole organization occupied one floor of a small building. The first goal as an organization was simple; it was to prevent malaria from spreading across the nation. As a team with this goal the CDC was armed with a budget of $10 million and less than 400 employees. The founder Dr. Joseph Mountin continued to advocate for the public and its health issues, he pushed to have the CDC extend its responsibilities to other communicable diseases.
Today, the CDC is one of the major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Serves and is recognized as the nation’s premiere health promotion, prevention, and preparedness agencies. (Our History – Our Story, 2013) This agency is not just focused on the disease and prevention either; their focus goes beyond that to addressing the issues, and including mental health and cancer research. Of all the organizations on all levels of government, the center for disease control is the most widespread and effective due to the amount of responsibility and information that is relayed and provided, and the speed in which this is done. This organization runs on all levels of government, and must provide up to date factual information at all times. With the goal to educate and raise awareness of disease, death rate, precautions, and many other public health concerns there is a huge responsibility to ensure accuracy and effectiveness on all areas. The CDC is a 24 hour job; the organization is constantly working to protect Americans from health, safety and security threats both international and local. Whether disease begins at home or abroad, acute or chronic, treatable or terminal, human error or deliberate attack the CDC fights disease and supports the community and citizens to do the same. Most recently in the news there was an instance of an Ebola outbreak in West Africa. This is not a huge concern for most of us that aren’t traveling there, or don’t have family that travels back and forth, but for the Center for Disease Control this was a huge concern.
This was the largest outbreak in history, and also the first on in Africa. The threat to the US is small, but the CDC being a national organization focuses on alerting us even when the threat is elsewhere and they also help provide facts and information. With this outbreak the CDC started working with other government agencies including: the World Health Organization, and other domestic and international companies to help activate the Emergency Operations Center. This is done to help coordinate technical assistance and control activities with partners. The communication between government agencies during these times is crucial to ensure supplies, shelter, medication, and assistance is provided when needed. The Center for Disease Control has ensured to deploy teams of public health experts to West Africa and will continue to send experts to the affected countries. This is evidence of the miraculous team work that begin with the CDC. Without the technology, information, and ability to coordinate countries, and public health experts, West Africa would be suffering more struggles than what this outbreak has already caused. (2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa, 2014) The Center for Disease Control is one of the most major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services.
The organization uses grants and contracts to fund 85% of the costs to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. Each year, the CDC awards approximately $7 billion in over 14,000 separate grant and contract actions, including simplified acquisitions (CDC’s Procurement and Grants Office, 2013). Although this is a government organization, there are also state wide and county wide alerts, prevention, and management that are used to focus in on specific areas that may be affected when other areas are not. CDC’s Business Management and Accountability Activities are guided by the following principles: stewardship of public funds, continuously improving customer service and satisfaction, providing the best value for the investment, accountability through performance metrics, job satisfaction through workforce development, and searching for innovation in work processes (Business Practices, 2013). In order to remain affective in a growing society based on technology, the Center for Disease Control has modified the business practices. An example of this is in order to have funding available for future threats, the organization has consolidated all 13 information technology infrastructure services, this in turn reduced operating costs of 21% ($23 Million) (Business Practices, 2013).
Another way that the Center for Disease Control carries out the duty of helping manipulate the budget to prepare for any future threats or outbreaks is over the last two years the organization has conducted public-private sector competitions for various functions covering nearly 1,000 CDC staff positions resulting in saving over $40 Million through the development of the most efficient organizational proposals to carry out required functions. (Business Practices, 2013) The Center for Disease Control has a huge regulatory authority to health care. The responsibility to consolidate thousands of disease cases is hard enough, but the CDC must also remain anonymous in some areas to keep the patient’s health record information and personal information discrete, while also alerting the community of a possible disease spread. HIPAA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, is not only followed by health care professionals, but must also be regulated with the CDC as well. Hospitals must also report to the CDC when certain cases of certain diagnoses come up, and when new threats arise as well. Together the health care professionals and the Center for Disease Control must: alert the community, respect privacy, prevent panic, and provide a solution. These goals are a huge responsibility and yet this organization has managed to provide these services steadily since 1946.
The Center for Disease Control has a certification and accreditation process that ensures all information systems made available by CDC to implement the National Program Cancer Registries, or NPCR meet or exceed the C&A accreditation standards when operated with appropriate management review. It requires ongoing security control monitoring and reaccreditations periodically or when there is a significant change to an information system or its environment. Within the accreditation process there is security certification, which when talking about the Center for Disease Control is a comprehensive evaluation of the CDC’s management, operational, and technical security controls for an information system. This documents the effectiveness of the security controls in a particular operational environment and includes recommendations for new controls to mitigate system vulnerabilities. Security certification results are used to assess risks to the system and update the systems security plan. (The CDC Certification…, 2012)
In conclusion there have been facts supporting the agencies structure, and the history of how the agency became successful in the public health eye. This paper covered the organizations’ effect on health care and improvements to everyday life in multiple communities across the world, and the regulatory authority that the Center for Disease Control has in relation to health care. Although we have many agencies working together toward a common goal of better health, the Center for Disease control definitely holds a high standard of impact. With all of the regulations, accreditations, partnerships, and knowledge that the Center for Disease Control is able to manage and coordinate how did the world of health ever run without it? With these facts, and examples the role and regulation of the CDC is more clear and understood, so next time there is an outbreak in research, or in disease there will be one thing we can count on and that is that the CDC will be on the frontline ready to organize, prevent, educate, and assist in the solution.
2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. (2014, September 6). Retrieved September 8, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/guinea/ Business Practices. (2013). Retrieved September 8, 2014, from: http://www.cdc.gov/about/business/business.htm CDC’s Procurement and Grants Office. (2013). Retrieved September 8, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/about/business/funding.htm Our History – Our Story.
(2013). Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/about/history/index.html The CDC Certification and Accreditation (C&A) Process. (2012). Retrieved September 8, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/tools/security/cdcca.htm
Regulatory Agency Paper Essay
The industry in healthcare requires that its foundation in leadership is to follow procedures, rules, and regulations, which will help an organization, succeed in their leadership role in healthcare. This paper will identify important aspects of governmental or other agency such as Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) that governs the health care industry or a particular segment of the industry.
In addition, this paper will also identify the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) role, the impact it has on healthcare, the examples how they carry out their duties in regards to healthcare, the regulatory authority does JCAHO have in relation to health care, and what is their process for accreditation, certification, and authorization.
Moreover, The Joint Commission was known as the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organization. According to Feigenbaum (2013), “the Joint Commission, issues one of the most prestigious accreditations in the health care industry. This nonprofit organization sets high standards for hospital, skilled nursing home health and health-care staffing company operations and performs regular reviews, checks and audits to ensure accredited organizations comply” (ehow, 2013, para. 1).
As a result, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has come to trust the judgment of the Joint Commission because of their reputation they have on certifying many medical facilities as “Medicare compliant” (ehow, 2013, para. 3).
More than 15, 000 health care programs and organization throughout the United States are evaluated by The Joint Commission, which is not-for-profit organization that works independently since 1951 to maintain top of the line standards that promote on how to improve the safety and quality of care that many health care organization provides. Agency’s Structure
The structure of The Joint Commission is “governed by a 29-member Board of Commissioners that includes physicians, administrators, nurses, employers, a labor representative, health plan leaders, quality experts, ethicists, a consumer advocate and educators. The Board of Commissioners brings to The Joint Commission diverse experience in health care, business and public policy. The Joint Commission’s corporate members are the American College of Physicians, the American College of Surgeons, the American Dental Association, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association” (The Joint Commission, 2013).
In addition, The Joint Commission have approximately 1,000 surveyors that are employed to survey health care facilities throughout the United States. “It central office office in Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois, and at a satellite office in Washington, D.C. The Washington office is The Joint Commission’s primary interface with government agencies and with Congress, seeking and maintaining partnerships with the government that will improve the quality of health care for all Americans, and working with Congress on legislation involving the quality and safety of health care” (The Joint Commission, 2013). Organization’s Effect on Health Care
The effect that The Joint Commission has on health care is that each hospital or health care facility that need to meet the The Joint Commission standards. For example, “patient rights, patient treatment, and infection control are standards that need to meet the expectation of the Joint Commission. The standards focus not simply on an organization’s ability to provide safe, high quality care, but on its actual performance as well” (The Joint Commission, 2013). Values that are set for performance expectations of activities that concerns and affect the safety of patients as well as the quality of care they receive.
Otherwise if hospitals do not meet The Joint Commission standards they will not get accredited and that can have an effect in Medicaid/Medicare payments in that health care facility. However, if the organization provide high standard in patient care and they perform them well then the patient will have good experience in the outcome of patient care. Moreover, The Joint Commission creates standards in collaboration with experts in healthcare, measurement experts, providers, consumers and purchasers. Example of the Agency Carrying Out Its Duties
Examples that The Joint Commission has when carry out their duties is that they provide assessment of the health care facility or organization that are in compliance with the standards and how they perform. As a result, The Joint Commission will assess the organization compliance with values and their fundamental of performance. “The Joint Commission assess the organization’s compliance with standards based on: Patient and staff interviews about actual practice, Performance improvement data/trends, verbal information provided to the Joint Commission by key organizational leaders, and , On-site observations by Joint Commission surveyors” (The Joint Commission, 2013).
Regulatory Authority Relation to Health Care
The regulatory authority that The Joint Commission has in relation to health care is that they maintain a list of agencies throughout the state that will identify accreditation/certification throughout the United States health care facilities. For example, The Joint Commission will monitor legislative and regulatory activities in the state. “The Joint Commission’s various accreditation/certification programs are recognized and relied on by many states in the states’ quality oversight activities. Recognition and reliance refers to the acceptance of, requirement for, or other reference to the use of Joint Commission accreditation, in whole or in part, by one or more governmental agencies in exercising regulatory authority” (The Joint Commission, 2013).
For example, in Texas the Routine inspections of the “The Department of State Health Services (department) may conduct an inspection of each hospital prior to the issuance or renewal of a hospital license. (1) A hospital is not subject to routine inspections subsequent to the issuance of the initial license while the hospital maintains: (A) certification under Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 United States Code (USC), §§ 1395 et seq; or (B) accreditation by a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-approved organization” (The Joint Commission, 2013). Process for Accreditation, Certification, and Authorization
The Joint Commission process for accreditation, certification and authorization is “to earn and maintain accreditation, a hospital must undergo an on-site survey by a Joint Commission survey team. Joint Commission surveys are unannounced and occur 18 to 39 months after the previous unannounced survey. The objective of the survey is not only to evaluate the hospital, but to provide education and guidance that will help staff continue to improve the hospital’s performance. The survey process evaluates actual care processes by tracing patients through the care, treatment and services they received. It also analyzes key operational systems that directly impact the quality and safety of patient care” (The Joint Commission, 2013).
In addition, the surveying team can include a health care professionals such as a nurse, physician, hospital administrator who has senior management level experience, and life safety code specialist. “The Joint Commission has a group of more than 400 surveyors, reviewers and life safety code specialists who are trained and certified, and receive continuing education on advances in quality-related performance evaluation” (The Joint Commission, The Surveyor Process, 2008, para. 5).
The Accreditation process is a continuous; data-motivated that focuses on the overall systems operation which is crucial to the quality and safety of patient care. The following are important aspect of the process which includes: Periodic Performance Review (PPR) an annual review where the health care facility will evaluate their compliance with relevant standards and widen an action plan that can help them identify areas where they are not compliance. The tracer methodology is another process used “On-site evaluation of standards compliance in relation to the care experience of patients using a “tracer” methodology.
Tracer activities permit assessment of operational systems and processes in relation to the actual experiences of selected patients who are under the care of the organization. This activity actively engages all direct caregivers in the accreditation process” (The Joint Commission, 2008). The Priority Focus Process (PFP) is a survey that looks at quality of care of patients and their safety.
The Joint Commission will do unannounced survey to apply the credibility of how they do the accreditation process so the surveyors can look at the performance of the organization under a normal day for the health care facility. If the health care facility being surveyed passes the audits then the hospital can get accredited for another three years and this authority comes from The Joint Commission who has high standards on patient safety and quality of care. Conclusion
The leadership foundation of a health care industry identifies a governmental or other agency, such as JCAHO, that governs the health care industry or a particular segment of the industry in order to provide patient safety and quality of care through their structure, their effect on health care, their duties, their regulatory authority in relation to health care, and their process for accreditation, certification and authorization.
Feigenbaum, E (2013). Ehow. Jcaho Reciprocal Credentialing Regulations. Retrieved on October 13, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8761966_jcaho-reciprocal-credentialing-regulations.html The Joint Commision (2008). Facts about The Joint Commission. Retrieved on October 13, 2013 from http://www.jointcommission.org/facts_about_the_joint_commission/ The Joint Commission (2013). Inspiring health care excellence. Retrieved on October 13, 2013 from http://www.jointcommission.org/facts_about_the_joint_commission/ The Joint Commission. Code of Conduct. Retrieved on October 13, 2013 from http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/TJC_Code_of_Conduct_09.pdf