Personal Hygiene Essay

The maintenance of personal hygiene is essential as it helps to preserve the health and overall wellbeing of individuals. Not only is this directly beneficial to the personal health of the individual but also to those coming into contact. Poor personal hygiene can not only result in physical issues but can also affect an individual emotionally and socially. Physical effects:

Sores or rashes occurring on surface of skin

Itchiness resulting in scratching leading to broken skin

Infections or diseases developing with the potential of spreading to others Bacterial and fungal infections head lice internal infections such as gastroenteritis caused by unclean hands

Social and emotional effects:

Loss of confidence leading to lack of social contact and inability to form new social relationships Upset occurring due to potential bullying

Damage to self-esteem and/or self-image

Depression and/or anxiety

Unable to find employment (although not applicable from client perspective)

Signs of poor personal hygiene:

Dirty/ unclean clothing

Messy and/ or dirty hair

Overgrown facial hair

Decaying/ unclean teeth

Bad breath

Foul body odour

Long and dirty finger nails

Greasy and/or dirty appearance to skin

Be able to support individuals to maintain personal hygiene

Factors that contribute to positive personal hygiene:

Residents should be encouraged to wash hands after using the toilet and should be both encouraged and if needed, assisted with washing and dressing into clean clothing. The home should provide adequate laundry facilities to keep clothes clean and distributed to bedrooms ready to wear. Staff should also provide services to keep finger nails clean and cut. Baths and showers should also be made readily available upon request. Washing facilities should be made available in bedrooms particularly for more independent residents along with clean towels and flannels, etc.

Personal hygiene issues should be addressed in a sensitive manner and residents should be asked and encouraged to bath, etc. Assistance should be offered if needed in a discreet way and residents should be attended to in a private location

Personal hygiene should be tactfully encouraged not only for the benefit of the individual but for the benefit of others around them. Staff should approach the individual in a private place such as the privacy of their bedroom and sensitively bring about the issue of personal hygiene. If appropriate, questions should be tactfully asked to determine if factors such as depression is the cause of hygiene neglect. If so, steps should be taken to resolve this. Service users should be reassured that help is always available

I can support the preferences and needs of the individual while maintaining their independence by:

Encouraging independence and allow individuals to undertake personal care in the way they feel most comfortable Support individuals to communicate their preferences, views and needs regarding personal hygiene Treating all residents as individuals and respecting their preferences, including what they want to wear, when they want to get up, etc. Talk residents through all stages of personal care and meeting any objection by explaining reasons that I have for promoting their own health. Providing toiletries that conform to residents wishes

Staff should be aware of individuals’ care plans to ensure that the person you are assisting is being supported appropriately to promote their rights, respect, dignity, choices, that take into consideration their culture, beliefs and preferences. Assisting residents to make informed choices- eg- giving them options

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Describe how to maintain dignity of an individual when supporting intimate personal hygiene:

Making sure privacy is maintained, eg- curtains closed, door shut Forming trust- making sure both sides understand what’s going on and a good standard of communication is maintained Making sure staff stay professional- don’t make faces of distaste or inappropriate comments during personal care Remain respectful when carrying our assistance- be aware of abuse Be sympathetic and empathise with potential embarrassment

Avert eye contact to avoid embarrassment

Be gentle and understanding throughout duration of personal care Making sure residents are appropriately covered up- eg- if unable to wash or dress themselves- make sure a towel is covering intimate body parts.

Identify risks to own health in supporting an individual with personal hygiene routines:

The risks are- potentially catching infections from skin to skin contact or diseases from direct contact with bodily fluids, etc.

Reduce risks to own health when supporting the individual with personal hygiene routines:

Risks to own health can be reduce by implementing the correct control techniques- eg, wearing the appropriate protective clothing (aprons/ gloves) and washing hands thoroughly after personal care.

Identify others who may be involved in supporting the individual to maintain personal hygiene:

The individual- Is the key individual in maintaining personal hygiene and decides how to approach the situation.

Colleagues- may need the assistance from one or more carers- eg- if the resident has physical disabilities, etc. sometimes a different face can be encouraging if the resident is uncomfortable with the first offer of help (male- female).

Families or friends- might be more inclined to take hygiene advice from loved ones. Also, families may bring in toiletries for relatives.

Other professionals- such as D/N may have advice in the maintenance of hygiene. Management can amend care plan to help support carers.

Advocates- can give consent to personal hygiene attempts if residents themselves are unable to give permission.

Understand when poor hygiene may be an indicator of other underlying personal issues

Factors of underlying personal issues:

Financial issues- can’t afford to buy toiletries or other sanitary products Abuse- can cause depression and a lack of want to maintain personal hygiene Health issues such as dementia or physical disabilities can cause an inability to take care of own personal hygiene. Medication- certain medications may cause tiredness or confusion making the maintaining personal hygiene difficult.

Underlying personal issues can be addressed in a number of ways:

Changing medication where possible to alternative prescriptions where side effects are less dramatic therefore making the control of hygiene possible. Providing adequate assistance when dealing with personal hygiene- eg, carers Alert social services and adult protection agencies to combat cases of abuse where expected. Encourage and inform individuals of ways to promote personal hygiene in a respectful manner Contact families of residents regarding monetary funds

Provide sufficient facilities for the purpose of personal hygiene Keeping up to date records of hygiene to help follow a routine

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Personal Hygiene Essay

In the Army, personal hygiene is defined as the measures each individual must employ to keep in good physical condition and the precautions he must take to protect himself from disease. As such, not only cleanliness of the body, but also proper use of insect repellents, avoidance of unauthorized water and food, and any other measure that the soldier is directed to take to preserve his health are included. The basic principle of cleanliness of person and neat appearance of troops is a traditional policy of the Army. As more became known about the transmission of disease, stress was placed upon particular phases of personal hygiene, such as washing hands after using the latrine, and proper use by the individual of sanitary measures for disposal of waste and purification of water.

As with all aspects of military sanitation, commanding officers were responsible for enforcement of the provisions concerning personal hygiene. The Medical Department was to conduct inspections and recommend appropriate action to correct deficiencies. The paragraph of AR 40-205 devoted specifically to personal cleanliness stated:

Every member of a command will bathe once daily while in garrison, and in the field at least once weekly. The hands will be washed before each meal and immediately after visiting a latrine. Teeth will be cleaned with a brush at least once a day. Fingernails will be cut short and kept clean. The hair will be kept short and the beard neatly trimmed. Clothing and bedding will be kept clean. Soiled clothing will be kept in barrack bags. At prescribed physical inspections particular attention will be given to personal cleanliness. Unit commanders were instructed to determine that the men of their commands had been properly fitted with socks and shoes and that all foot defects were suitably cared for. An undue amount of foot injury and disability from shoes was to be regarded as evidence of inefficiency on the part of responsible officers.

Precautions for care of feet during marches were specified. Before long or protracted marches, unit commanders were to inspect the bare feet of their men for defects which might require treatment. While on marches, commanders were to have their men wash their feet each day as soon as practicable after reaching camp, cover blisters or excoriations with a light dressing or zinc oxide plaster, dust the feet with foot powder, and put on clean socks. Measures that the individual soldier could take for his own protection, as well as measures the Army would take for him, were included in each of the appropriate sections. Under mosquito control were listed the proper wearing of clothing, use of repellents, and use of bed nets. Frequent and thorough bathing was specified as one of the precautions against body lice.

During the Revolutionary War many generals, such as Tilton, Brocklesby, and Washington invoked the Mosaic Sanitary Code which is a standard of field sanitation established in the King James version of the Old Testament in the Fourth and Fifth books of Moses. Many of these orders came with threats of punishment for officers who did not enforce them amoung the men and penalties (including being sent in front of a firing squad) for those men found not in compliance with said orders. At the end of the horrible winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge, Washington made one of his periodic inspections of the camp. According to a note in the Orderly Book of Brig. Gen. George Weedon on 13 March 1778, Washington found the camp filthy, with carcasses of dead horses and much offal in the streets, and “nastiness, is spread amongst ye Hutts, which will soon be reduc’d to a state of putrefaction and cause a Sickly Camp.”

Following this, on 13 March 1778, Washington issued general orders from Headquarters, Valley Forge which have a plaintive tone combined with solicitude and sternness: “The Commander-in-Chief: Out of tender regard for ye lives & health of his brave Soldiery, and with surprise that so little attention is paid to his orders, He again in ye most positive terms, orders & commands “clean up the camp and observe the manifold regulations regarding cleanliness.” Infectious diseases are a major preventive medicine problem for U.S. Army Soldiers living in close quarters. Some of these infections are caused by direct person-to-person contact, but a vast majority of infections are caused by the germs found on surfaces. Improved hygiene can help reduce the spread of infection. An effective hygiene plan must start with accepting that disease-causing bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa are always indoors on people, food, insects, and potentially in the air. Cleaning must be adequate to reduce germs to a level which is not harmful to health. A sterile environment is not expected. To achieve a hygienically clean (as opposed to visibly clean) surface the germs must either be removed or they must be killed by disinfection.

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Methods of hygienically cleaning sites and surfaces include detergent-based cleaning followed by rinsing, and the use of disinfecting agents. The hands are probably the most important cause of cross-contamination and cross-infection. The World Health Organization suggests that sanitation-related disease in developing countries could be reduced by up to 60% if people washed their hands after defecating. Acute respiratory infections (colds, sore throats, bronchitis) are most frequently transmitted by droplets from coughing or sneezing. Using tissues or shirt sleeves to interrupt these droplets are effective ways to prevent transmission. However, coughing or sneezing into your hands allows the spread of the germs to other parts of the body (through the eyes or breaks in skin, etc.) or to other individuals through touch.

Toilets, showers, and sinks can become reservoirs of germs. Moisture and residual soil at these sites provide an ideal environment for the growth of germs. Exposure to disease-causing germs from contaminated floors and furnishings is very low. Germs are usually transferred from environmental surfaces to individuals by hand contact with the surface. Household bleach with water is the recommended disinfectant solution. It is effective, economical, convenient, and readily available. The solution of bleach and water is easy to mix, safe if handled properly, and kills most infectious germs.

Standards of personal hygiene varied according both to the facilities available and the type of combat the individual was engaged in. Theater preventive medicine officers at all levels realized the necessity for convincing company officers of the importance of command responsibility for enforcing adequate standards of personal hygiene. The relative role of personal hygiene in control of disease varied considerably according to the degree of unit sanitation and area control achieved and according to the degree of specific protection afforded by measures such as immunization. There are few outbreaks of disease in which only one factor can be implicated; it is therefore difficult in most cases to correlate specifically good or bad personal hygiene with disease incidence. A continuing educational program, combined with frequent inspection by both commanders and medical personnel, was found necessary to keep individual health observance at proper levels.

A problem of the Medical Department was to convince line officers of their responsibility in enforcing health precautions, such as water discipline, eating only authorized foods, care of the feet, and proper wearing of the uniform for protection against arthropod vectors of disease. The soldier, too, had to be convinced of the relationship between his actions and his health and the health of his entire unit. Agencies were set up, within the Office of The Surgeon General and at all major command levels, to insure the dissemination of information necessary for the soldier to safeguard his health. The effectiveness with which personal hygiene measures were applied, both in training situations and in active theaters, varied widely.

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Experienced observers agree that there were numerous lapses from established minimum standards and that, in future military operations, thorough training in personal hygiene will be necessary. This training must include not only the principles and methods to be applied, but should also serve to motivate personnel of all ranks. In addition, there must be command and medical inspections coupled with provisions for effective corrective actions.

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Personal Hygiene Essay

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).

The World Health Organization states that:

“Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.[1] The term sanitation is applied to a wide range of subjects such as: Improved sanitation – refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of theMillennium Development Goal on sanitation, by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.

On-site sanitation – the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff tanks. Food sanitation – refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety Environmental sanitation – the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control. Ecological sanitation – an approach that tries to emulate nature through the recycling of nutrients and water from human and animal wastes in a hygienically safe manner

san·i·ta·tion noun ˌsa-nə-ˈtā-shən: the process of keeping places free from dirt, infection, disease, etc., by removing waste, trash and garbage, by cleaning streets, etc.

Health Impacts of Sanitation[edit]

For any social and economic development, adequate sanitation in conjunction with good hygiene and safe water are essential to good health (Mara, Lane and Scott and Trouba 1). Lack of proper sanitation causes diseases. Most of the diseases resulting from sanitation have a direct relation to poverty. The lack of clean water and poor sanitation has caused many diseases and the spread of diseases. Sanitation is very important in order to keep good health.One of the most significant diseases that arise from poor sanitation is diarrhea. Deaths resulting from diarrhea are estimated to be between 1.6 and 2.5 million deaths every year (Mara, Lane and Scott and Trouba 2). Most of the affected are young children below the ages of five. Other diseases that are caused by poor sanitation include schistosomiasis, trachoma, and soil transmitted Helminthiases.

Poor sanitation accounts for almost 50 percent of underweight child since it has a direct link to diarrhea. Children suffering for diarrhea are more vulnerable to become underweight. According to Mara, Lane, and Scott and Trouba (3), about 26 percent acute respiratory infections occur in children who are malnourished, which has a direct link to diarrhea. Sanitation is a serious issue that is affecting most parts of the world especially the developing countries. On a global scale, the most affected are children who in most cases lose their lives due to diseases caused by poor sanitation. Major initiatives need to be set up if the MDG goal on sanitation is to be achieved by 2015.

• WHAT IS SANITATION?

• Sanitation literally means measures necessary for improving and protecting health and well being of the people. Sanitation is any system that promotes proper disposal of human and animal wastes, proper use of toilet and avoiding open space defaecation.

• WHAT IS DEFAECATION?

• It is the practice of passing out excreta

• WHAT IS OPEN DEFAECATION?

• It is the practice of passing out excreta in open field and indiscriminately. This excreta often finds it way into sources of drinking water and food and may lead to disease.

A drop can kill: One gram of excreta can contain;

10,000,000 viruses

1,000,000 bacteria

1,000 parasites cysts

100 parasite eggs

ƒ WHY SHOULD I STOP OPEN DEFAECATION?

• To prevent the spread of excreta-related diseases such as typhoid, cholera, diarrhoea and dysentery.

• WHY MUST I USE THE LATRINE ALWAYS?

• To prevent the spread of excreta related diseases

• WHY IS 2008 DECLARED THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR FOR  SANITATION?

• Sanitation has been neglected for a long time. This has contributed to high levels of sickness and death especially among infants and children. More investment is required in hygiene and sanitation.

• CAN POOR PEOPLE AFFORD TO BUILD SAFE LATRINES?

• Yes, poor people can build latrines using locally available materials WHAT ARE THE SAFE SOURCES OF WATER?

• Protected springs and boreholes, treated pipe borne water and protected hand dug wells

• WHY SHOULD I DRINK WATER FROM SAFE SOURCES ONLY?

• To prevent diseases like guinea worm, cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid and to remain healthy.

• WHY MUST WE LIVE IN A CLEAN AND HEALTHY

ENVIRONMENT?

• To prevent hygiene and sanitation related diseases and enjoy good health.

ƒ HOW CAN WE ENSURE A CLEAN AND HEALTHY

ENVIRONMENT?

• Undertake individual and collective actions by sweeping, cleaning, clearing drainages, proper disposal of human and animal wastes, proper use of toilet and avoiding open space defaecation

Personal hygiene

Summary

Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves, and others, from illness. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. Good habits can help control body odour and bad breath.

One of the most effective ways we have to protect ourselves and others from illness is good personal hygiene. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. It means being careful not to cough or sneeze on others, cleaning things that you touch if you are unwell, putting items such as tissues (that may have germs) into a bin, and using protection (like gloves or condoms) when you might be at risk of catching an infection.

Personal hygiene, such as bathing, is very much dependent on the culture in which you live. In some cultures, it is expected that you will wash your body at least every day and use deodorants to stop body smells. Other cultures have different expectations.

Body odour

Body smells are caused by a number of factors working in combination, including: Chemicals in sweat, including pheromones, which are made by the body and sexually attract (or repel) other people. Wastes excreted through the skin, such as metabolised alcohol. The actions of bacteria that live on the skin and feed on dead skin cells and sweat. Unwashed clothes, such as underwear and socks.

Hand washing

Most infections, especially colds and gastroenteritis, are caught when we put our unwashed hands, which have germs on them, to our mouth. Some infections are caught when other people’s dirty hands touch the food we eat. Hands and wrists should be washed with clean soap and water, using a brush if your fingernails are dirty. Dry your hands with something clean, such as paper towels or hot air dryers. You should always wash your hands:

After using the toilet

Before making or eating food

After handling dogs or other animals

If you have been around someone who is coughing or has a cold.

Personal hygiene for women

The vagina is able to clean itself no special care is needed, other than washing the external genitals. Do not put anything like douches into the vagina, as the delicate skin can be damaged. Here are some personal hygiene suggestions for women: Menstruation – wash your body, including your genital area, in the same way as you always do. Change tampons and sanitary napkins regularly, at least four to five times a day. Always wash your hands before and after handling a tampon or pad. Cystitis – is an infection of the bladder. This is a common condition for sexually active young women. Urinating after sexual intercourse can help to flush out any bacteria that may be in the urethra and bladder. Thrush – some soaps and detergents can irritate the skin of the vagina, and make thrush infections more likely. Some people find that they often get thrush when they use antibiotics. Use mild soap and unperfumed toilet paper. Avoid tight, synthetic underwear. Try cotton underwear, and change regularly. There is medical treatment for thrush, so talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Personal hygiene for men

A build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. If you are uncircumcised, gently pull back the foreskin when you have a shower and clean with water. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well.

Bad breath

Good dental hygiene includes regular brushing and flossing. Bad breath can be caused by diseases of the teeth, gums and mouth, such as infections. Most people have bad breath first thing in the morning because saliva is not made while you’re asleep. Some foods that can cause bad breath include garlic and onion. Mouth washes, mouth sprays and flavoured chewing gum can make your breath smell better for a while, but if you have a health problem in your mouth, you need to see your dentist.

Travelling hygiene

When travelling overseas, take special care if you’re not sure whether the water is safe. Suggestions include: Drink only bottled water.

Don’t use tap water to clean your teeth.

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When you wash your hands, make sure they are totally dry before you touch any food. Don’t wash fruit or vegetables in unsafe water.

If you have no other water source, make sure the water is boiled before you drink it by holding it at a rolling boil for one minute. Make sure any dishes, cups or other utensils are totally dry after they are washed.

Where to get help

Your doctor

Dentist.

Things to remember

Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves and others from many illnesses, such as gastroenteritis. Wash your hands regularly, especially before preparing or eating food and after going to the toilet.

QUIZ BEE!

1. refers to the maintenance of healthy and hygienic conditions, free from disease-causing organisms? Answer: SANITATION

2. it is very important to ensure the __________ of the guest because it is our duty to serve them and make them satisfied of our work? Answer: HEALTH

3. it means free from disease-causing organism and other harmful contaminants which are often not visible to the eyes? Ans: SANITARY

4. it should be properly covered, so that the bacteria wont lay on it to prevent a deseases to a certain costumer? Ans: GLASSES AND WATERJUG

5. it is the most effective ways to protect ourselves and others from illness? Ans: GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE OR PERSONAL HYGIENE

6. what do you call to the organization that focuses on health of every individual? Ans: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

7. Area should be protected from _________________, regularly fumigated to eliminate pests? Ans: PEST INFESTATION

8. Housekeepers are advised to protect themselves from contamination by wearing and using the _____________? Ans: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS

Or PPE.Maintaining personal hygiene is necessary for many reasons; these can be personal, social, for health reasons, psychological or simply as a way of life. Essentially keeping a good standard of hygiene helps to prevent the development and spread of infections, illnesses and bad odours. Personal Reasons Many people, women in particular, are very conscious of their hygiene needs and practices. This can be a result of being taught of the importance from an early age, from being picked-on at school for head lice or similar, or as a way of making themselves more attractive.

Self-esteem, confidence and motivation can all be altered by our body image, often reflected on our ability to care for ourselves and keep good hygiene practices. A bright white smile with clean and healthy teeth can endear people to us, whereas brown, unhealthy teeth can cause embarrassment and can alter our sense of well-being. Healthy hair, skin and nails are signs of a good well-balanced diet and can give us confidence in everyday life. Social Reasons

Most people hate to be talked about, especially in a negative manner. By ensuring that our body is clean and well presented, we are more assured of projecting a positive body image that reflects our personalities. Social aspects can be affected, as many people would rather alienate themselves from someone who has bad personal hygiene than to tell them how they could improve. Bullies may use bad personal hygiene as a way of abusing their victims, using social embarrassment as a weapon.

Children should be taught the importance of hygiene and how to achieve good hygiene very early to keep themselves and others healthy and to reduce the risk of being bullied at school. Health Reasons If a person is due to go into hospital, sometimes that person becomes very aware of their hygiene. The thought of being vulnerable and exposed to strangers can cause the person to become very strict on their hygiene needs. If you have cut yourself, the wound should be cleaned and dressed suitably, this can help reduced the risk of infection and pain.

Conditions such as head lice, athlete’s foot etc. should be treated immediately to prevent further infections and spread to others. Hand washing cannot be emphasised enough as this simple action can prevent a plethora of illnesses and disorders developing. Many people ‘forget’ to wash their hands after using the toilet or before handling foods; this deed can cause a great deal of illness and even death. Psychological Issues By being well presented, clean and tidy, people can feel more confident, especially in social situations.

Many job interviews and such like are highly dependent of hygiene as many decisions are made by first impressions within the first few minutes of meeting; these decisions are often made in the sub-conscious. Our chances of succeeding either in work or social settings, or even with the opposite sex can be altered by our maintenance of hygiene. Maintaining hygiene practices helps to reduce the risks of ill health, but equally important affects how we and others perceive ourselves and can influence our levels of confidence and self-esteem which can affect many aspects of our lives.

Outcome 1

1. Explain why personal hygiene is important

Personal hygiene is very important in life. It covers all aspect depends on culture or any way of life. It could be personal reason, social, psychological, or just the way of maintaining healthy lifestyle. For personal reason, it could boast self esteem, feeling good about self or as a way of making the self more attractive to others. In social reason, a good personal hygiene can project a positive image that reflects one’s personality and be more welcome to the society. Health reasons, maintaining the self clean would mean being free from the risk of illness. Psychological view means opportunities to become more successful if you look more presentable. Personal hygiene means having good practices of taking care of one’s self and leading to healthy lifestyle. This is the daily routine of taking a shower or wash on the whole body, brushing teeth, combing hair, cleaning the ears, eyes, nose, nails and wearing comfortable and clean clothes, knickers, socks and shoes. Good hygiene protects you from illness and diseases, and it affects the way you feel about yourself and other people feel about you.

2. Describe the effects of poor personal hygiene on health and well-being

There are a lot of poor personal hygiene effects like Skin diseases, Dental disease, depression and social problems. In skin diseases, poor personal hygiene like not taking a shower or even wash may compromise the first line of defense of the body like the skin. The skin protects the body against micro organisms and if it is not being taken care well, it may cause dryness, scales, or even rashes or cuts. Anything that causes any portal of entry of microorganism into the body would cause infection or even more serious diseases. In the case of dental diseases, if you do not brush your teeth as required it may cause cavities, tooth decay and inflammation of the gums and dental problems are painful and expensive.

Poor hygiene also cause depression. This could stem to general feeling of low self-confidence and self-worth or not feeling good about self. A sudden change in your desire to care for your body and look presentable could also be a sign of a serious illness. And in social problems, when you neglect to clean and care for your body, you will find yourself isolated from friends and family. This is because of unpleasant body odor, decaying teeth that cause bad breath or even unclean clothes. This would affect you to find a good job to making friends or even finding a date. Poor hygiene will limit you socially and make you feel alone.

Outcome 2

1. Explain how to address personal hygiene issues with an individual in a sensitive manner without imposing own values

You can address personal hygiene issues without imposing own values by merely setting examples or educating the importance of personal hygiene and the effects of poor hygiene. Sharing the knowledge about this issue may give them an idea what to do without imposing anything. Just being aware of the consequences about personal hygiene can make a person decide if this is better for them or not. Another thing is but the use of therapeutic communication with the individual who needs change in his personal hygiene like starting with a compliment or sighting examples or props or sighting demonstrations.

Another is to state your concern about the individual’s hygiene by the use of caring words. Like for example in the care home, if Mr. X always refuse bathing or shower, the thing that I do is to speak with him nicely maybe telling a story for awhile just to build rapport and trust then emphasizing the effect of personal hygiene and asking him what he thinks about it or feel about it, offering myself to assist him to do the procedures and end the conversation by affirming his safety. Involve also the client in making his personal hygiene care plan, by this you can expect an active participation.

2. Describe how to make an individual aware of the effects of poor hygiene on others

You can make an individual be aware of the effects of poor hygiene by sharing them your knowledge what is personal hygiene, the positive and negative effects of personal hygiene. You can discuss or show some props or pictures or movies or any other demonstration. An example of this if like an employee who does not take a shower before going to work, when he does not wear a clean uniform, this can affect his dealings with the residents. He might be having a bad body odor and if his uniform is soiled it might cause the residents to be uncomfortable with him. Onething, he might contribute to developing illness to himself or to the residents like spreading microorganisms. In conclusion in this situation, the manager should directly tell the problem to the employee. It may be so harsh and embarrassing but letting him be aware of personal hygiene is very necessary and he should not compromise anybody.

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3. Describe how to support an individual to develop and improve personal hygiene

One way of developing or maintaining personal hygiene is to support them to the standards that they want. Like for example in personal care, take the individual’s lifestyle choices into consideration, respect their choices of clothes they wear and hairstyles. Like for example one resident in the home I work, I always ask him before bath if he wish to use bar soap or cream, if it is fine for him to use the flannel, what temperature he would want with the water in the tub or shower (if it is too hot or too cold), I ask if he use shampoo, if he would like cream or lotion. I also ask him what hairstyle he like, what clothes is comfortable with him, what color he wants to wear. If in case the resident is non responsive, I make suggestions and showing him his wardrobe. So, do not make assumptions about appropriate standards of hygiene he has to take. Encouraging the resident to participate in the activity is giving respect and dignity and though this, they develop understanding about their personal needs and would maintain it personally.

Outcome 3

1. Identify factors that contribute to good personal hygiene

The factors that contribute to good personal hygiene includes bathing or showering, if the person is unable to shower the he could at least have a wash, hair shampoo or washing hair itself, clean nails, wear clean clothes. Some people prefer to use some cream or lotion after wash or bath, some people use gel or hair spray, others also use deodorants. In brushing teeth, some brush their teeth in the morning and evening depends on their practices and some would go to the dentist for oral prophylaxis in a required manner. And one procedure that is usually being done by many is hand washing after using the toilet, or for carers or anyone in the medical team, washing the hands is done every time.

2. Explain how to support the preferences and needs of the individual while maintaining their independence

To support the preferences and needs of the individual and maintaining their independence, we must include them in doing personal care. We should see to it that their involvement is necessary to protect their rights as well as understanding their cultures and beliefs. An example of this is a patient who believes that having a shower everyday will dry his skin so he prefers to have it twice or thrice a week. As a carer, I should check in the client’s care plan if his wishes is granted or might discuss it with the team and if the client is allowed to just take a shower thrice a week then to maintain his personal needs, other means should be emphasized like stripped wash. This means we consider his preferences but we do not neglect the personal care needs.

3. Describe how to maintain dignity of an individual when supporting intimate personal hygiene

To maintain dignity of an individual when supporting intimate personal hygiene is giving privacy. Like for example if the client do his personal hygiene in his room, as a carer see to it that door is close or put a signage that personal care is going on during that time. Another is showing the client that you are professional in giving personal care, you have to build the rapport and trust of the client for him not to feel he is being abused and making assurance for him not to feel embarrass. While giving personal care like for example washing the client with flannel, you should always be gentle and let the client also participate in the activity.

4. Describe risks to own health in supporting personal hygiene routines

In giving personal care to individual, sometimes it requires a close contact where you hold the client, so one risk is infection. Infection might come from the client or the one providing the care. In other terms, some diseases are transmitted through close contact so the risk is high if you do not protect yourself. Protecting yourself does not mean you will never give personal care anymore, you just have to be aware that there are means to protect yourself or the client in acquiring infection or other diseases thru the use of PPE.

5.Describe how to reduce risk to own self

To reduce risk to own self is to identify the clients needs and always see the client’s care plan before giving personal care. The relevant data is stated in the care plan and it is your basis on what extent you deliver the care. Before you start a procedure, you need to wash your hands, wear protective clothings and after providing the care, you discard equipments used properly and do hand washing.

6. Identify others that may be involved in supporting an individual to maintain personal hygiene

Others that maybe involved in supporting an individual to maintain personal hygiene are the families or any significant others, friends, the medical team or the carers, nurses, doctors or any other members of the public.

Outcome 4

1. Identify underlying personal issues that may be a cause of poor personal hygiene

Some underlying issues might be poor health or illnesses. If a client is to weak to do anything because of he is ill, most likely he will not be able to attend to his needs. Another is the means of the person to meet the need of personal hygiene like for example having no money at all, and because of financial issue he might not have any conducive area to do his personal care, or even the use of water to wash himself, to use of soap or cream and many others.

2. Describe how underlying personal issues might be addressed

If the underlying issue is about illness or about being too old to attend to his needs, this is the time they are provided support or assistance in doing personal care. They are being assess and participate in the plan of care. If in case the issue is about financial, some institutions covers their needs and they should be informed of any availability of the term.

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