Skepticism Essays

Understanding Moral Skepticism

According to James Rachels, the philosophical concept of moral skepticism refers to the notion that there is no such thing as factual, empirical moral knowledge. That is to say, morality is not based on fixed and existing knowledge. In other words, when one makes a moral statement it can never be presented as a statement of fact. The reason for this is that for many people, issues of morality are relative. In other words, while one person may subscribe to…

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Epistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper

The nature of skepticism in real-life today, on a daily basis goes mostly unnoticed. People react to environments of skepticism differently and could become biased upon the subject discussed. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2011), “skepticism is defined as 1: an attitude of doubt or a disposition to incredulity either in general or toward a particular object 2 a: the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain b: the method of suspended judgment, systematic doubt, or…

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Descartes Methods of Doubt

?In this paper, I will be examining Rene Descartes’ reasons for doubting all of his beliefs. I will begin with Descartes’ first meditation, showing how he argues his reasons of doubt. Followed with Descartes’ second meditation, presenting the one piece of knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and explaining why he believes it to be so. Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection, Descartes decides that…

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Philosophers Skepticism

Skepticism, which derives from the Greek word skeptesthai, is the philosophical outlook that declares knowing anything with assurance is impossible. This term can also signify an unwillingness to accept anything without sufficient proof. Skepticism originated in the 5th century BC in Greece when certain philosophers began to express their doubts about how certain they could be about the knowledge they obtained and lived by. These philosophers include Protagoras of Abdera (480-411 BC) and Gorgias (485-380 BC), whom both showed skepticism…

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Epistemology – Doubt

Being certain about something can sometimes be misleading or misunderstood. You either assure certainty or question doubt. You can easily be a cocky football player, think you have the best team, and go into the game knowing you’re going to win and have no doubt that the other team is better than you, but end up losing. But as soon as you have doubt and get intimidated by the other team you instantly try your best to win the game,…

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Universal Methodic Doubt

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is an example of a rationalist. According to Descartes, before we can describe the nature of reality (as is done in metaphysics) or say what it means for something to be or exist (which is the focus of ontology), we must first consider what we mean when we say we know what reality, being, or existence is. He suggests that it is pointless to claim that something is real or exists unless we first know how such…

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