Reinforcement Essays

Conditioning Procedures in Shaping Children’s Behaviour

A child is repeatedly exhibiting inappropriate and unwanted behaviour (e.g. hitting sibling), which conditioning procedures could be used to most effectively stop this? Behaviours that produce favourable consequences are repeated and become habits, but those that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to recur (Ouellette and Wood, 1998 as cited in Martin et.al, 2006). Experience changes the probability of repeating certain behaviours indicating that learning involves adaptation. As time goes on, old behaviours are eliminated and new behaviours are learned. Pavlov…

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Operant Conditioning

In this paper there will be an examination of the Operant Conditioning theory. It will describe the theory, and compare and contrast the positive and negative reinforcement. It will determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective, and will give an explanation of the reasoning behind that choice. It will also give a scenario in which operant conditioning is applied and how it shapes behavior. It will show a schedule that could be used in the reinforcement of the…

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Positive Reinforcement for Children

From a very early age, children begin to learn about the association between behaviors and consequences. They realize that there is always going to be a consequence whether it’d be positive or negative, that would follow the behavior. Sometimes children behave very well and most of the time, children tend to give parents and others around them a hard time. When it comes to behavior modification, some basic steps include identifying the behavior, setting expectations, monitoring progress, and reinforcing correct…

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Hovey & Beard Company Case

1. Discuss how the principles of job design and reinforcement theory apply to the performance problems at the Hovey and Beard Company. Principals of Job design exhibited at the Hovey and Beard Company, a production company who made toys. Toy painters were experiencing the following problems: New painters learned at a slower pace (making the other painters lose money on rewards per piece) the assembly line hooks moved too fast, painters blamed management. Incentive pay wasn’t adequate for workers and…

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Personnel Management and Organizational Behavior

Four ways to shape employee behavior are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Positive reinforcement is following a reaction with something enjoyable (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Employees need recognition for exceeding the organization’s standard on job performance. A well-organized reward program will motivate employees to excel the organization’s standard. Example of this are: employee of the month, quarter or year, and recognitions to employees for presenting ideas to improve the organization’s operation. Negative reinforcement is also referred as “looking…

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Effective Discipline Without Physical Punishment

Contrary to what generations of parents have experienced in their own childhood, physical punishment is not an effective method to use when rearing children. Parents should become educated in other strategies that are non-physical and more effective in curbing misbehavior in children. Positive effective methods would include using timeouts, reasoning, logical consequences and reparation. In its most general sense, discipline refers to systematic instruction given to a disciple. To discipline means to instruct a person to follow a particular code…

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What Is a Token Economy_

Since the beginning of human history there has been some form of token economy in place. From the use of giving food to giving coins or currency to those who perform a task for someone. Money is the most common current form of a token economy used in everyday life. Individuals get paid in money for completing a project or simple tasks by someone else. People are taught at a very early age how to earn money or rewards. According…

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Operant Conditioning Paper

The theory of operant conditioning was thought of by B.F. Skinner. Skinner came up with this theory based on the work of Thorndike (1905). The theory of operant conditioning states that organisms learn to act or behave in a way which obtains or gets a reward yet avoids a punishment. It is an instrumental type of conditioning. Type R conditioning is also known as operant conditioning. Type R conditioning is shown by the response rate. Type S conditioning is determined…

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Positive Behavior

Reinforcement is a consequence following a behavior that could increase the probability of the behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). Reinforcement helps the behavior to be strong enough that it can occur naturally within its one’s environment or can be a part of an intervention plan that teaches new behaviors (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayor, 1991). Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning and an important part of learning process. B. F. Skinner accepted this technique to modify reinforcement and punishment…

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Safeway Supermarket

Safeway Company has policies that require employees to smile at and make eye contacts with customers. Most of the customers would view this kind of facial gestures as a friendly way of doing business, but some customers might misunderstand them as a “flirt”. Twelve employees had filed complaints about this “Superior Service” policy and found it unethical for the company to have undercover shoppers to spot if there is any violator. This led to Union to get involved and suggest…

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Gerald Mahoney

1. Gerald Mahoney’s attitude and performance dramatically changed after a few months on the job. What type of training should Mahoney have immediately received from John Timmson that might have avoided this? Gerald should have received some type of on-the-job training that goes over ever piece of detail that needs to be attended to. John left everything up to Gerald then eventually got upset when business was not being taken care of. The reason for on-the-job training, is because John…

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Reinforcement Theory

Q# 1: Identify the practices of organization that are indicating the application of reinforcement theory? Answer 1. Focus on proper training before giving task to the employees 2. Monitoring the performance of employees. 3. Formulation of procedures, rules and regulations in detail. 4. Strictness in compliance of rules. Q# 2: You are required to suggest some measures of positive reinforcement that can be implemented by the management of Crisp & Soft restaurant. Answer 1. The manager can start a practice…

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Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a form of basic learning the body automatically responds to a stimulus. One stimulus takes on the properties of another. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is credited for discovering the basic principles of classical conditioning whilst he was studying digestion in dogs. He developed a technique for collecting dog’s salivary secretions. Pavlov (cited in Eysneck M.W 2009) noticed that the dogs would often start salivating before they were given any food or saw the feeding bucket…

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Philosophies of Education

There are many different educational philosophies that have developed over the years. Some of these philosophies are teacher-centered and some are student-centered, but they all have the same goal, and the goal is to provide students with the best education possible. The following is a list of educational philosophies and their basic ideas. 1. Perennialism- is a teacher centered philosophy that focuses on the values associated with reason. It considers knowledge as enduring, seeks everlasting truths, and views principles of…

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Adolescent Truancy

I choose to do my paper on “Playing Hooky”: Examining Factors that Contribute to Adolescent Truancy, because of the position I am currently in at work places me in several different school s all year long. I have seen the effects and causes of adolescent truancy first hand. This article is a review of previous data that was obtained from Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. This article clearly states that it is a research article, and the research is from a…

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