Eugene Nida Essays

Dynamic and Formal Equivalence

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Semantic Translation: Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system. Literal Translation: Literal translation, or directed translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another “word-for-word” (Latin: “verbum pro verbo”) with or without conveying the sense of the original. Functional Translation: Functional approach…

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Equivalence in Translation

Professionally, however, the term translation is | |confined to the written, and the term interpretation to the spoken (Newmark, 1991: 35). If confined to a written language, translation is a | |cover term with three distinguishable meanings: 1) translating, the process (to translate; the activity rather than the tangible object), 2)| |a translation: the product of the process of translating (e. g. the translated text), and 3) translation: the abstract concept which | |encompasses both the process of translating and…

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Translation Shift Approaches

Introduction The term “shift” commonly refers to changes which occur or may occur in the process of translating. As long as translating is a language use, the notion of shift belongs to the notion of linguistic performance as opposed to that of theories of competence. Although the term “shift” was initially adopted by Catford as “departures from formal correspondence in the process of from the Source Text (ST) to the Target Text (TT), other scholars like Levy, Popovic, Blum-Kulka, Hatim,…

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