Epistemology Essays

Ways of Knowing in Nursing Practice

Multiple ways of knowing are employed in the discipline of nursing. Traditionally, four patterns of nursing knowledge, or ways of knowing, have been used in the field of nursing. These include empirics, or the science of nursing, esthetics, or the art of nursing, personal knowledge, and ethics (McEwen & Wills, 2011). By combining these ways of knowing, a nurse develops clinical knowledge which guides nursing actions in different situations. The following case demonstrates the use of multiple ways of knowing…

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_the Life you Save May Be Your Own_ by Flannery O’connor

In “The Life You Save may be Your Own,” Flannery O’Connor descriptively characterizes the battles within oneself with the characters of Mrs. Crater, Tom Shiftlet, and Lucynell Crater. The realistic and truthful tones of their actions suggest that through personal obstacles and flaws, triumph can be obtain by being truthful. All three characters of the story are realistic and truthful in a different way. Mrs. Crater could be considered the most truthful character in the entire story. She does not…

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Management Is an Art or Science

The concept of management is universal and very old. That is why different views have been expressed about its nature by different writers from time to time. According to my personal opinion management has element of both art and science. Management as an Art Art refers to the way of doing specific things; it indicates how an object can be achieved. Art is a combination of knowledge and skills. Art keeps changing and basically is the application of theoretical principles…

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Wisdom and Action Scenario

1. In this case the known facts are that the volunteer director applied for help from different agencies to help provide a salary for a needed part-time employee for help within their organizations. The fact is the director received 3 times more than was expected. An the other known fact was out of the three agencies only two required that these donation be used for the manner in which it was requested for. 2. In this ethical dilemma the potential…

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Explain the Concept of Ideals in Plato’s Writings

“The unexamined life is not worth living” according to Plato. He argued that we should always pursue knowledge and ask questions to do this. A key part of Plato’s philosophy is epistemology – his theory of how we know things. His concept of Ideals, also known as Forms, is Plato’s explanation of how true knowledge can be sought. Plato understood that there are concepts that we can all recognise in various things, for example the concept of beauty. We all…

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Important Quotes About Science

A. Cause and Effect: a. means/end: Is science means to what? b. assumptions and antecedents: what does precede scientific research? c. Implications and Consequences: what will follow from ethically unhealthy scientific research? B. Contrast: a. Tension/opposition: what is the tension existing between ethics and scientific research? b. contradictions: What is the contradiction between preserving ethics and developing scientific research? c. paradox: What is paradox inherent in preserving ethics and developing scientific research? C. Change: a. evolutionary: What kinds of changes…

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Descartes’ Statement Cogito Ergo Sum

Cogito ergo sum. Scholars would recognize this issue of high debates even today, almost five hundred years after the words were uttered; though in the present most people in the world wouldn’t understand what it refers to. In 1641, René Descartes published his “Meditations on First Philosophy,” in which his first meditation dismisses everything that he perceives as reality and posits that he is nothing more than a disembodied brain being manipulated by some outside source. In his second meditation,…

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Empiricism and Experience

Empiricism by nature is the belief that there is no knowledge without experience. How can one know what something tastes like if they have never tasted it? For example, would someone know that an apple is red if they have never actually have seen one. Someone can tell you an apple is red, but, if you never have seen one, can you really be sure? Empiricists use three anchor points in which they derive their opinions from. The first of…

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Apearance Vs Reality

In human life, there are many things people think they know with certainty. Is it really so? Can anybody be really sure about knowing something? What make us know something? Is there any knowledge in the world that is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? According to Bertrand Russell, this last question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked. In daily life, we assume many…

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Mathematics & Natural Sciences with Absolute Certainty (tok)

Write an essay outlining your personal response to this topic. “Mathematicians have the concept of rigorous proof, which leads to knowing something with complete certainty. Consider the extent to which complete certainty might be achievable in mathematics and the natural sciences.” To what extent can man use mathematics and the natural sciences to embrace the concept of achieving absolute certainty? It is not possible for humans to achieve absolute certainty in knowledge using mathematics and the natural sciences. This is…

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Subjective Experience and Object of Reality

Epistemology (Greek episteme, “knowledge”; logos, “theory”), branch of philosophy that addresses the philosophical problems surrounding the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is concerned with the definition of knowledge and related concepts, the sources and criteria of knowledge, the kinds of knowledge possible and the degree to which each is certain, and the exact relation between the one who knows and the object known. On the late 15th century, philosophers started to question the possibility of reliable and objective knowledge. However, each…

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Why Plato Thinks Philosophers Should Be Kings

Plato’s strategy in the Republic is to explicate the primary notion of societal or political justice and then parallel it to the concept of individual justice. Before he can prove that justice is a good thing, Plato must first state its definition, by showing justice in its perfect form in order to discover the true essence of it. Therefore, Socrates claims that the only way to have a perfect state is if the state has a perfect leader, thus he…

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Knowledge Is Power

With more than nine out of ten Americans believing God (Larson 278), one must speculate the philosophical reasoning behind confidence in something that is unable to been seen, felt, or heard. The Puritan philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626) said, Small amounts of philosophy lead to Atheism, but larger amounts bring us back to God. When thinking in terms of ideals and values, it is equally relevant to ponder the significance between fact and faith. Faith is defined as a belief that…

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Power Versus Domination

Although Foucault’s methodology of archaeology and genealogy of knowledge contribute greatly to the study of history of knowledge but contrary to general facts of social science. Foucault’s archaeology and genealogy of knowledge produce outstanding works such as History of Madness and History of Sexuality. But, in fact, in theory and practice of social change there is no relation between power and domination. But on the other hand, Foucault’s methodology makes us more sensitive to relation between power and domination. Thus,…

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Criticisms of Plato’s Theory of the Forms

Plato’s theory of forms, also called his theory of ideas, states that there is another world, separate from the material world that we live in called the “eternal world of forms”. This world, to Plato, is more real than the one we live in. His theory is shown in his Allegory of the Cave (from The Republic, Book VII), where the prisoners only live in what they think is a real world, but really it is a shadow of reality….

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