Cognitive Essays

Cognitive Linguistics

The cognitive linguistics enterprise is characterized by two fundamental commitments (Lakoff 1990). These underlie both the orientation and approach adopted by practicing cognitive linguists, and the assumptions and methodologies employed in the two main branches of the cognitive linguistics enterprise: cognitive semantics, and cognitive approaches to grammar, discussed in further detail in later sections. The first key commitment is the Generalization Commitment (Lakoff 1990). It represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language….

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The Effect of Cross Examination on Eyewitness Testimony

Cross-examination increases the likelihood of eyewitness error. Preceding research indicates that while being cross-examined children alter a lot of their originally correct responses. An experiment conducted by Maras & Valentine (2011) describes in which the result of cross-examination on accurateness of adult eyewitness testimony was explored. There were twenty-two student participants who were placed into a co-witness condition, which resulted in memory agreement and recalled less accurately than witnesses in the control condition or individual condition. Following a 4 week…

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Kenyon Commencement Speech

David Foster Wallace brings a completely different approach to commencement speeches in his “Kenyon Commencement Speech.” He strays away from the typical commencement speech topics on “extraordinary wealth,” “comfort,” or “personal freedom” (208). Instead Wallace emphasizes the real value of a liberal arts education, which is learning “how to think” (199). When Wallace mentions “how to think” he is taking a different stance to the idea of education. He doesn’t feel education should revolve around the capacity to think, but…

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Comparing and Contrasting Bandura’s Cognitive Theory

Introduction Perhaps there are as many differences as there are similarities between the ideas expressed in Bandura’s Cognitive Theory and Beck’s Cognitive Theory. Many similarities exist between the two theories because they are both based on the study of human behavior and personality. However, the ideas expressed and mechanisms used in analysis confer some discord between the two theories. It is evident that no two persons in the world would have exclusively similar thoughts about a phenomenon; hence, differences are…

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The Human Memory

Memory refers to processes which are used to obtain, store and later retrieve information. Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the three main processes involved in memory. Encoding is how we form new memories by changing information into a usable form. After the information has been encoded, it then will be stored for later use. Most of the stored memories will lie outside of our own awareness until we later need to use it. The retrieval process is what allows us…

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