Chromatography Essays

Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments by Paer Chromatography

I. INTRODUCTION There are different types of components in plant pigments. The most important and abundant chemical pigment found in plants is chlorophyll. This pigment exists in two forms; chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a, being the main photosynthetic pigment, has a primary purpose to convert light energy to chemical energy used by the plant itself. Chlorophyll b absorbs light in a region of the spectrum apart from the dominant chlorophyll, and transfers the energy it produces to chlorophyll…

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Lab Report for Chromatography

Study Questions: One of the requirements for the photosynthesis process to occur, the plant cells need sufficient light. Pigments are the substances that absorbed visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths. From the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a, it suggests that blue and red light work best for photosynthesis. There is a high degree correlation between the absorption spectra of leaf and the absorption spectra of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene. It is because those pigments are…

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Practical Report on the Isolation and Identification of Codeine and Paracetamol

Codeine or methyl morphine, an alkaloid, was first isolated in 1832 from raw opium. It concentration ranges from 0.2% to 0.8%. Mostly used for its analgesic, anti-tussive and anti-diarrheal capabilities (Tremlett, Anderson and Wolf, 2010). Paracetamol also known as acetaminophen (n-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) on the other hand, is a useful non- steroidal anti- inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is commonly used in the management of pain and fever in a variety of patients (Kamberi, et al., 2004). Fig 1: Codeine[NCBI, 2009] Fig…

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Steam Distillation of Eugenol

Introduction: This experiment involves an extraction of a natural product using the techniques of steam distillation. The principle component of oil of cloves is an aromatic compound, which is identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Eugenol is widely used in dentistry, due to its analgesic, antiseptic balsamic qualities. It is ideal for curative for pulp hyperemia (the soft, sensitive substance underneath the enamel and dentine of a tooth) and pulp its. In dentistry eugenol is also used to cover cavities,…

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Reverse Phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography for Measuring Hydrolysis of Ester

Reverse-Phase High performance chromatography consists of any method of chromatography that utilizes a non-polar phase. In the early part of 1970s, non-modofied alumina or silica which has a greater attraction for polar elements and hydrophilic surface chemistry was used for majority of the liquid chromatography. Because of this, this method was said to be “normal”. The elution order was however reversed with the introduction of a covalently bonded alkyl chain which reinforces the surface. In this method, the first to…

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Fractional Distillations

In this experiment we aim to demonstrate that we can separate two volatile compounds from a mixture due to the different chemical properties of each compound. We will accomplish this by a separation procedure known as distillation, which relies on each compound having a distinct and separate boiling point. Our pure products will be analyzed with gas chromatography to determine the success of the distillation. Procedures The experiment was performed as stated in the course textbook: Pavia, D. L., Lampman,…

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Chromatography of M&m and Ink Dyes

Separations: Chromatography of M&M and Ink Dyes Almost all substances we come into contact with on a daily basis are impure; that is, they are mixtures. Similarly, compounds synthesized in the chemical laboratory are rarely produced pure. As a result, a major focus of research in chemistry is designing methods of separating and identifying components of mixtures. Many separation methods rely on physical differences between the components of a mixture. For example, filtration takes advantage of substances being present in…

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Hplc Analysis of Caffeine

The main objective of this lab is to gain experience in using and reading results from the HPLC machine. 2) The first step is to inject a series of caffeine standards into the machine in order to get results/values of peak height and area. 3) The next step is to investigate the effects of a series of HPLC parameters on Retention time, peak height and peak area. 4) To use above data from peak height and area to construct two…

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Plant Pigment Chromatography

1. Describe what each of your chromatography strips looked like. Specifically, identify the pigments on each strip and compare their positions to one another. Plants have four types of pigments, namely chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and xanthophylls. These pigments have different polarities and chemical properties. In paper chromatography, the pigments will separate based on their affinity to the medium (paper), and affinity for the solvent. The solvents used in this experiment are water (polar) and acetone (mid-polar). Therefore, the different pigments…

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Column and Thin Layer Chromatography

ABSTRACT Chromatography is the separation of mixtures into their constituents. It relies on the differential solubilities or absorptivities of the components to be separated with respect to two phases, one of which is stationary and the other, mobile. The group aims to separate the coloured components of siling labuyo using column chromatography then determine the purity of the components using thin layer chromatography and lastly, measure the RF values of the coloured components in thin layer chromatography. The students plugged…

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