Chlorine Essays

Agar Cubes Lab Report

Diffusion in agar cubes Introduction: All cells are dependent on a processes called diffusion, which is the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Cells need to obtain certain essential substances, like oxygen, for their survival. The rate of diffusion is said to be dependent upon the various factors: Size of molecules that have to diffuse, concentration gradient, the distance across which diffusion occurs, number of pores/openings, surface area and concentration….

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Qualitative Analysis of Anions

The objective of this experiment was to use qualitative analysis to determine the chemical characteristics of four known anions by systemic confirmatory testing. The chemical characteristics observed were to be used to identify an unknown sample. Sulphuric acid was to be added to a carbonate solution and an effervescent reaction would confirm the presence of carbonate anions. Another sample of carbonate solution was to be reacted with hydrochloric acid and the gaseous product was to be reacted with a suspended…

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Analysis of Commercial Bleach

Introduction: Many commercial products are effective because they contain oxidizing agents. Some products that contain oxidizing agents are bleaches, hair coloring agents, scouring powders, and toilet bowl cleaners. The most common oxidizing agent in bleaches is sodium hypochlorite, NaClO (sometimes written NaOCl). Commercial bleaches are created by bubbling chlorine gas into a sodium hydroxide solution (remember this from your “funky redox rxns”?). Some of the chlorine is oxidized to the hypochlorite ion, ClO- and some is reduced to the chloride…

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Tcc Travancore Cochin Chemicals

1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION The main aim of the organizational study is to acquire the knowledge regarding the functional as well as the management aspects of an organization It offers a unique opportunity to students to have hands on experience with industry while still in college. These are major aids in seeking employment after graduation. It exposes students to industry environment and work culture making it easier for them to transition from students to professionals. It gives a chance for the…

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Determination of Asa Content of Aspirin

Aim: To determine the Molar Concentration of NaOH and HCl acid used in their Standardization processes and to determine the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) content in Aspirin. Materials/Apparatus: materials used are the same as that outlined in the laboratory procedure prepared by the laboratory instructor. Procedure: The procedure used is the same as that outlined in the laboratory procedure prepared by the laboratory instructor. Abstract: Aspirin is said to be the oldest and generally most useful drug due to its analgesic…

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effect of Temperature on Content of Vitamin C

Introduction A daily intake of Vitamin C is essential for humans. Without it, the disease scurvy develops as sailors, explorers and people during the long winters in the Northern hemisphere found before the time of Captain Cook. The British Navy started giving sailors lime juice to prevent scurvy on long voyages in 1795. Vitamin C is found in high levels in foods such as oranges, limes, lemons, blackcurrants, parsley and capsicums. Vitamin C is water soluble and is therefore not…

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Turnaround at the Preston Plant

The Preston plant of Rendall Graphics was located in Preston, Vancouver. The plant was bought from the Georgetown Corporation by Rendall in March 2000. The plant produced Precision coated papers for ink-jet printers which accounted for the majority of the plant’s output. The plant started to experience problems in the quality of their output of the ink-jet paper and had received feedback in late 1998 from Hewlett-Packard (HP) about the problem. The team at Preston worked to resolve the problem…

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Star Apple (chrysophyllum Cainito) as an Antiseptic Mouthwash

a. Background of the Study As an effective mouthwash is one that does not only make the breath fresh but also serves as an antiseptic. It should not simply mask the effective mouth odor caused by excessive activity of anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the mouth. There is a need to prevent the increase in the population. b. Statement of the Problem A mouthwash is a solution in addition to regular oral hygiene methods such as brushing and flossing. Alternative mouth gargles…

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Thermochemistry_ Solid Sodium Hydroxide

Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are corrosive. Avoid direct contact. If any touches your skin, wash it off immediately. Solid sodium hydroxide is especially dangerous because it absorbs moisture rapidly from the air, forming an extremely corrosive liquid. Avoid spilling this solid, and if a spill occurs, clean it up immediately. Be sure to close the lids of bottles of sodium hydroxide securely, immediately after using. Dispose of solutions according to your teacher’s instructions. A lab coat or apron is…

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Rates of Reaction

During this experiment I will be investigating if heating limestone and changing the concentration of the acid will affect the rate of reaction. Preliminary work Before doing our main experiment, we will have to conduct another experiment, to see what concentration of acid we will have to use. We done this using 0.1M, 0.5M and 1M of Hydrochloric acid, and 0.1g of powdered limestone, we used powdered limestone, as it would be a fairer test, I think this as all…

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Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Purpose The purpose of this lab is to teach me simulating dialysis, simulating facilitated diffusion, simulating osmotic pressure, simulating filtration, and simulating active transport. Hypothesis If I increase the concentration of sodium chloride from 9mM to 18mM in the left beaker, then the rate of diffusion will increase, because concentration is a variable that affects the rate of diffusion. Materials & Methods Materials: 1.Computer Methods: 1.Access PhysioEx through Mastering A&P and complete the activities and…

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Neutralization Titrations_ the Determination of Soda Ash

I.Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to determine the weight % of Na2CO3 through the preparation of NaOH and HCl standards. The molarity of the standards will be found through titration of KHP for NaOH, HCl vs the known NaOH, and the unknown Soda Ash sample vs the known HCl. II.Equations and Sample Calculations: Titration of HCl with NaOH: Complete Equation: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  H2O (l) + NaCl (aq) Net Ionic Equation: H+ + OH- …

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The Burette Was Cleaned with De Ionized Water

To determine relative molecular mass of a soluble base, X2CO3 by carrying out an acid-base titration with the following reaction , knowing the amount of hydrochloric acid used and the amount of substance Z used. Hypothesis: The X in substance Z is a group 1 element because substance Z is a soluble metal carbonate and would most likely be sodium or potassium because these elements are commonly used. Materials 100 cm3 beaker, 250 cm3 beaker, 250 cm3 volumetric flask with…

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Nvestigating the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid

Planning I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use concentrations of 50cm3 using different volumes of water and acid. Introduction I am investigating how the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid is altered when the concentration is changed. This is the word equation for my investigation, Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Carbon + Water [IMAGE]Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide The symbol…

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Atomic Mass Unit

Substance Z is sodium carbonate because the relative atomic mass of X calculated is 22. 99. The actual relative atomic mass of sodium is 22. 99. Hence, we can conclude X is sodium. 6) If de-ionized water was added into the volumetric flask beyond the calibration mark, the exact concentration of the solution of standard Z will decrease but the number of moles of substance Z will still remain the same. Assuming that the volume of the solution of substance…

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