Calcium Essays

Kidney Stones, Is There a Solution_

Introduction Kidney stones are a painful and dangerous urinary disorder that could cause severe cramping, block flow of urine, and sometimes cause a fever that “about 5 % of American women and 12 % of men suffer from at some point in their lives” (Kidney Stone Disease). “Most small stones measuring less than 5mm or 6mm can persist in the body with medical expulsive therapy, will typically pass within a few days to a few weeks” (Kidney Stones Overview). Kidney…

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Pchem Formal Report

Synopsis: The main aim of the experiment is to find out the amount of calcium carbonate in toothpaste through back titration since calcium carbonate does not dissolve in water. A roughly weighed amount of calcium carbonate is mixed with hydrochloric acid and then titrated against sodium hydroxide. When the indicator turns from pink to orange, the volume of sodium hydroxide used is taken down. After doing some calculations, the average percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste is 19.2%. This average…

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Soaps and Detergents

The goal of this project was to make, and test four soaps, and two detergents. The purpose of making four different soaps and two detergents was needed in order to decide which one would be best for the environmental group to use in the future that would allow for the safest cleanup of an oil spill while not harming the animals or the environment in the process. It was necessary to test the impact of the four soaps and two…

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Complexometric Determination

Introduction Using a Lewis base neutral molecule to donate electron pairs (ligands) to a Lewis acid metal ion center to form a single cluster (complex) ion. When the complex ions forms with a metal ion (chelation) the ligand used is called the (chelating agent). EDTA acts as a great chelating agent due to the Nitrogen and Oxygen donating an electron pair to the metal ion center to form an octahedral complex. The metal ions especially with a +2 charge or…

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Percent Yield of Calcium Carbonate

The purpose of this experiment is to examine the percent yield of a precipitate in a double displacement reaction. A solution of calcium citrate and sodium carbonate were mixed together, then the products were filtered out as so only the precipitate remained. The filtered paper was then dried and the mass of the precipitate in the experiment divided by the theoretical mass of the precipitate from the calculated gave the percent yield. The percent yield that was acquired is about…

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Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction

Procedure 1. Put on your goggles. 2. Weigh out 1.0 g of CaCl2·2H2O and put it into the 100-mL beaker. Add 25 mL of distilled water and stir to form the calcium chloride solution. Use only distilled water since tap water may have impurities that interfere with the experiment. 3. Use stoichiometry to determine how much Na2CO3 you will need for a full reaction. 4. Weigh the calculated amount of Na2CO3 and put it in a small paper cup. Add…

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Naming the Minerals

Name the minerals below. Then, insert a percentage of how certain you are in your identification. Finally, explain your percentage of certainty: What was confusing about this mineral? What other minerals do you think it could be? Remember, the minerals in the virtual lab include seven of the following: borax, calcite, corundum, graphite, gypsum, orthoclase feldspar, pyrite, quartz, talc, and topaz. Identification of Mineral Percent Certain Explanation of Certainty Example: Fluorite 80% certain I am almost certain this mineral is…

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Determination of the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide

1. Roughly fill a beaker with 200cm? of distilled water. This does not need to be accurate because samples will be taken from this. 2. Add solid calcium hydroxide, a spatula at a time, and stir to aid the dissolving. 3. Continue to add the calcium hydroxide until no more will dissolve i. e. you can see the solid at the bottom, even after much stirring. The amount of calcium hydroxide needed should be around the value of 0. 3g….

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Ap Chemistry – Gravimetric Lab

By filtering and weighing the carbonate after it has precipitated, the mass and moles of CaCO3 could then be found; with these values, a molar mass of M2CO3 can be found. Using gravimetric analysis, it has been determined that the unknown Group 1 metal carbonate compound is K2CO3 (potassium carbonate). Experimental Sources of Error: A) The first source of error had to do with the precipitation section of the lab. Not only is possible, but it is almost guaranteed that…

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Complexometric Determination of Water Hardness

When a polyatomic ligand with multiple lone pairs of electrons available for bonding to a central metal ion forms a complex with a metal ion, a process known as chelation takes place. Metal ion impurities can be found by using disodium salt of EDTA to determine the concentration of M2+ by complexometric or chelometric titration. Erichrome Black T makes it easy to see when the EDTA has completely chelated the metal impurities. When the metal cation is still present in…

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