Information Systems Essay
Information systems are the foundation for conducting business today. In many industries, survival and even existence without extensive use of IT is inconceivable, and IT plays a critical role in increasing productivity. Although information technology has become more of a commodity, when coupled with complementary changes in organization and management, it can provide the foundation for new products, services, and ways of conducting business that provide firms with a strategic advantage.
3. What exactly is an information system? How does it work? What are its management, organization and technology components?
* Define an information system and describe the activities it performs. An information system is a set of interrelated components that work together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization. In addition to supporting decision making, information systems may also help managers and workers analyze problems, visualize complex subjects, and create new products.
* List and describe the organizational, management, and technology dimensions of information systems. Organization: The organization dimension of information systems involves issues such as the organization’s hierarchy, functional specialties, business processes, culture, and political interest groups. Management: The management dimension of information systems involves setting organizational strategies, allocating human and financial resources, creating new products and services and re-creating the organization if necessary. Technology: The technology dimension consists of computer hardware, software, data management technology, and networking/telecommunications technology.
* Distinguish between data and information and between information systems literacy and computer literacy. Information literacy: is the ability to find, learn and use information. It doesn’t rely on what you can remember but what you can locate and use. The process of learning in an information literate environment involves being able to find the information rather than memorize it. Computer literacy: is the ability to use the computer. This is an understanding of how to use productivity software on the computer such as word processing, excel, and powerpoint presentation researchs. It is also having knowlege on how to use the internet, collabaration tools, and technology.
4. What are complementary assets? Why are complementary assets essential for ensuring that information systems provide genuine value for an organization? * Define complementary assets and describe their relationship to information technology. Complementary assets are those assets required to derive value from a primary investment. Firms must rely on supportive values, structures, and behavior patterns to obtain a greater value from their IT investments. Value must be added through complementary assets such as new business processes, management behavior, organizational culture, and training.
* Describe the complementary social, managerial, and organizational assets required to optimize returns from information technology investments.
* Supportive culture that values efficiency and effectiveness
* Appropriate business model
* Efficient business processes
* Decentralized authority
* Strong senior management support for technology investment and change
* Incentives for management innovation
* Teamwork and collaborative work environments
* The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure
* IT-enriched educational programs raising labor force computer literacy
* Standards (both government and private sector)
1. What are business processes? How are they related to information systems? * Define business processes and describe the role they play in organizations. A business process is a logically related set of activities that define how specific business tasks are performed. Business processes are the ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce their valuable products or services. How well a business performs depends on how well its business processes are designed and coordinated. Well-designed business processes can be a source of competitive strength for a company if it can use the processes to innovate or perform better than its rivals. Conversely, poorly designed or executed business processes can be a liability if they are based on outdated ways of working and impede responsiveness or efficiency. * Describe the relationship between information systems and business processes.
Information systems automate manual business processes and make an organization more efficient. Data and information are available to a wider range of decision-makers more quickly when information systems are used to change the flow of information. Tasks can be performed simultaneously rather than sequentially, speeding up the completion of business processes. Information systems can also drive new business models that perhaps wouldn’t be possible without the technology.
3. How do systems that link the enterprise improve organizational performance? * Explain how enterprise applications improve organizational performance. An organization operates in an ever-increasing competitive and global environment. The successful organization focuses on the efficient execution of its processes, customer service, and speed to market. Enterprise applications provide an organization with a consolidated view of its operations across different functions, levels, and business units. Enterprise applications allow an organization to efficiently exchange information among its functional areas, business units, suppliers, and customers.
* Define enterprise systems, supply chain management systems, customer relationship management systems, and knowledge management systems and describe their business benefits. Enterprise systems integrate the key business processes of an organization into a single central data repository. This makes it possible for information that was previously fragmented in different systems to be shared across the firm and for different parts of the business to work more closely together.
Business benefits include:
* Information flows seamlessly throughout an organization, improving coordination, efficiency, and decision making. * Gives companies the flexibility to respond rapidly to customer requests while producing and stocking only that inventory necessary to fulfill existing orders. * Increases customer satisfaction by improving product shipments, minimizing costs, and improving a firm’s performance. * Improves decision making by improving the quality of information for all levels of management. That leads to better analyses of overall business performance, more accurate sales and production forecasts, and higher profitability.
In short, supply chain management systems help businesses better manage relationships with their suppliers. Objective of SCM: Get the right amount of products from the companies’ source to their point of consumption with the least amount of time and with the lowest cost. SCM provides information to help suppliers, purchasing firms, distributors, and logistics companies share information about orders, production, inventory levels, and delivery of products and services so that they can source, produce, and deliver goods and services efficiently. SCM helps organizations achieve great efficiencies by automating parts of these processes or by helping organizations rethink and streamline these processes. SCM is important to a business because through its efficiency it can coordinate, schedule, and control the delivery of products and services to customers. Business benefits include: * Decide when and what to produce, store, and move
* Rapidly communicate orders
* Track the status of orders
* Check inventory availability and monitor inventory levels
* Reduce inventory, transportation, and warehousing costs
* Track shipments
* Plan production based on actual customer demand
* Rapidly communicate changes in product design
Customer relationship management systems: enable a business to better manage its relationships with existing and potential customers. With the growth of the Web, potential customers can easily comparison shop for retail and wholesale goods and even raw materials, so treating customers better has become very important.
Business benefits include:
* CRM systems provide information to coordinate all the business processes that deal with customers in sales, marketing, and service to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, and customer retention. This information helps firms identify, attract, and retain the most profitable customers; provide better service to existing customers; and increase sales. * CRM systems consolidate customer data from multiple sources and provide analytical tools for answering questions such as: What is the value of a particular customer to the firm over his/her lifetime?
* CRM tools integrate a business’s customer-related processes and consolidate customer information from multiple communication channels, giving the customer a consolidated view of the company. * Detailed and accurate knowledge of customers and their preferences help firms increase the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns and provide higher-quality customer service and support.
Knowledge management systems : enable organizations to better manage processes for capturing and applying knowledge and expertise. These systems collect all relevant knowledge and experience in the firm, and make it available wherever and whenever it is needed to improve business processes and management decisions. They also link the firm to external sources of knowledge.
Business benefits include:
* KMS support processes for acquiring, storing, distributing, and applying knowledge, as well as processes for creating new knowledge and integrating it into the organization. * KMS include enterprise-wide systems for managing and distributing documents, graphics, and other digital knowledge objects; systems for creating corporate knowledge directories of employees with special areas of expertise; office systems for distributing knowledge and information; and knowledge work systems to facilitate knowledge creation. * KMS use intelligent techniques that codify knowledge and experience for use by other members of the organization and tools for knowledge discovery that recognize patterns and important relationships in large pools of data.
* Explain how intranets and extranets help firms integrate information and business processes. Because intranets and extranets share the same technology and software platforms as the Internet, they are easy and inexpensive ways for companies to increase integration and expedite the flow of information within the company (intranets alone) and with customers and suppliers (extranets). They provide ways to distribute information and store corporate policies, programs, and data. Both types of nets can be customized by users and provide a single point of access to information from several different systems.
5. What is the role of the information systems function in a business? * Describe how the information systems function supports a business. The information systems departments is the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services. The information systems department is responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprise the firm’s IT infrastructure. Compare the roles played by programmers, systems analysts, information systems managers, the chief information officer (CIO), chief security officer (CSO), and chief knowledge officer (CKO). * Programmers are highly trained technical specialists who write the software instructions for computers. * Systems analysts constitute the principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization. The systems analyst’s job is to translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems.
* Information systems managers lead teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunications mangers, or database specialists. * Chief information officer (CIO) is a senior manager who oversees the use of information technology in the firm. * Chief security officer (CSO) is responsible for information systems security in the firm and has the principle responsibility for enforcing the firm’s information security policy. The CSO is responsible for educating and training users and IS specialists about security, keeping management aware of security threats and breakdowns, and maintaining the tools and policies chosen to implement security. * Chief knowledge officer (CKO) helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.
Information Systems Essay
This facility is one of the most leading and innovative healthcare organizations. It provides a full spectrum of healthcare and wellness programs throughout North and South Carolina. Our diverse network of more than 650 care locations includes academic medical centers, hospitals, healthcare pavilions, physician practices, destination centers, surgical and rehabilitation centers, home health agencies, nursing homes, and hospice and palliative care.
Carolinas HealthCare System works to improve and enhance the overall health and wellbeing of its communities through high quality patient care, education and research programs, and a variety of collaborative partnerships and initiatives. Carolinas HealthCare System is an outgrowth of a community hospital originally founded in 1940. Since that time Carolinas HealthCare System has grown into one of the nation’s largest and most comprehensive systems, with more than 48,000 employees, more than 6,200 licensed beds (acute care and post-acute care), and an annual budget exceeding $6. billion (comparable to many Fortune 500 companies).
Premier facilities include Levine Cancer Institute, Levine Children’s Hospital, Sanger Heart & Vascular Institute, CMC Neurology and The Transplant Center. Other specialties include maternity (regular and high risk), assisted reproduction, interventional oncology, radiation therapy, minimally invasive surgery, and many others. Through careful integration of services, Carolinas HealthCare System has built some of the nation’s largest accredited multi-hospital networks for treatment of stroke and heart attack.
Ultimately, our success is determined not by the buildings we construct, but by the investment we make in the people and programs that bring each new facility to life. We are providing a broad framework of support that enables extraordinary professionals to bring caring, commitment, integrity and teamwork to a vitally important healing mission. The motivating force behind all of this activity is fulfilling our duty to meet community needs. Each of our hospitals is locally managed by a hospital administrator who makes ecisions that affect each hospital.
Carolinas HealthCare System (CHS) is governed by a group of people who are dedicated to serving our community by providing the healthcare resources needed for our growing region. The Board of Commissioners and Advisors meets on a regular basis to review policies and procedures, as well as current and changing healthcare rules and regulations for our state and nation that impact how we provide these services. Below are the members of these committees. CHS uses electronic records which is called Canopy.
Canopy is Carolinas HealthCare System’s electronic medical record program, formerly called (EPACT). It is one of our most critical strategic initiatives and a significant leap forward to bolster our ability to improve clinical outcomes, ensure patient safety, and enhance our delivery of quality care through technology. All physicians and mid-level providers will use the electronic system for tasks such as CPOE, Medication Management and Structured Electronic Documentation. Transcription services will not change. The information that is dictated now may be dictated on and after conversion to CPOE.
The expectation is that dictation will not increase, but will decrease over time. The physicians and nurses all play a big part in the facility. They use the information systems to document the health concerns of the patients, and to also transmit the information to documents that can be easily read and understood. Many employees use the system to add, obtain, and program the patient records and personal information. Carolinas Healthcare System provides convenient outpatient programs in physical, occupational and speech therapies throughout Mecklenburg and surrounding counties.
We are also leaders in the field of workers’ compensation and vocational rehabilitation, aiding patients at their workplaces and helping them regain work skills if an injury or illness interferes with employment. Functional Capacity Evaluations are used to ascertain if a patient may return to work successfully. Designed to accelerate each patient’s recovery efforts, our outpatient facilities are staffed by accredited specialists utilizing the most advanced equipment and techniques available.
With an extensive network of outpatient centers throughout the region, we are always within reach of individuals seeking therapy, and skilled at providing the care, support and confidence vital to successful rehabilitation. The facility is very discrete with the way they access their records. Everyone has a to login to a secure network to bring up the sites for the employees to use. With more than 30 hospitals and more than 600 other care locations, CHS is strongly committed to robust electronic medical record (EMR) solutions.
The goal is to guarantee that a patient’s most recent information is quickly and securely available to all the medical providers who need it. This enables everyone on the care team to better coordinate and personalize treatments. Every patient encounter is electronically documented. For that reason, physicians at any point of contact can quickly research and gauge possible drug interactions, avoid or treat allergic reactions, or judge the possible impact of previous injuries or surgeries. Having all of this information immediately accessible not only saves time, it helps a patient’s record speak for them if necessary.
Carolinas HealthCare’s Information Services Department worked with emergency-department physicians and Cerner Corp. (NASDAQ:CERN), its electronic-health-record vendor, to design the single-order entry computer application. The streamlined order-entry process was piloted in 2011 at CMC-Northeast, a Concord hospital that has one of the busiest emergency departments in North Carolina. It was launched simultaneously with the rollout of the health-care system’s electronic-health-record initiative which features computerized physician-order entry.
During the pilot, order entries were reduced by nearly 2. 5 minutes per patient. That will save more than 2,600 physician hours per year. This facility has many positives about the employees and the site. I would like to be a part of this facility so I could put my skills to work and help the community have healthier people. Some of the strengths about the system are that it is very secure. There is a login for every employee to access in order to get in. Some of the downsides are that many others may try to hack the system and breach every ones privacy.
It is important to have a secure system to protect the patients’ rights and information. It is possible to obtain policies, procedures, brochures, and training at this facility. They even provide different schools to educate their employees, and the new individuals that want to pursue a career with them. This would be a great company for interested people to work at. It is very important that they show that their interests are in the wellbeing of their employees and newcomers.
Information Systems Essay
None ————————————————————-Course objectives Information is perhaps the most important of all business resources, and the ability to manage it effectively on a global level is a essential organizational capability. Information systems are the tools that firms use to manage information, and it is critical for managers to understand how to use them. This course introduces you to key information systems concepts, issues and questions that will help you to accomplish this.
The focus of the course is managerial – little prior knowledge of information systems is required, and you certainly won’t be doing any programming! It is assumed that you already possess the basic computer skills needed to use various office suite products (word processing, spreadsheet, e-mail, etc. ), or will acquire these skills independently of this course. The objective of the course is to provide a basic knowledge set that will allow you to understand the most common information systems issues that exist in today’s organizations, to ask critical questions, and participate in IT decision making.
P a g e | 2 Organization of the Course Pedagogy This course relies on a diversity of teaching media, including lectures, readings, and case discussions. Inclass discussions are important and quality class participation is expected from each student. It is your responsibility to read the appropriate material before class. Unless prior arrangements have been made with the instructor, no late assignments will be accepted. Assigned Reading There is a readings package for this course that contains required articles and cases. As well we have an open source text: John Gallaugher, “Information Systems: A Manager’s Guide to Harnessing Technology”, Flat World,Version1.
1, 2011. Go to this website to access the text: http://www. flatworldstudents. com/course? cid=453963&bid=38086. You can read it online for free. If you pay $29 or thereabouts you can download an e-reader version or a pdf. A printed text is $40 and a color text is $60. We cover a large volume of material in this course. When preparing for class, you should review the overheads, carefully read the assigned articles and cases and try to identify what you believe are key points or issues. Always ask yourself the following question “As a manager, what issues does this raise for me? ” Evaluation of Student Performance.
The course grading scheme for Master’s level courses at Schulich uses a 9-value grade-point system. The possible course letter grades for a course (and the corresponding grade points awarded for each grade are: A+ 9 grade points A 8 A7 B+ 6 B 5 B4 C+ 3 C 2 C1 F 0 (Students are reminded that they must maintain a cumulative GPA of at least 4. 2 to remain in good standing and continue in the program, and a minimum of 4. 4 to qualify for their degree. Schulich grading guidelines mandate a section grade point average [‘GPA’] of between 4. 7 and 6. 1 for core courses and a section GPA of between 5.
2 and 6. 2 for electives. ) Where instructors use numerical or percentage grades, Schulich grading policy does not require a preset translation of percentages into specific letter grades P a g e | 3 Participation 20 % Individual Assignment 30 % Group Assignment 50% In class Five pages maximum, handed in at the beginning of session 4 – Presentation 20%, session 6 – Peer evaluation 5%, session 6 – Final report 25%, No later than 1 day after final session Participation (20%) Good class participation by all class members is necessary in order to get the most out of the cases and readings.
You are encouraged to take advantage of this gathering of your peers to improve your communication skills and obtain feedback on your views in a relatively low-risk environment. Attendance is not participation. Your attendance is expected for the full duration of the class. If you miss more than two classes, you have failed the course. If you feel that you have to miss a class or any part of a class please inform the instructor before the class so that you will not be called upon in class and so that the instructor can advise you on how to keep up with the rest of the class.
I expect that you will: a) Be prepared for class. b) Be on time for class. c) Keep me informed. Do not suffer in silence. Let the instructor know if you are having problems. Let it be known if you cannot attend class. With only six sessions, you do not want to miss anything. d) Come to class with a readable name card. This is important for monitoring your participation. Identify all your work completely with student number and name. Both of these actions will help the instructor to get to know you as an individual.
In-class participation will be graded on quality not quantity. Timely and regular attendance, comments and questions that demonstrate knowledge of the topic and intellectual acuity can enhance your participation grade. Be respectful of other’s desire to participate, so be brief and relevant. Individual assignment (30%) The course includes an individual assignment, worth 30%. The total length of the individual assignment is 5 pages maximum, including all materials, except an optional cover page, and a reference list (if required).
I will provide details on this assignment in the first class. Group Assignment (50%) You will be placed into groups. Each group will be required to perform an analysis of a business problem that deals with IT issues. Details of the group assignment will be provided in session 1. The group assignment includes three deliverables: 1. Final Report Final report (25%) – each group will submit a final report due no later than 1 day following the final class session. The report will be no longer than 20 pages, including all components, except for a title page and references.
The following sections are required: Executive Summary (1page only), Introduction, Summary, and Conclusions. Other sections are up to you P a g e | 4 2. Management presentation Management presentation (20%) – each group will deliver a 10 minute presentation during the final class session. No extra time will be allowed. Maximum 10 slides. Please provide me with a copy of the presentation slides the evening before the final class session by 6 p. m. at the latest. 3. Peer evaluation Peer evaluation (5%) – you will be asked to evaluate the performance of your fellow group members.
I will hand out a form for this in week 6. Academic Honesty Academic honesty is fundamental to the integrity of university education and degree programs. The Schulich School will investigate and will act to enforce academic honesty policies where apparent violations occur. Students should familiarize themselves with York University’s policy on academic honesty. It is printed in full in your student handbook and can also viewed on-line on the Schulich website, clicking through as indicated: MBA/IMBA.
Schulich website ‘Programs’ ‘Master’s Degree’ ‘Learn More’ ‘Academic Policy’ While academic dishonesty can take many forms, there are several forms of which students should be highly aware because they are the ones that are most likely to occur in the context of a specific course.  Plagiarism. Plagiarism is the presentation of information, ideas, or analysis generated by other people as being your own. It includes direct quotations as well a substantive paraphrases where the course of that information or idea is not clearly identified to the reader.
Students should be careful to present their written work in a way that makes it completely clear in each and every cases where a quotation, a paraphrase, or an analysis is based on the work of other people. (This includes information from all sources, including websites. )  Cheating. Cheating is an attempt to gain an unfair advantage in an evaluation. Examples of such violations include (but are not limited to) consulting prohibited materials during an examination or copying from another student.  Failure to follow limitations on collaborative work with other students in preparing academic assignments.
Each class differs in the mix of assignments and group-versus-individual preparation that is allowed. The instructor will make clear the extent of collaboration among students that is acceptable among students on various pieces of assigned work. Students should abide by those limitations and, if they are unsure about whether a certain level or form of collaboration would be acceptable, to clarify that question with the instructor in advance.  Aiding and abetting. A student is guilty of violating academic honesty expectations if he/she acts in a way that enables another student to engage in academic dishonesty.
If a student knows (or should reasonably expect) that an action would enable another student to cheat or plagiarize, that student’s action constitutes an academic honesty violation. Illustrative examples include making your exam paper easily visible to others in the same exam or providing your own working or finished documents for an ‘individual assignment’ to another student (even if that other student said that he/she just wanted to ‘get an idea of how to approach the assignment’ or ‘to check whether they had done theirs correctly’).  Use of academic work in more than one course.
Generally, academic work done for every course is ‘new’ work, done for that course only. If a student wishes to use some or all of the academic work done for an assigned task in one course in another course, the student must get explicit, prior permission from both instructors so that they agree that the scope and nature of the overlapping use of that work is such that it can fairly be counted toward both courses. P a g e | 5 Schedule of Topics and Readings The following list of lecture topics and readings indicate the material to be read, reviewed and/or prepared for the various class sessions.
If any changes in this schedule become necessary, notifications will be posted in the course CMD, and where such changes need to be announced between class sessions, an email will be sent to students’ Lotus Notes email accounts, notifying them of the change. Date Topic(s) Session 1 Key question: What is an information system and why is it Feb 27 important? IS Ch 1, Lecture: Introduction to management information systems and enterprise Ch 5 & Ch technology management 10 Lecture: Technology fundamentals Reading: A conversation about information technology 1. In your experience, does this conversation ring true? 2.
Why are many business managers frustrated with organizational IT? 3. Why are many IT managers frustrated with ‘the business side’? 4. What can be done to improve relations between the two sides? Activity: A group discussion of Open versus Closed systems models. Session 2 Key question: How can you use information systems to get the Mar 5 most out of organizations? IS Ch 11 Lecture: Organizational information systems & Enterprise systems Case: Business Intelligence Software at SYSCO Activity: Information structures & organizational effectiveness Session 3 How can you manage the balance between security and privacy, Mar 12 openness and access?
IS Ch 6, Ch 12, & Ch 13 Lecture: IS ethics, privacy, computer crime, and security Case: ChoicePoint (A) 1. What is your appraisal of ChoicePoint’s business model? 2. How legitimate are the concerns voiced by the industry critics? 3. In Derek Smith’s position, what internal changes, if any, would you make to address the issues discussed in the case? 4. In Derek Smith’s position, what would you recommend to the U. S. Congress regarding regulation of the personal data industry? Discussion: Information security vs privacy P a g e | 6 Session 4 Key question: How can you use information systems for a Mar 19 sustainable competitive advantage?
IS Ch 2, Lecture: IS for competitive advantage & IS Planning and project Ch 7 & Ch management 8 Reading: Investing in the IT That Makes a Competitive Difference Case: MDCM Inc. 1. Could MDCM fulfill Horizon 2000 without a strong focus on transforming IT? Why or why not? 2. Define MDCM’s overall corporate strategy and business goals, and match these with the company’s high-level IT objectives. Present your findings in a report to the senior management team. *Individual assignment due Session 5 Mar 26 IS Ch 9 & Ch 14 Key question: How to effectively manage information systems in a changing global environment?
Lecture: IS development and Global IT outsourcing Reading: Outsourcing: From Cost Management to Innovation and Business Value Case: Future Vision Digital Services 1. As Blake Randolph, what would you do to deal with the immediate problem? 2. Does the blame reside with Gregoire for being difficult to manage, or with Randolph, for not being able to manage Gregoire? 3. Would you use Gregoire on another project? Why or why not? 4. If you answered yes to Q3, would you change the way you manage Gregoire? How? Session 6 Apr 2 Apr 3 Group presentations Final reports due.