Human Development Essay

Life starts at conception. Immediately fertilization takes place changes and events occur that will determine the kind of person to be born. This research tries to find out the effect of early life on the later life of an individual. And if early life affects the later life of the individual, then do children who grow up in violent communities have a tendency to exhibit violent behaviors as adults? The research will apply the cross-sectional design. People who differ in age are studied at the same time. A comparison of age related changes and the social behavior is done.

A hypothesis is put forward and a cross-sectional experiment is done to test it. One advantage of this design is that one can collect data from different ages of children over a short period of time. Stages of human development After fertilization takes place, the zygote is formed. The zygote undergoes cell division some hours after it is formed. It takes one week to reach the uterus. In the uterus there occurs implantation. The zygote makes connection to the blood vessels. This process takes about one week(Brian & Scott, 2005). After the zygote completely implant into the uterus, it becomes the embryo.

This stage occurs between the 3rd week and the 9th week. During this stage the human body structure start to develop. The internal organs also start developing. The embryo consist of three layers: the ectoderm, the outer layer; the endoderm, the middle layer and the endoderm, inner layer. The ectoderm develops into the skin and hair; the mesoderm develops into bones , cartilages and the cardiovascular system ; the third layer develops into the internal organs . The heart start beating after four weeks. By 8 most body organs can be seen in although not well developed. Brian and Scott, 2005 ). The embryo rest in the amniotic sac which contains amniotic fluid.

This fluid protects it. The embryo is connected to the mother via the placenta and the umbilical cord. The development of the embryo follows two principles: the cephalocaudal i. e it develops from head towards the legs and the proximodistal – the parts near the centre of the body develops first e. g the arm develops before the hands (Lichtenberg & Norton,1970). The third stage is the Fetus stage. This stars from the ninth week. At this stage, most body organs start to work.

There is remarkable increase weight. During this period, the body systems like the respiratory system develop. The fetus can move and play in the uterus. It can hear the heart mother’s hear beat and the mother speak. It can detect flavor. The fetus’s senses are developed. The sensory influence can have a lifetime effect on the fetus. A research done by deCasper and Spence( cited in Lorraine ) shows that the last few months of prenatal developments can shape the life of the newborn infant. It can have either positive or negative effect on the infant.

For instance extreme stress in the mother can have several effects: First, the stress tigress the production of hormones which reduces the level of oxygen consumption of the fetus. Second, stress may affect eating habits of the mother thus affecting the fetus in turn. Third, it may cause the mother not to take onto account resting, exercising and may influence her to drink. All these have negative effect on the fetus (Joseph , & Sandraw,1994). The mother’s age. The mother’s age seems to have an effect on the newborn baby. For instance teenage mothers mothers are likely to have problems during pregnancy and during birth.

This is because they may not have the resources and skills to give them a good prenatal care. Again children born by teenage mothers may have problems. However a study ( Leavitt, 1993) revealed that it is the environmental and economic background that affect the child and not necessarily the age of the mother. Also the prenatal care given to the mother determines the behavior of the child. Nevertheless, older women, over 35 years experience more problems during pregnancy than younger women. They also record higher rates of miscarriage and Down ‘s syndrome (Cited in Nelson).

In general, for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby, the age of the mother should be between 20 to 35 years. Teratogens. : Drugs, deseases and environmental harzards. Teratotegen is anything that affect a pregnancy. Some teratogens are: Drugs: Many drugs consumed by pregnant women pose great danger to the fetus and the mother. This was discovered after a drug called thalidomide caused women to bear children with malformed body organs. Thalidomide was being used by pregnant women to assist them sleep Other examples of teratogens are alcohol, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine and cigarettes. Joseph & Sandraw, 1994).

Diseases: Some diseases do not have any serious effect on the pregnant women. However most viral and bacterial diseases have effect on the pregnancy. The most serious ones are AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis and genital herpes. These may cause low immune system and various disorders in the unborn (Lichtenberg & Norton, 1970). Environmental hazards: The wastes from the industries contain chemicals. These chemicals may be absorbed into the mother’s body in small quantities through breathing and drinks. These cause great damage to the fetus since they are teratogens.

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Environmental teratogens are more serious because the mother may not be aware that she is taking it. Thus she may not have control over it. (Joseph &Sandraw, 1994). However some teratogens may be avoided especially those found in food as food additives. Freud(1954) suggested that life starts at birth. Most psychoanalysts of his time believed so. They believed that the brain developed at infancy. Winnicot(cited in Freud) did a research which found that the experience of the unborn is very important the infant. It could have emotional implications that could affect the person even as an adult.

Winnicott observed children and saw that there very many differences. He noted that problems caused during labor could traumatize the baby who develops a lot of distress. He conclusively said that the experience gained in the womb remain in memory for a lifetime. In the womb, traumatized fetus even develops defensive mechanisms to face the expected trouble. Later research therapists conducted research and were able to conclude that early trauma created a lot of fear for the rest of the life of the infant. The feelings of anxiety, seeing being devoured by ogres, falling into a bottomless bit are as a result of early trauma.

An example is given of an infant who was mistakenly exposed to cold in a very cold night (Lorraine). This child always dreamt lying in the refrigerator and this continued even after 30 years. This shows that early trauma caused the infant to expect disaster at any time. However the discovery of the effect of perinatal trauma on the life of an individual helped therapists to treat patients with problems related to early trauma (Freud, 1954). Recent research by perinatal psychologists, neurobiologists, experimental psychologists has shown great connection of fetal trauma to problems experienced later in life.

Initially biologists used to think that the fetus had incomplete myelination of neurons and therefore it could not have memories. Research shows that the thinly myelinated nerves of fetus can transmit waves but at a lower rate. Joseph et al.. Thus the experience gained in the womb may make one to be aware of violence, disaster lack faith. With this in mind, parents have started to consider the unborn as part of the member of the family. A father who played a game with a baby and the mother found that the next baby easily learnt the game.

These parents tried to avid any experiences that may cause fetal distress (Lichtenberg & Norton,1970). Fourteen independent studies have shown the relationship between antenatal maternal anxiety and emotional distress in the child. Prenatal stages are likely to be affected by antenatal stress. These reports have suggested that maternal distress affect the fetus as evidenced by increased fetal heart rate (FHR). This is done by use of ultrasound and monitoring FHR over long periods of time. Both the experimental and distress –induced study design have been employed to achieve this.

For a normal case, at about the 15th week of the pregnancy fetal movements exhibit a certain pattern. As developments progress the fetal movements become dependent on specific heart rate pattern. These patterns finally develop into sleep-wake patterns which characterize stable temporal origination near term. There is a relationship between body movements and FHR accelerations. Fetal behavior is organized in rest – activity or sleep- wake cycle (Lichtenberg & Norton, 970). Effect war and social violence Family violence and trauma caused by war are passed through generations.

Adults who were exposed to abuse and violence are more likely to show violence to their own offspring. They have difficulty forgetting their past and live normally. War and violence are everywhere in our societies. Many ethnic clashes continue for years and our children are being exposed to their effects. The children are being thought that disputes are being solved by use of violence. This violence is passed from generation to generation. Research and behavioral science has began to confront the problems of children exposed to violence. (Heidi, 2002).

Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of domestic violence. Domestic violence has severe effect on families and society in general. Domestic violence can be in the form physical abuse, psychological abuse and sexual abuse. Exposure to violence creates traumatic stress. Traumatic stress can be either short term or long-term. Terr ( cited in Brian & Scott, 20005) describes short term trauma as “Type I” e. g a single event of rape or beating. He described repeated or prolonged trauma as “Type II”. Type II has more serious effects than type I.

Individual exposed to this kind of trauma may develop Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD makes one to show routine withdrawal and oversensitivity. Many children from domestic violence homes show levels of (PTSD) (Leavitt, 1993). If untreated, the children exhibit violent behaviors, delinquency and other social and psychological problems. Since young child do have the ability to express themselves verbally, the emotional problems developed are behavioral such as lack of sleep, feeding problems, inability to concentrate, withdrawn and physical complaints.

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The pre-adolescents child may in addition to the above problems show loss of interest in peers, poor self concept violence,, defiant behavior and temper out bursts. Adolescents are likely to fail academically and start abusing drugs. Youth who exhibit violent behaviors can be traced to families experiencing domestic violence. An estimated 20% 30% of dating teenagers abuse or are being abused by their partners mentally, sexually, emotionally or physically. Between 30% and 50 % of adult relationships show the same cycle of violence (Leavitt, 1993)

Nelson ( 2000), points out that community violence also has an impact on children who were victimized or who witnessed member of community or family members being victimized get affected. The effect of violence spread to even those children who are not directly affected by violence. Violence tampers with activities of the child which might make the child a better person. Impact of violence on the child depends on the level of development of the child. Early exposure to violence is more detrimental than later exposure( p. 266) In 1995 FBI report it reported that 27% of all violent crime involved domestic violence.

All forms of violence affect the child’s mind. One study was done to show the connection between the brain and someone’s violence. Psychologists observed brain imaging data for a great number of people with violent behaviors. The research focused on specific brain regions. One was the orbital frontal cortex and the amyglada. The results showed that most of the cases, there was absence of normal activity in the orbital and anterior regions. While the shoed normal activity. The two regions will not counteract and this may explain some people are hyper aroused ( Lorraine).

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Human Development Essay

The subject of this paper is focusing on the personality development of a middle-aged woman transiting to middle-late adulthood. The subject is a 63 year old widow, a retired Kindergarten teacher and a part time professor in College and Graduate school, she is also an author of several preschool books who are being widely used in most schools all over the country. Maria raised three female offsprings with the following age gaps: a 29 year old married woman, with two kids; a 27 year old working woman; and the youngest, 22 year old working woman.

Using the name Maria (not the subject’s real name), her life would be the focus of example in this entire paper to analyze the different biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that shaped her development as she is currently in the stage of early-middle adulthood stage of development in the course of life span (Santrock 2007). Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Affecting Maria’s Development Biologically, Maria’s genes are healthy and her bloodline shows that her family ancestors died of natural deaths, old age and got the common ordinary illnesses that are curable and not death threatening.

With regards to measurement of competencies and intellectual abilities, Maria narrates that her mother is an effective teacher and her ancestors were good writers and all achievers as well. According to Maria, she believes that her ancestors and parents have the perfect genes she just needed to be able to perform her present occupations in life. Furthermore, psychological factors also shaped Maria’s development. According to her, she always needed the familial support from her siblings and relatives whenever she faces difficulties and encounters obstacles along her journey in life.

Moreover, the presence of her loved ones motivated her because of the advices and the psychological benefit she receives from them. Maria’s family and their mere presence provided her the benefit of strength especially everytime she sees them happy, healthy, and contented (Santrock 2007). Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic theory: Applied in Maria’s Course of Development Socioculturally, Maria claims that she has reached her full development also with the help of her friends, religious groups and affiliations in the society.

In addition, her civic and charitable activities for poor children whose parents could not avail them of their education gave Maria a sense of meaning. This participation in charity education also helped Maria to achieve her sense of purpose in life which made her realize that teaching is her devotion and talent which she has to share to the society (Watson 2009). For Maria, she have developed a good and better understanding about society, people, and their diversities because of reading, and communicating with different kinds of people having diverse background, culture, and experience.

Poor, rich, urban, ethnic, Chinese, Thai, Mexicans, Americans, Japanese, etc. , Maria says she could relate and mingle with any of them well. Maria passed through the different stages of her childhood where she gets fixated but resolves a specific need: may it be oral needs, phallic, etc. (Watson 2009). Maria’s Self-Concept: Contingent on B. F Skinner and Watson’s theory of Behaviorism Maria has a positive self-image and claims she gained self-confidence and esteem through the years.

Regarding Maria’s physical health, she had a diabetic stroke which made her body partially paralyzed but according to her, it is currently improving. Maria has maintenance of medicines, exercises 3 x a week with “taebo” and listens to classical and modern music. She narrated that she got the stroke when she turned 57 mainly because of her previous lack of rest due to her strenuous and multiple activities in school; also, her habit of eating sweets and food rich in cholesterol aggravated her condition as well.

Maria’s reasoning therefore of a stimulus-response present in her life was evident from her example: her neglect of the proper diet and necessary exercise is the stimulus and the consequential response or reactive punishment she received from her neglect of herself led her to get such illness. In addition, BF Skinner’s and Watsons’ theory of Instrumental conditioning and stimulus-response is the law of effect that indicates a relationship between stimulus and response.

“There is a connection between these two and that when a response was followed by satisfying stimulus and reinforcement, the subject is likely to repeat that response in a similar situation (Watson 2009). ” “This is what life is. We try various approaches when we find the right one, we start practicing that response until it was a habit, says Maria. Maria’s choices indeed created the changes in her life. The Gestalt theory where insights are learned then organized and reorganized to give Maria a sense in this world.

The theory of stimulus-response by Skinner where we do something because of the positive rewards she got, all of these helped her as reflected in her life span. From the following reasons: poverty and the desire to win and gain were some insights that motivated Maria to struggle and that from which she learned a lot. Thus, she experimented on some behavior to achieve the positive results that Maria is now enjoying in her life (Santrock 2007). Maria’s Baltes’ Selective Optimization Theory with Compensation Further, Maria’s early retirement to teaching, did not hinder her continuous seeking for knowledge.

After recovering from her stroke and gaining strength, she got to walk with a cane and she strived to make her walk straight even if the neurologist told her that she has 0% chance to recover from her stroke and regain her walking. Maria continues to read. She occupies her time reading lectures from seminars she is continuously attending (with a caretaker and sometimes her youngest daughter); at times, she got to be assigned to be prayer leader and a speaker to contribute her knowledge of God among the members and non-members of her two church ministries.

Applying Baltes’ Selective Optimization theory, Maria shows her continuity and productivity through her active participation in the society and family gatherings as well. However, Maria selects those gathering in which she has to attend, according to her, time should not be wasted with meaningless chitchat because energy and time is valuable. So, if a certain meeting is getting against her routine of resting time, she manages not to attend the meeting (selective theory).

Further, Maria optimizes and enhances her skills in writing and speaking by engaging in activities in which she could practice her oral speech and writing abilities through her composition of her talks in specific seminars in which she was invited as a speaker (optimization). Maria continues to write and revise her preschool books and she still earns royalties from them. Maria loves listening to music and singing along with it; she even plays computer games in which her youngest daughter taught her.

In terms of personality, Maria describes herself as being pleasing, lovable, and caring; speaking with her ethnic identity: Maria is modern citizen; her moral outlook in life is to believe and to be a follower of Christian beliefs. Her familial and social relationships are harmonious and ideal. At her adult age of 63, Maria is still more productive than ever compared to any working adult in their early years. Relatively, as Maria admits her decline in strength and in doing household chores, she compensates by paying caretakers to do the chores for her in the house (Santrock 2007).

The Role of Nature & Nurture theories, Environment in the stages of Life span As per nature and nurture theories, siblings differ when they live in different houses, have different custodies, different environments. Their attitudes and behavior change when separated and exposed to people of different attitudes, beliefs and upbringing. Like for the case of Maria, she was brought up by an educated, conservative, and well-mannered aunt and she said that she was much different from her two sisters who were nurtured by her biological parents.

Her development was influenced by her genetic makeup, health habits, exposure to stressors, lifestyle, occupation, and attitude in life. According to Maria, people who are pessimistic and gets easily discouraged live shorter than those who are willing to live despite the odds (Galena 2002). Maria’s Development in terms of Nature and Nurture theories Maria developed a quality and fulfilled life despite the difficulties encountered and negative attitudes of people around her. Based on Thorndike, Bandura, Skinner’s theories, Maria’s choices in life helped her in developing the character she has right now.

The challenges, difficulties, the desire to live a good life, good motivation form higher ups (reward and reinforcement orientation of Watson and Skinner in their Behaviorism theory), and imitating good role models, highly motivated friends and companions (based from Albert Bandura’s social learning theory), including Maria’s decision of taking up a master’s degree, etc. brought about the big changes in Maria’s life (Galena 2002). Interaction of Nature and Nurture theory in Maria’s Development By nature, Maria is an active and hard-working child.

Nurtured by a good, loving aunt and cousins who were more than brothers to her, she turns out to be what she is right now—self-fulfilled, happy, and serves as an inspiration to others. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological and Systems theory best explains the theory behind Maria’s development since she integrated the importance of her social relations to her total personality and human development. Moreover, competence-environmental press of Lawton and Nahemow is also an explanation to Maria’s adaptation to the changes in her environment (Galena 2002).

Description of Maria’s development during the World War II Maria was born after the World War II. Back then, life was simple; there were less desire but more on contentment for the people. Life before is uncomplicated unlike now. Maria was in Kindergarten before in 1950’s and she was in the first stage of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory. This explains Maria’s previous stage belonging to the sensorimotor stage at that time when Maria just used symbols and abstract reasoning. Maria narrates that she loves the people during that time.

According to her, they were peace-loving and industrious. Though they had neither modern gadgets nor advancements yet in technology, she reiterates that there would be no happier days compared to those times in her past (Watson 2009). Influences of Attachment, Self-esteem and trust issues from Early Development Because of her Maria’s good relatives, she developed her esteem and attachment to them. For not wanting to disappoint her caretakers, Maria strived to finish her studies and completed a Bachelors degree major in Elementary Education and also a Masters degree in Pre-elementary Education.

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However, during childhood, Maria has an issue of lack in esteem over her biological parents for she was often scolded and reprimanded for their authoritative and strict-natured parents. Maria developed a “sense of mistrust” to herself due to her parents’ frequent scolding. Moreover, the theory that explains Maria’s development of a sense of mistrust could be seen from Erik Erikson’s theory of childhood stages of psychosocial development (Watson 2009). Familial Support Played a Major Influence On Maria’s Psychological Development Maria was raised by poor but industrious parents who believe in the significance and value of education.

Maria’s aunt was a consistent honor student, a lover of books and because of that, Maria was exposed to a good, pleasant environment where good moral values, manners, good health and conduct counted. These made Maria and her cousins segregated from unpleasant playmates and thus, from that experience in childhood, Maria learned to choose her companions anywhere she goes: who she wants be with and work with during her adolescence and adulthood stage of development. Cultural Aspects of Maria’s Behavior From Lev Vygotsky’s view of human development, Maria could attribute her development with through the mold of her relatives and parents.

The cultural aspects and values that were handed and taught to Maria by her previous professors and peers also influenced Maria’s personality development. Upon integrating everything that Maria has learned from friends, mentors, and caretakers, Maria has come to actualize her full potential as an adult and she was able to maximize her resources by doing so. However, with regards to her present disability, Maria learned to be humble enough to accept her situation and count her blessings rather than ranting or blaming others for her life.

For that, she is still able to experience how wonderful, amusing, and beautiful it is to live and share herself to contribute to the society at large and find sense of purpose in those altruistic action (Watson 2009). Conclusion Maria was raised in an extended family environment where she was accustomed to the help that her relatives provide for her. Maria’s parents are very strict and authoritative that is why Maria formed a sense of mistrust in herself and loss of self-esteem during childhood.

Her life was explained through the various: Freud’s Psychodynamic theory, Watsons and BF Skinners’ Behaviorism, Baltes’ Selective Optimization theory with compensation, Piaget’s Cognitive theory, Bandura’s social learning theory, Bronfenbrenner’s nature/nurture or ecological and systems theory/Nahemow and Lawton’s competence-press theory, and Vygotsky’s cultural view as an influence in development. Upon interviewing Maria, it was nice realizing that she finds comfort and ease in answering the questions regarding her present and previous accounts of her experiences during her stages of development.According to Maria, the interview is self-gratifying.

Works Cited

Ojiem, Galena. 2 November 2002. Theories of Human Development: Freudian, Cognitive, Environmental and More. 13 March 2009 http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/78543/theories_of_human_developme nt_freudian. html> Santrock, J. W. (2007). Life-span development. NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. Watson, Macolm W. Theories of Development. 13 March 2009 When looking at the development of Abraham Lincoln I first wanted to look at cognitive development. Early cognitive development consists of changes in how children think about the world. The most influential theorist in this area was the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget’s early training as a biologist influenced his views. Piaget believed cognitive development is a way of adapting to the environment. Children do not have many built-in responses unlike animals. This gives them more flexibility to adapt their thinking and behavior to fit the world as they experience it at a particular age.

Lincoln’s early years were spent growing up in a log cabin and at that time no electric or running water. His father was a farmer and did carpentry for odd jobs. His mother stayed at home, but was illiterate and did not give Abraham any formal education. He did later go on to primary school where he did learn some reading and writing. It is apparent that during his formal operational stage of Piaget’s theory his ability for abstract thoughts became a very strong trait that followed him into adulthood evident by his career in Law and Politics (MacPhee, Kreutzer & Fritz, 1994).

This formal operational period is between 11 and 15 years of age. Individuals at this stage can think in abstract terms. They can formulate hypotheses, then test them mentally and accept them or reject them by how the outcome unfolds. So they are capable of going beyond the here and now to understand things in terms of cause and effect, to consider possibilities as well as realities, and to develop and use rules, principals or theories. Many think that Piaget’s theory is too formal that one would have to fall between the lines or there would be a problem.

I believe it is a format to follow as a general rule, but if someone doesn’t follow through with a stage then I do think problems down the road will happen. Maybe this could help explain Lincoln’s constant battle with depression that he suffered (Kail & Cavanaugh, 1996). Moral development is very important during childhood and adolescence. Lawrence Kohlberg studied this kind of development using stories that would later be studied that would give complex moral issues. The “Heinz dilemma” is the one most often used.

Kohlberg theorized that moral reasoning developed in stages a lot like Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Lincoln gives credit to his mother for his convictions on moral reasoning. She was very religious and gave Lincoln a very strict understanding of right and wrong until her death when he was nine. With Piaget’s theory this would have happened around the concrete operational stage when children became more flexible in their thinking and would have occurred during Kohlberg’s preconventional level of moral reasoning.

Younger children at this level base their judgments on right and wrong behavior on whether they will be rewarded or punished. A little older child will make choices on what will satisfy needs and especially their own (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2004). Eventually Lincoln would have moved into the conventional level of development that Kohlberg’s theory describes. At this level the adolescent as first defines right behavior if it pleases or helps others and is approved by them. Around mid-adolescence they would begin to consider various abstract social virtues, such as being a good citizen and respecting authority.

The third level of moral reasoning, the postconventional level requires an even more abstract form of thought. This level is marked by an emphasis on abstract principals such as justice, liberty and equality. Personal and strongly felt moral standards become the guide for deciding what is right and wrong. Clearly something Lincoln had a strong developed sense of and influenced his decision to go into public office (Rogoff & Morelli, 1998). Lincoln’s language development was clearly influenced by his family. He often referred to himself as backwoods and simple.

This was reflective of his upbringing. Children quickly pick up the vocabulary of their native language, as well as the complex rules for putting words together into sentences. There are two different theories about how language develops. One is by B. F. Skinner and the belief is that parents and other people listen to the infants cooing and babbling and reinforce or reward the baby for making those sounds that are more like adult speech. But most psychologists and linguists now believe that reinforcements alone cannot explain the speed or accuracy that they learn this language.

Noam Chomsky believes that children are born with a language acquisition device an internal mechanism for processing speech that is basically wired into the brain making language a universal process (Boyatzis, 1998). When looking at social development Lincoln didn’t really have any interaction with siblings until around nine years of age. This was when his father re-married and his new step-mother had 3 children from a previous marriage that where brought into the home.

The theory of social development has children by the time they are three as having expanded their relationships to include siblings, playmates and other children and adults outside the family unit. Lincoln was pretty much isolated by geography and a time when the population was small; outside interaction with others would have been very difficult. Social development theories assess the level of attachment or emotional bonds individuals develop. Attachment is created by hours upon hours of interaction and usually the signs show up about six months of age sometimes sooner.

Some important findings is by Konrad Lorenz who discovered that ducklings will follow the first moving object they see, regardless of whether it is their mother or something else like a human. It is when the children go off to school, as with Lincoln, that their social world is greatly expanded (Bronfenbrenner, 1977). Biological changes such as physical changes occur most dramatically in adolescence. That is a period of time during human development between roughly the ages of 10 and 20. This is a time when a person grows from a child into an adult.

A series of dramatic physical milestones brings in adolescence. The most obvious is the growth spurts. Lincoln remembers these quite well because he was so tall. They begin with the lengthening of the hands, feet, arms and legs. Abraham describes these as somewhat painful. In both sexes changes also happen in the face. The chin and nose become more prominent, lips get fuller. Increases in the size of the oil glands in the skin help acne and sweet glands make a more potent smelling secretion. The heart, lungs, and digestive system all expand (Kail & Cavanaugh, 1996).

Just as the body is changing in adolescents so are the patterns of thought. Piaget saw the cognitive advances of adolescence as a generally increased ability to reason abstractly this was called formal operational thought. They can understand and manipulate abstract concepts. Think about possible alternatives and reason in hypothetical terms. A problem with this is that some individuals become all too much into their selves and they become overconfident placing much too much importance on what they think. They do not account for other individuals’ way of thinking or thoughts.

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Piaget called these tendencies egocentrism of formal operations. It was clear in Lincoln’s life that he was more developed at this stage. He was always giving thanks to his friends who helped him to understand things like human nature and law (MacPhee & Kreutzer, 1994). Something that most young adolescents experienced and I’m sure Lincoln did too was two fallacies that David Elkind noticed about adolescents. The first is imaginary audience; this is the tendency of teenagers to feel they are constantly being observed by others, that people are always judging them on their appearance and behavior.

Lincoln would comment quite a bit on his appearance, and how everyone made fun of him as a teenager. The other is personal fable and this is the adolescents’ unique sense of self. When Lincoln first fell in love he believed that no one had ever experienced a love like this before and no one, I mean no one could ever understand. Elkind used Piaget’s belief of adolescent egocentrism to account for the two fallacies of thought. Personality and social development are a time when adolescents are eager to establish independence from their parents, but at the same time fear the responsibilities of adulthood (Boyatzis, 1998).

Compared with adolescent development, development during adulthood is much less predictable. It is much more a function of the individuals’ decisions, circumstances and luck. In adulthood there are no milestone developments that happen at a certain age like childhood. Certain experiences and changes take place sooner or later in everyone’s life, but nearly every adult tries to fulfill certain needs that include nurturing partnerships and satisfying work. Erik Erikson’s theory of this stage of human development has Lincoln, just before his assassination at 59, as being in the Generativity verses stagnation.

This happens during middle adulthood, roughly between the ages of 25 and 60. The challenge is to remain productive and creative in all aspects of your life. If Lincoln would have lived he would have passed into Erikson’s level of Integrity versus despair. This level is the beginning of old age where people must try to come to terms with death. For some this is a period of despair because of their loss of jobs, roles or even parent. But at this stage Erickson believed this stage represented an opportunity to gain full self-hood.

Lincoln, I believe would have thought too. He was often heard talking of what he called golden years he was going to spend with his wife Mary (Kagen, 1989). Erik Erikson was a psychodynamic theorist that stressed the importance of parent-child relationships on how personality is shaped. His eight stage theory is very useful and influential today. His studies are adapted to and expand Freud’s theory of the stages of personality development. Erikson agreed with much of Freud’s thinking on sexual development and the influence of this on personality.

But also important for Erikson was the quality of parent-child relationships, because the family constitutes the child’s first experience with society. He believes that only if children feel competent and valuable in their own eyes and in societies will they develop a secure sense of identity. Abraham Lincoln was very close to his family and his extended family. During the interview he spoke of them often and how his family, even poor, was really rich in his development. He gives credit to everyone and everything in how he became the man he was (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2004).

Works Cited: Boyatzis, C. J. “A Collaborative Assignment on the Role of Culture in Child Development and Education. ” Teaching of Psychology 25. 3 (1998): 195-198. Bronfenbrenner, U. “Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development. ” American Psycholgist (July, 1977): 513-531. Clark-Stewart, Alison, Perlmutter, Marion, & Friedman, Susan. Lifelong Human Development. New York: John Wiley & Son (1988) Kagen, Jerome. Unstable Ideals: Temperament, Cognition and Self. Cambridge, Mass. ; London: Harvard University Press (1989).

Kail, Robert V. & Cavanaugh, John C. Human Development. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/ Cole Publishing (1996). Kail, Robert V. & Cavanaugh, John C. Human Development: A live Span View 3rd. Ed.. Belmont, C. A. : Thomson/Wadsworth publishing (2004). MacPhee, D. , Kreutzer, J. C. & Fritz, J. J. “Infusing a Diversity perspective into Human Development Courses. ” Child Development 65 (1994): 699-715. Rogoff, B. & Morelli, G. “Perspectives on Children’s Development from Cultural psychology. American Psychologist 44 (1998): 343-348.”Ten year old Greg, listens to his younger sibling’s plea for signing a ‘Parent Confirmation Report’ for school affirming that the parent was aware about the child in question not completing his home test paper. Father is out of town, and mother is sick in bed. Greg has to think quickly as to how to react to this plea keeping in mind the dilemma of doing a wrong deed of signing a parent report without the parent’s knowledge and protecting the young one from the teacher’s wrath the next day.

He knows well, he cannot share it with the parents. Greg finally gives in to his brother’s plea just this once, but strictly warns him not to repeat this again. The next day Greg bakes a cake for his sick mother, as repentance for his wrong deed. ” According to Piaget’s theory, Greg can be said to be evolving from the second stage of Moral Realism to the third stage of Moral Relativity.

Greg is at an age appropriate stage as per this theory as he displays behavior from moral relativity stage by accepting to do a wrong deed for the sake of protecting his brother and not troubling the sick mother thereby displaying stage-appropriate behavior that rules are not fixed, and can be changed by mutual consent.

However, Greg also displays behavior from the earlier stage of moral realism by warning his brother not to repeat the act as rules are made by an authority and should be observed. He vents out his feelings of guilt by doing a special deed for his mother by baking a cake for her. According to Kohlberg’s theory, Greg displays classic behavior from the Conventional level, stage 3, the Good Boy-Girl stage. He yearns to be the good brother and good son by doing what is required of him in the dilemma.

However, he also displays some behavior of the stage 4, Law and order, that the act is wrong, and should not be repeated hereafter, thereby suggesting his transitional phase between the two stages. Greg is not displaying age appropriate behavior considering Kohlberg’s second level of reasoning develops in early adolescence. Greg seems to be at an advanced level as per this theory. References Berk, L. E. (1996). Moral development. Child Development (pp. 481-489). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.

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These physical changes are emphasized of the double-standard of aging. Men become more distinguished and women become old. Cognitive changes has to do with the way humans perceive and experience the world and deals with issues like memory, thinking and decision-making processes and concept comprehension. During middle adulthood, humans are experts at problem solving, although they begin to experience some signs of decline with speed in processing and recall. The lost mainly focuses the ability to perform tasks unlike the agility that they could exert when they are much younger. Many are losing confidence on performing the same task because their IQ or memory won’t allow them to do so.

Social changes are wherein the individuals became more aware of his being, his worth and his surrounding. They become more aware of their own mortality, the passing time and the seriousness of the physical decline. The gain is the opportunity to identify you with others and contribute time to the community. Social changes has to do with how an individual is able to handle emotions, relationships, social situations, and the various roles demanded of them by society. Some aspect of Socio/Emotional standards, such as social expectations, relationships, and roles vary from culture to culture.

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In this paper we will discuss the life span perspective of human development. Then we will summarize three theories related to human growth and development and identify at least one influential theorist for each. Then we will identify aspects of the life span perspective. Finally we will explain how heredity and the environment influence human development. There are six lifespan perspectives on human development the life expectancy (measured at birth) of American men and women, differentiated by race.

For the 2005, the latest data available, the life expectancy for men of all races is 75. 2 years and 80. 4 years for women. Life-long which is no age period dominated development. Multi-dimensional that development is about biological, cognitive, socioemotional and spiritual dimensions. Multidirectional is some aspects of development increase while other decrease. Plastic is depending on one life conditions and what development paths our body takes. Historically-embedded is development influenced by historical conditions.

Multidisciplinary is psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientist and medical researchers all study human development and share different concerns. Contextual is the individual continually responds to and act on context. According to (Hernandez, 2008) “The lifespan perspective is about understanding that changes occur in every period of development and these changes must be looked at as a product of the culture and of the specific situation surrounding the change. ” There are a lot of things that define lifespan but one perspective is life-long. Life is not dominated by one moment or period in your life.

According to experts, the life span perspective of human development involves three key developmental domains (Hernandez, 2008). These are the physical domain, the cognitive domain, and the social domain. The physical domain deals with the physical changes that a person goes through. For example, height, shape changes, weight fluctuations, and puberty can all be described as changes that happen in the physical domain. Here are three theories: Freud’s psychosexual development theory, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development and Havighurst’s developmental stage and tasks.

* What influence me about Freud’s view is I believe there is some truth that in some way we all have sexual impulses repressed. But on the other hand I believe that Erikson view about we learn to be assertive and learn to be create is also true. Finally Havighurst of development tasks are based on personal independence stages. Lifespan perspective is contextual meaning “the individual continually responds to and acts on contexts, which include a person’s biological makeup, physical environment, and social, historical, and cultural contexts” (Santrock, 1999).

The heredity and the environment influence human development is how researchers tend to be interested in dimensions that determined by genetics. For example, Javier has two biological daughters who share the same biological mother. Both are tall, well mannered, and musically inclined. Despite these similarities, the older child appears socially reserved and quiet, while the younger one, who was born into the same family environment, seems more outgoing. In addition, one of his children has been diagnosed with a learning disability while the other seems exceptionally well-functioning cognitively.

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You must understand that nature versus nurture, heredity is in your genealogy their no way to change it accept your lifestyle choices-drinking-smoking and doing drugs will affect all organs muscles and brain functions leading down the path to cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema, hallucinations, depression, suicidal thoughts and so on, eat healthy exercise and get a genealogy test done of your immediately family to see what if any “diseases” carry over to your blood line.

Grandparents-mother and father of both and siblings-slap stepmothers and stepchildren as well as aunts and uncles-with or without children. * In this paper we discussed the life span perspective of human development. Then we summarized three theories related to human growth and development and identify at least one influential theorist for each of them. Then we identify aspects of the life span perspective. Finally we explained how heredity and the environment influence human development. * * * * * * * * * * * * * Reference 1. Bowen, J. R. (2011). Infant Social Development.

Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com 2. http://social. jrank. org/pages/300/Heredity-Versus-Environment. html#ixzz1HJ4qvhaS 3. Santrock, (1999). The Lifespan perspective on Human Development. Retrieved from http://www. sasked. gov 4. Hernandez, (2008). Heredity Versus Environment-The Nature-nurture controversy exploring heredity and environment: Research methods, beyond heritability. Retrieved from http://social. jrank. org 5. : Life Expectancy at Birth by Race and Sex, 1930–2005 — Infoplease. com http://www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0005148. html#ixzz1HMEhhXPX *.

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