Health Care Essay
Chapter 1 Scarcely a news report goes by that does not address the number one health concern in the United States, obesity. Obesity has long been a concern of the healthcare industry, and the focus on children is increasing. Obesity is considered the number one health risk for children in the United States today. Research demonstrates it is not only a concern but one that is now reaching epidemic proportions. The number of children who are overweight has doubled in the last two to three decades; currently, one child in five is overweight.
Research further indicates that if a child is overweight at age 6, his or her likelihood of adult obesity is more than 50 percent. Obesity presents numerous health problems for children; hypertension and Type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, stress on weight-bearing joints, low self-esteem, and the risk for chronic health problems in adulthood. One of the most severe problems is sleep apnea (interrupted breathing while sleeping), which, in some cases, can lead to problems with learning and memory. (Blasi, 2003) Problem Statement, Purpose and Rationale
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic in recent years, with more than 9 million children labeled obese, and the decrease in physical education requirements may be affecting the health of children. Children need to maintain a regular rate of physical activity to maintain optimal health and this activity should be present in the physical education program. The purpose of this study is to determine if participating in a routine exercise program can help reduce excess weight and maintain optimal fitness, by designing and implementing a daily fitness program for students.
Obesity is defined as body weight, which is more than normal for a particular age, gender, and height. Obesity can be measured through BMI (Body Mass Index) calculations that are based on a person’s height and weight. Obesity is the end result of a person taking in more calories than they expend in a day. Even a small imbalance between energy input and output can lead to significant weight gain over time. Most obese children demonstrate a slow but consistent weight gain over several years. Eating too much and moving around too little are the main causes of obesity.
Most experts agree that watching excessive amounts of television is a significant risk factor associated with obesity. Research has demonstrated that almost half of children ages 8-16 years watch three to five hours of television daily. Extreme cases of obesity are generally contributed to inactive children, eating too many snacks with a high fat content. (Blasi, 2003) Possible Causes The simple answer to the problem of childhood obesity is more calories are taken in than are expended in a day, which when accumulates results in obesity.
However there are a variety of factors that affect and may contribute to obesity and the solution may be as complex. Increasing physical activity to meet or exceed daily dietary intake is something that people can control and therefore have an impact. This study will focus on the increase in physical activity for students and monitor their progress throughout the duration of the study. There is no longer a question about whether or not childhood obesity exists. It does. Environmental conditions, such as television, video games, and computers can have an influence if children don’t take part in other physical activities.
Certainly, the increase in fast food diets and the intake of sugar has an impact on a child’s weight, particularly if not balanced with other foods and activities. Soft drinks have become a mainstay in the daily diet of American children. A recent long-term research study examined soda consumption and its effect on children’s body weight. The study found that “for each additional daily serving of a sugar-sweetened soft drink, the incidence of obesity was significantly increased.
Researchers also discovered that the odds of becoming obese increased 1. 6 times for each additional glass of sugar-sweetened soft drink consumed above the daily average. ” (Blasi, 2003) In 1998, The National Association for Sport and Physical Education issued guidelines stating that young children should strive for 60 minutes of physical activity each day to promote health and well-being. Clearly, this is a valuable goal for both children and adults, but may not be the only contributing factor for obesity.
The factors that contributing to obesity are complex, and can include economic, social, cultural, behavioral, nutritional, psychological, and genetic factors. However, individual differences make it unclear the extent to which each of these factors contributes to obesity. An individual’s genetic makeup combined with the environment in which the person lives may have an impact. Eating and activity patterns have been shown to be consistently related to obesity. These are also the two factors that we can most readily have an impact on. (Blasi, 2003)
Most states require students to participate in some type of physical education program, the time spent in physical education declines with each subsequent grade. “About one third (39. 7 percent) of elementary schools require physical education in kindergarten, one half (50 percent) of elementary schools require physical education in grades 1 through 5, one fourth (25 percent) in grade 8, and only 5 percent in grade 12. ” (Garbe & Hoote, 2004) This is in conflict with recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).
The AAP recommends that K-12 students have daily opportunities for physical education. The National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) backed this notion with the development of guidelines, stating that elementary school students should have at least 150 minutes per week of physical education and at least 225 minutes per week when they reach middle/ junior and senior high school. The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS), conducted in 2000, found that only 8 percent of elementary schools, 6. 4 percent of middle/junior high schools, and 5. percent of senior high schools provide daily physical education for the entire school year for all grades. (Garbe & Hoote, 2004)
Both the school environment and the family environment must absorb the responsibility for childhood obesity. While the school cafeteria provides food choices, the physical education program determines the time allocated to physical activity, and the school curriculum controls opportunities to learn about the relationship between personal behaviors and health. Away from school, the family environment strongly influences child health.
Chapter Two Literature Review According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15 percent of young people in the United States are overweight, defined as a body weight at or above the 95th percentile on Body Mass Index-for-age percentiles. An additional 15 percent of children (those above the 85th percentile) are classified as being “at risk of overweight. ” The health risks of obese children cannot be overstated. The risks in terms of physical health include hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and increased risk of obesity in adulthood.
The cumulative effects of obesity don’t stop there. “Obesity also exerts a heavy psychological toll on children: the likelihood of impaired quality of life for obese children is 5. 5 times greater than for healthy children. ” (Anderson & Butcher) Increasing childhood obesity is related to increasing adult obesity. Although the obese share of the population is expected to increase with age, obesity today is increasing with age more quickly than it did thirty years ago. (Anderson & Butcher, 2006)
Although a public school cafeteria has not traditionally provided the healthiest of meals, the problems continue to grow with the introduction of fast foods, such as McDonalds, Taco Belle and Pizza Hut, to the lunch offerings. “In addition, hundreds of under-funded school districts have negotiated “pouring rights” contracts to sell brands of soda and allow young people easy access to vending machines during recess breaks. Soda consumption among adolescents has nearly tripled between 1977-78 and 1994. ” A 12-ounce serving of carbonated soda contains the equivalent of 10 teaspoons of sugar.
Soda consumption has been shown to be an independent risk factor for obesity in children. In addition to sodas becoming readily available during school time, vending machines are present in a majority of schools. (Staveren & Dale, 2004) Currently, there are minimal opportunities for children to be physically active during school time. Recent budget cuts have resulted in cuts to physical education. Physical Education is necessary if children are going to maintain a healthy body weight and good health.
Children should receive at least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, of age-appropriate exercise on all or most days of the week. Few schools offer any structured physical activity outside of the physical education classes. (Staveren & Dale, 2004) Simply adding physical education opportunities may not be enough to make significant impact or reduction in childhood obesity. Children who are obese are not comfortable in the physical education class. Not only is it physically challenging, but embarrassing as well.
Obese children may feel more vulnerable in the physical education class than they do anywhere else in the school. Due to the number of overweight and obese children, it is obvious that physical education programming needs to be restructured and adapted to suit this population. An obese child is not going to benefit from being made to run laps that they are not physically capable of doing. Physical Education may have to take more of an individual approach with students, helping them to identify goals, and then designing a fitness plan to meet those goals.
More wellness information should be incorporated into the curriculum, benefiting all children. The competitive nature of physical education needs to be re-evaluated in order to meet the needs of obese children. Focus should be place on health. Physical education instructors will also need to motivate children, and finding activities that they enjoy and then building on those may provide the motivation necessary. (Irwin, et. Al. , 2003) Physical educators are confronting a growing need for developmentally appropriate movement education among very young children.
Children are more sedentary and more obese, on average than their counterparts 20 years ago, and they need to develop. movement skills and habits for healthy, active lifestyles. (Helm & Boos, 1996) Researchers at the University of California at San Diego tried to determine how excess weight affects obese children and their ability to perform normal activities. The study, surveyed 106 obese children (57 boys and 49 girls; average BMI of 34. 7) between the ages of 5 and 18 years.
They were asked questions such as whether they ever experienced problems due to participating in physical activities, bathing themselves, other kids not wanting to be their friends, or being unable to pay attention during class. The interview also asked how often they felt depressed or worried and whether they ever missed school because they did not feel well. The results of each interview were graded on a scale of 100 and then compared to the published data on healthy children and children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy or had chemotherapy recently.
The average score for obese children (67) was drastically lower than healthy children (83) and even slightly less than children with cancer (69). The biggest difference in the scores between the obese children and the other two groups was related to their social functioning–20 points lower than the healthy group and 9 points lower than the children with cancer. One major reason obese children had lower scores in this area is because they get picked on and teased at school, while children with cancer usually receive sympathy.
More often than not, the obese children had a physical or emotional problem: 65 percent had at least one medical condition, 37 percent had high cholesterol or a similar condition, 13 percent had either depression or anxiety, and 4 percent had diabetes. It may be due to these complications that obese children are on average absent from school four days a month, while healthier children miss on average less than a day a month. (JOPERD, 2003) A growing need in physical education is to help young people enjoy the rewards of exercise through participation.
This need could be addressed by teaching students the health benefits derived from maintaining active lifestyles. Additionally, physical educators could emphasize the results of exercise which appeal to young people, such as improved physical appearance. For example, improved physical appearance can be included in a discussion of body fat reduction. This exercise benefit should not be the only focus of the discussion, but could certainly be a part of it. (Douthitt & Harvey, 1995)
Health Care Essay
1a. What model of healthcare does the US and your chosen country have (Japan)? Be very specific. The United States has a healthcare system that is different from almost every country in the world. I would call the United States health care system a hybrid type system. I would call our system a hybrid because we fall into almost every type of category possible when it comes to health care; for instance, people who are uninsured have to pay out-of-pocket when they want to see a doctor versus someone who is insured and only has to pay a deductable.
Many companies in the United States offer free medical care for employers, or they make health care insurance fairly cheap to afford. Unlike many countries our healthcare system is a little rocky. Insurance companies can drop you for being to high risk leaving you stranded to find another insurance company or leaving you to pay out-of-pocket. Our system has forced many of our fellow citizens homeless, or with masses amount of debt. Japan on the other hand has a Universal healthcare, in which everyone is covered up to 70% of the cost.
Japan’s healthcare is much cheaper than hear in America because in Japan, it is accustom to their culture that a family member acts as a nurse, in which they help assist with the patient. In Japan, they have separate hospital beds in the room for a person from the family to sleep in. The family member acts like a nurse by providing food, cleaning, and changing sheet just to name a few. People from Japan who are employed but do not receive health coverage from their company, can participate in a national health insurance program offered and controlled by their government.
People in Japan cannot be denied coverage unlike our healthcare in America, and by law Japans hospitals have to be a non-profit hospital which is run by physicians. 1b. In 10 sentences or less [emphasis on less], describe the Beveridge, Bismarck, National Health Insurance and Out-of-Pocket models. The Beveridge model is named after William Beveridge and was designed/implemented in Britain’s National Health Service. This system is funded by the government through tax payments, similar to how a public library works.
According to PBS, “Bismarck-type health insurance plans have to cover everybody, and they don’t make a profit. Doctors and hospitals tend to be private in Bismarck countries”(Health care system–the four basic models, 2008. ). “Universal health care is a term that refers to a governmental system meant to ensure that every citizen or resident of a region has access to the required medical services”(What is universal health care, 2003-2013). According to TLC, “An out-of-pocket expense is a no reimbursable expense paid by a patient.
This could include any medical benefits that your health plan doesn’t consider “covered services. ” But out-of-pocket expenses can also include covered expenses that you are responsible for before your health-plan benefits kick in at 100 percent coverage. When the insurance company pays all of your expenses and you have to pay only your monthly premium, you have reached the out-of-pocket maximum”(Jeffries, M. , 2013). 2a. What types of healthcare plans are available in each country? You must discuss each in detail.
The US has managed care plans [Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Exclusive Provider Organizations, Point of Service Plans], and indemnity coverage as well as Medicaid and Medicare and your country’s plan so you need to touch on them all in order to be detailed in your response. The United States has a managed care plan; managed care is used to help control cost. For instance, lets say you are rushed to the hospital, the first thing they EMT’s will ask you regardless how hurt you are “do you have insurance”.
It is sad that the United States has such a terrible health care system. The United States utilizes HMO, which is health maintenance organization, this plans limits the amount of doctors you can see. This is where a person pays a monthly premium in exchange they are covered for hospital visits, pediatric care, x-rays, and many other services our health care has to offer. The person who utilizes this plan generally has to pay co-pay, which the cost varies depending on the type of plan you have. Many people like this type of plan because when you go to the doctor you don’t need to fill out claim forms.
Members show a card when they go to the doctor or hospital. The downfall to this plan is that you might have to wait longer in the waiting room. Another plan the United States has is called point-of-service plan. This plan allows the members of the plan to refer themselves to an outside plan and still be able to obtain some coverage. A doctor can also make a referral out of the network and in-turn the health care plan will pay for most if not the entire bill. A preferred provider organization is another type of plan offered by the United States.
Just like the health maintenance organization, the preferred provider organization limits you to the number of doctors you can see, but when you do find the right doctor most of your medical bills are covered. The preferred provider organization requires you to choose a primary care physician in order to monitor your health care. If you elect to go to a doctor who is not part of this plan, some of the medical expenses are covered. I deem some people like this plan because if their primary care doctor is not part of the plan, they don’t have to change doctors.
According to Health Insurance. Info “An Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO) is a network of individual medical care providers, or groups of medical care providers, who have entered into written agreements with an insurer to provide health insurance to subscribers. In EPO, medical care providers enter a mutually beneficial relationship with an insurer. The insurer reimburses an insured subscriber only if the medical expenses are derived from the designated network of medical care providers.
The established network of medical care providers in turn provide subscribed patients medical services at significantly lower rates than what would have been under normal circumstances. In exchange for reduced rates of medical services, medical care providers get a steady stream of business”(Exclusive provider organization, 2010. ). Japan has a national health insurance plan; this plan for people who are not covered by their employer. You can obtain this health care plan by living in Japan for a year. Japan does have universal health coverage as well, but this plan varies between each individual.
Some factors that affect this plan are: visiting, studying, working, your age just to name a few. Your premium that you pay depends on your salary you make for the year, so the cost varies for every individual. In Japan their health care system provides free examinations for specific diseases, infectious diseases and parental care. The government pays up to 70% of the cost for every citizen and foreigners who have lived in the country for a year or longer. Japan has an awesome health care plan compared to the United States, and I deem this is why their economy is flourishing and they have one of the healthiest populations in the world.
People in Japan have a longer life expectancy compared to any other county in the world; I deem this is due to the bombing health care, their life style choices, and knowledge. 3a. What alternatives are available if an individual loses their healthcare due to job loss? In the US there is more than one alternative. Please be specific for each country. People in Japan are covered no matter what happens to their job. They have a universal health care system in which their government pays up to 70% of their entire cost for any medical bill.
People, who don’t have a job, hardly have to pay any coverage when they are ill no matter how severe their condition is. Unlike Japan, in the United States you generally will loose your health benefits, or you will have till the end of the month to utilize it. Some employers will allow you to have your benefits for 26 weeks, which is ample time to find another job with health benefits. You will have to file a claim through your place of work in order to do this action. 4a. The storage of healthcare records are evolving? Describe what EHR, EMR and the cloud are with respect to this evolving technology.
We want to see a minimum of five points per explanation. “An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be created, managed, and consulted by authorized clinicians and staff across more than one health care organization”(What is emr and ehr, 2013. ). EHR’s has some great benefits, one great benefit it has over paper records is that it can notify a doctor or physician that a patient is due for a routine check up. Another benefit is that it makes it almost virtually impossible to loose or misplace someone’s records.
I like the fact that you can call your doctor and ask them to just simply print and mail you your medical records with all of your medical history; it makes it much easier for a patient to access. I deem one day that doctors will be able to email, or have an app where a patient can access their medical records electronically just for viewing or printing purposes. According to Healthit. gov “An electronic medical record (EMR) is a digital version of a paper chart that contains all of a patient’s medical history from one practice.
An EMR is mostly used by providers for diagnosis and treatment”(What is an electronic medical record, 2012. ). This is not as beneficial in my opinion as EHR’s are. The reason I feel this way is because EMR’s can only access medical files from one practice. Many people have more than one doctor such as an eye doctor, physician, and even a dentist. All these different practices utilize some sort of medical history that you have compiled over a certain time span. The cloud is a database where every doctor you encounter can access you files. Many people have mixed views about this so called “cloud”.
From a doctors point of view it is great! They can see your medical history for every doctor you have been to. Some people may deem this to be a violation of HIPPA. Many people find it an invasion to their privacy and why would a physician need access to any of my other files. One benefit is doctors can see specific medicines you maybe allergic to that you may have for got to inform them about. 5a. What problems are associated with each country’s healthcare plan(s)? Details please. The United States health care system has many flaws; one is hospitals tend to over price patients.
I learned from my Health Law and Ethics class, that some hospitals charge unnecessary charges such as $10. 00 for a cup they carry you medicine in. If you are in the hospital for some time that really adds up quickly! Another flaw our health care system has is over spending on testing. Our country spends more money on test with their patients than any other country. I read an article that a patient was experiencing heart burn constantly and rather than giving a $1,200 stress test (way over priced if you ask me) the doctor charged the patient with a $8,000 CT scan.
Many insurance companies will not accept a patient who has had previous records of specific diseases or any chronic condition in fear that they will have to pay too much for their care. If a person who is young and can’t qualify for Medicare, Medicade, and does not have company medical benefits, they have to pay out of pocket. Japan is known for having one of the most superior health care systems in the world. One flaw that it has is a surprisingly high suicide rate. One study showed that these suicides were due to health problems. Japan has a high cancer rate because of the obsessive smoking and drinking in their country.Leaders are the key people for any organization’s success, for they play an important role in directing and influencing how employees work. Leaders have a lot to do in order to promote healthy behavior by employees for instance in a health organization, leaders need to influence workers in away such that they maintain their healthy behavior at hand. Since health is a very sensitive issue, it needs a lot of concentration as pertains the behaviors of the employees. Leaders need to effect financial incentives to the workforce to encourage health behavior.
This incentive tends to upgrade the health of the employee through reduction in the risk that he/she would have faced. This also have an impact on the target and efficiency on the output. For a health organization for instance, workers will produce better result for they are comfortable. There should be provision of tools that encourage safety and wellness. This helps to improve the health of the worker throughout the working period. With general fitness, the worker is healthy at the same time able to behave well when it comes to delivering, urgency and proficiency.
Leaders need to involve senior management in promoting emotional health and productivity. Since the management is the one that is much close to the workforce and are the ones implementing strategies, in campaigning for this will make it possible for the out come to be a good healthy behavior from the work force. Leaders need to offer economic incentives for the betterment of the lives of the workers. When it comes to economic wellbeing, one needs to access social amenities with ease.
When assisting workers in their workload as providers of their houses through gaining from the economies of scale the health organization gets, workers will access appliances easily thus enabling them to get what they need utmost cheaply. This will make their life well as they have the full diet affordably thus better health. Better health leads to better behavior. Leaders need to educate employees on safety at work. This tends to ensure they get to know how to handle things with care as health organization tend to operate with lots of risky items.
With their knowledge on this, they will tend to observe correct protocol with respect thus remaining discipline. With correct protocol follower, they will never be infected thus which means they are adhering to the healthy behavior taught by the responsible body. Health care is a broad field that deals with lives of individuals. For the preparation of interviews, many areas need to be covered for the exact and discrete information to be unveiled. For my analysis, I will consider my interview questions directed to the health care interviewees. It will be categorized into five major items that need to be emphasized on.