Health Belief Model Essay
Health belief model is a framework for nurses to utilize for education in health promotion. It investigates the individual’s willingness to adapt, the individual’s recognition in expressing the necessity in adjusting, and comprehending the advantages of physical and mental wellness changes. Nurses can play a vital role in influencing an individual in making instantaneous and perhaps lasting behavioral health modification. Smoking is one of the most crucial life threatening issues that society face. Smoking cessation to improve one’s health is as an example on how to encourage individuals in making behavior changes. Initially, it is essential for a nurse to assess an individual normal or average smoking pattern in a day. It also important to know how long they have been smoking, to assess their willingness to learn. Long-time smokers may disregard or may be more non-compliant with teaching because of thinking that damage has already been done. (Porter, 2013).
Information will be provided on disease processes related to this lifestyle, such as heart disease and multiple lung diseases. A nurse has to explore an individual’s knowledge resulting to continued tobacco use. Understanding of patient’s behavior and own knowledge of the chosen lifestyle gives a nurse a clear education plan on what needs to be included with health promotion. If a patient is not aware of his or her risk factors for a disease, teaching should be directed towards informing the individual about the personal risk factor. If the individual is aware of the risk, but feel that the behavior change is overwhelming, you can focus your teaching in helping the individual overcome the barriers. Comprehension of overall behavior and circumstances that influence a patient’s decision-making is important. It helps in effective planning of suitable interventions for an individual to promote health and wellness and an effective plan of care.
Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, Carole, Elizabeth, Carol. Health Promotion throughout the Life Span. 7th Edition. Mosby, 2010. VitalBook file. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books
Porter, A. (2013). The Role of the Advanced Practice Nurse in Promoting Smoking Cessation in the Adult Population.MEDSURG Nursing, 22(4), 264-268.Using either the health belief model or the health promotion model, identify its major concepts and assumptions. Explain how the family nurse can design care for families using one of the models. The Health Belief Model correlates culture with the individuals understanding of the severity of the illness and susceptibility. If an individual does not perceive the severity and susceptibility as a threat, the individual will not act or seek healthcare. Cultural beliefs and practices will influence the patients’ perception of healthcare and their perception of promoting health and preventing illness, therefore, determining the type of behavior they will exhibit (motivation vs. resistance). According to Friedman, Bowden, and Jones (2003), “The most comprehensive scheme for looking at disease prevention and illness detection behavior is the Health Belief Model” (p. 431). Four ideas function as the main concepts of the Health Belief Model: susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers (Erkin & Ozsoy, 2012 p. 32).
Susceptibility is the individual’s perceived vulnerability to illness or chronic condition. Seriousness is the person’s belief about the severity of a disease or condition. Benefits and barriers are the positive and negative actions perceived by an individual that either support or hinder healthcare. Focusing on the main concepts identified in the model will help the nurse to form a plan of care that is individualized to the family’s specific needs. For example, a family that does not perceive that they are likely to get diabetes due to their genetics and physical health may not embrace a change in their nutritional culture to lose excess weight.
The family may not perceive any benefits of eating healthier and may even find barriers to being able to eat healthier such as cost and ability to obtain healthy foods. The nurse should evaluate the family for possible referrals to community services available to them as well as educating the family on diabetes causes & risks, healthy nutrition, and prevention of diabetes. The family nurse should assess and identify health care vulnerabilities and assist with planning lifestyle changes, taking into consideration family culture, values, and beliefs (Friedman, Bowden, & Jones, 2003). Providing education, statistics, and confronting lifestyle choices can help alter individual disease perception.
Erkin, O., Ozsoy, S. (2012). Validity and reliability of health belief model applied to influenza. Academic Research International, 2(3), 31-40.
Friedman, M. M., Bowden, V. R., Jones, E. G. (2003). Family nursing: Research, theory, and practice (5th ed.). Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle, NJ
Health Belief Model Essay
Using the health belief model, how can the nurse encourage a patient, who is status post myocardial infarction, to make immediate and permanent behavior changes in his or her eating habits and activity levels especially when the patient views these changes to be insurmountable? Provide a nursing diagnosis with interventions and outcomes to assess the patient’s behavior changes.
First the nurse would have to determine the patient’s understanding of what and how behavior changes can affect his recovery. The nurse could then develop a plan based on this information. Once a teaching plan is developed, the nurse could then divide the plan into small steps that the patient can take and build upon in time so that the task does not overwhelm the patient. For example, the nurse addresses the need for a low salt diet not by telling the patient he cannot enjoy any salty food but that he can modify his diet to gradually decrease his salt intake and by replacing salt with a salt substitute. The nurse will further need to explain the effect of salt on his damaged heart and what it could mean if action is not taken.
This would use the health belief model in that it has explained to the patient what health related action needs to be taken in order to avoid a negative health condition (University, 2012). Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping related to inadequate levels of confidence in ability to cope as evidenced by patient’s statement “I just don’t know how I am going to do all of this”. Client Outcome/Goal: patient demonstrates and verbalizes the ability to cope, patient sets and achieves goal made, patient able to maintain goals regarding diet and exercise Nursing Interventions: Help patient set realistic goals, encourage patients to participate in goal setting, development, encourage family participation in patient education
Ackley, MSN, EdS, RN, B. J., & Ladwig, MSN, RN CHTP, HNC, G. B. (2002). Nursing diagnosis handbook (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Health belief model. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenowerzicht/theoryclusters/healthcommunitcation/health_belief_model.doc
Health Belief Model Essay
The health belief model is a useful tool in health education as it assesses the patient’s perception of the disease process on their lives and their readiness to make changes in their lives based on those perceptions. A patient who is s/p MI must make dietary and activity level adjustments to their lives and can make the patient feel overwhelmed at the mountain of lifestyle changes heading their way (Eldeman & Mandle, 2010). Using the health belief model, the nurse can assess the current dietary and activity habits of the patient, their perception of the severity of the condition requiring lifestyle changes, and together with the patient, formulate a plan consisting of multiple small changes that yield healthy results, while encouraging the patient to see the benefits of altering their lifestyle.
Patients are more likely to make necessary changes when they perceive the outcomes as personally beneficial, and making several, small changes, such as using fresh green beans instead of canned to decrease the sodium intake, helps the patient to feel more in control and gives them confidence by decreasing the overwhelming feelings that large changes can invoke. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for this patient would be: Anxiety related to changes in environment and routines and as evidenced by expressions of inadequacy in make necessary changes (Gulanick, 2007). Appropriate interventions would be :
Assess the patient’s readiness to learn, current lifestyle habits, knowledge of health condition, and desired learning mode (i.e. visual, auditory, kinesthetic). Allow the patient to express fears and concerns regarding the lifestyle changes. Develop, with the patient, a strategy for making lifestyle changes building on small short term goals, such as cooking techniques, dietary substitutions to currently enjoyed foods, simple exercise techniques easily incorporated into lifestyle. Provide resource material and/or support groups for patient to utilize once at home. Outcomes for assessing behavior changes:
Patient accurately describes health condition and necessary lifestyle changes. Patient accurately describes techniques for implementing lifestyle changes. Patient expresses confidence in making required lifestyle changes. References
Edelman, Mandle, C. (2010). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (7th ed). Mosby. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/books/9780323056625/id/B9780323056625000103_p0935 Gulanick, M. (2007). Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (6th ed). C.V. Mosby. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/books/0-323-03954-5/2/10