Health and Social Care Essay

1.1 A list of the key legislation relating to health and safety in a social care setting – Health and safety at work Act 1974

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation 1999

Health and Safety (First aid) Regulation 1981 include amendment on 2009 The electricity at work regulations 1989

Manual handling Operations Regulations 1992

Reporting of injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 Communicable diseases and infection control

Working Time Regulations 1998

Care Standard Act 2000

Control of exposure to Hazardous to Health 1999

Food safety act 1990

Food Hygiene Regulations 2005

Environmental protection act 1990

1.2 The health and safety at work Act 1974 is the main piece of legislation that covers work related health and safety in the workplace. The main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer are minimum handling and lifting. Ensure handling and lifting is carried out correctly and safely. Making sure all materials/equipment that is needed to be used is handled, stored and used safely. You would need to be aware of any potential hazards and risks and know how to reduce the liability of any accidents occurring. To be responsible for your own welfare and the welfare of others you are looking after. To wear the correct PPE at all times.

1.3 My main health and safety responsibilities are to analyse the responsibility to take care of own health and safety. I have to understand and apply relevant legislation and agreed ways of working. I have to keep my relevant training updated. I would need to work well with others and use all equipment correctly. My Employers main responsibilities are to ensure health, safety and welfare of all their employees. They would need to produce a written policy statement explaining how they intend to do this. Consult with union reps and protect others such as their contractors and visitors My colleague’s main responsibilities are to take care not to put themselves and others at risk and to co-operate with the employers arrangements for ensuring health and safety.

There are many types of accidents and sudden illnesses for example; cuts and burns in the kitchen, falls, back injuries through poor lifting techniques, strokes, heart attacks, diabetic emergencies, asthma attack and allergic reactions are some that can occur.

If an accident or sudden illness occurs you would have to ensure and maintain safety for individuals concerned and others for example clearing the area, safely moving equipment if possible, remaining calm, sending for help, assessing the individual for injuries, administering basic first aid if necessary and if trained to do so, staying with the injured/sick individual until help arrives, observing and noting any changes in condition, providing a full verbal report to relevant medical services or others, completing a full written report and relevant documentation for example an accident report, incident report. You would need to understand the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working for the work setting.

Understanding how infection can spread for example airborne, direct contact, indirect contact. Hand hygiene, food hygiene procedures and the disposal of wastes will help to minimise the spread of infection. It is important to communicate these procedures as it will help reduce the spread of infection. Use procedures such as posters and notices to encourage people to act on reducing the spread of infection.

1. The Task Does the activity involve twisting, stooping, bending, excessive travel, pushing, pulling or precise positioning of the load, sudden movement, inadequate rest or recovery periods, team handling or seated work 2. The Individual Does the individual require unusual strength or height for the activity, are they pregnant, disabled or suffering from a health problem. Is specialist knowledge or training required? 3. The Load Is the load heavy, unwieldy, difficult to grasp, sharp, hot, cold, difficult to grip, are the contents likely to move or shift 4. The Environment Are there space constraints, uneven, slippery or unstable floors, variations in floor levels, extremely hot, cold or humid conditions, poor lighting, poor ventilation, gusty winds, clothing or Personal Protective Equipment that restricts movement

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The Manual Handling Operations Regulations These Regulations state that employers should adopt a hierarchy of control measures: To avoid hazardous Manual Handling Operations so far as is reasonably practicable To assess any hazardous Manual Handling Operation that cannot be avoided To reduce the risk of injury so far as is reasonably practicable

Hazardous Substances are used in many workplaces and take many different forms. Solids, liquids, gases, mists and fumes can be present in the workplace. Exposure to hazardous substances can affect the body in many different ways. Skin contact, inhalation and ingestion can cause damage.

To help prevent fires from starting you need to be aware of electrical appliances and equipment for example not overloading power sockets, checking for worn or faulty wiring, unplugging appliances when not in use, keeping electrical appliances away from water and never put anything metal in a microwave. You also need to be aware of heating devices, such as, using approved covers on heaters and radiators, ensuring heaters are switched off or fully guarded at night. You need also be aware of naked flames, matches, lighters and in a smoking area making sure cigarettes are fully extinguished.

To prevent fires from spreading you need to understand how fires can start and spread (the fire triangle of ignition, fuel and oxygen). You have to check electrical appliances regularly, have frequent staff training and vigilance in the work place. Fire doors need to be kept shut and smoke alarms should be checked regularly.

Emergency procedures if a fire occurs are to set off the nearest fire alarm, raise awareness to all the staff, call the fire brigade and go to the evacuation meeting area. Know how to use the fire extinguishers, fire blankets and other fire safety equipment. Make sure all fire doors are shut at all times, do not take lifts and know where the fire exits are. You need to make sure nothing is blocking the fire exits. Keep the residents calm and reassured and show them to the evacuation area.

Other people always must know of my whereabouts in the care home, particularly my supervisor and the manager. Because if I am needed then I can be called, also to protect me in case I am in danger. Also, if there was a fire at the home everyone needs to be accounted for and valuable time would be lost if the management did not know where I was in the home at that particular time.

Emotional symptoms

Negative or depressive feeling

Disappointment with yourself

Increased emotional reactions – more tearful or sensitive or aggressive Loneliness, withdrawn

Loss of motivation commitment and confidence

Mood swings (not behavioural)


Confusion, indecision

Cannot concentrate

Poor memory

Changes from your normal behaviour

Changes in eating habits

Increased smoking, drinking or drug taking ‘to cope’

Mood swings affecting your behaviour

Changes in sleep patterns

Twitchy, nervous behaviour

Changes in attendance such as arriving later or taking more time off

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Signs that indicate own stress are as follows, changes in routine, dealing with difficult situations, pressure to meet targets, interpersonal relationships with others, expectations from manager, demands of working unsocial hours, financial problems and family problems could all affect a person and make them feel stressed.

There are many things that can help you to manage stress for example, joining a gym or going for runs as exercise releases endorphins, relaxation techniques, listening to music, meeting up with family and friends, following hobbies you enjoy and so on.

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Health and Social Care Essay


The aim of this essay is to review and learn about the perspectives of health and well-being, perspective measures and job roles, factors affecting health and well being, and to do a health promotion campaign. To do this we will look in books and on the internet to research each of these then once we have a good knowledge of them we will produce a campaign to teach to people on a health promotion topic.

Defining Health

I am doing first part of the essay on health and how people define it. To do this I will be handing out questionnaires and looking through my class notes and reviewing them.

There are many definitions of health, but the way you define it depends on the person e.g. “Being without illness.” this means to have no illnesses or diseases, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” this statement is trying to say you don’t just have to have an illness to be unwell it also depends on your social and mental state, and how you feel about yourself (W.H.O. 1948), “Just being happy.” this statement is just saying your healthy if your happy with yourself and your life, “Health is the extent to which an individual I wear skirts or group is able, on the one hand to realise aspiration and needs; and on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore seen as a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is positive concept emphasing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.” (W.H.O. 1986) etc. (All of these are from class notes)

However these views have a negative and positive point side to them such as “Being without illness” which is negative, because it’s just saying, if you not injured or you don’t have and illness your in good health, but it also depends on a persons state of mind, and how the truly feel about themselves also this is a bit to straight forward, and in considerate of all the other aspects of health (PI.E.S.) because it just says it in a more scientific way (bio-medical – see the body as a machine).

Another view on health is “Being fit. Being the correct weight and height for your age. Feeling well in your self” (Appendix 2) these is a positive and negative view on health because it sees the fact that you can be unhealthy but still be happy and feel good.

Bio-medial Model of Health

This model of health dominates all other models of health. The Bio-medical or scientific model of health is when you see the body as a machine, so if it’s broken it can be fixed by repairing the damaged part e.g.

Car Person

Car wont start Person feels ill

Call garage Go to G.P.

Service Examination

Diagnosis Diagnosis

Mended Treatment offered

Car runs Feeling better

(Health and social care ocr: a. fisher etc.: p 78)

This form of health doesn’t focus on the mind or the social circumstance; it focuses on understanding how a disease works or how the person can be cured. An example of some one using this form of health care is when a doctor and other qualified people decide on a treatment or diagnosis for a patient, e.g. looking at medical tests and notes to reach a diagnosis.

Also there can be a few disadvantages to this model of health e.g. it’s not as suitable for people with long term illnesses or people with disabilities because they can not always be cured, and this form of treatment can be quite intrusive because of tests etc., so some people may not like it and it may make them feel uncomfortable.

Another disadvantage is that because it doesn’t look at the social aspects of the patient’s life they may not find the origin of the problem, so the person could become ill again.

Social Model of Health

This form of health is more about the origins of health in a social situation such as housing, social groups etc., and understanding where the problem started and finding a better way to test the situation for example cleaning the house for dust so it doesn’t aggravate a person’s asthma. Also due to this health model the mortality has dramatically decreased during the 20th century, because people have found the original source of the problem and done something about it and they did it so you can increase a person’s quality of life and decrease illness.

However there are disadvantages to this medical model because finding and solving the problems can be hard and it ignores the biomedical model of health.

Government Initiative – Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation

For my health promotion campaign I’m doing smoking so this government initiative links into it.

The aim of this government initiative is to improve everyone’s health, and the people who are severally affected in particular.

By 2010 they want to

• Reduce the death rate from cancer in people under the age of 75 by at least 1/5

• Reduce the death rate from coronary heart disease, stroke and other related illnesses in people under the age of 75 by at least 2/5

• Reduce the death rate from accidents by at least 1/5 and to reduce the rate of serious injury from accidents by at least 1/10

• Reduce the death rate from suicide and undetermined injury by at least 1/5 (Class notes)

Due to these things the government brought in some measures to help deal with these problems which are tackling smoking which is one of the biggest causes of ill health along with alcohol, also to tackle sexual health, drugs, food safety, water fluoridation, and communicable diseases, to put more money in the NHS, local authorities and the government focusing on improving health. (Appendix 1)

Illness – impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism. (

The Illness Wellness Continuum

According to The Illness Wellness Continuum the less well you are the closer you are to premature death (as shown by the diagram above left = death right = high level of wellness). This also relates to the government initiative because the government wants to reduce mortality by reducing illness.

Reviewing Questionnaires

This is a graph to show the amount of people who took the questionnaire and are either service users or service providers.

This graph shows the number of men and women who took the questionnaire, and as you can see the main amount of people who took the questionnaire were women.

Stop Smoking Advisor

The Stop Smoking Advisor works with patients in the community, to provide stop smoking support, treatment and advice set by local and national standards. A Smoking Advisor works with the Stop Smoking Specialists to give one-to-one and group support so their work means they have to travel all around the country to many different places such as health centres, hospitals, community buildings, working men’s clubs, Sure Start buildings etc.

To give support and inform people about the dangers of smoking they may do a presentation or bring in videos for people to watch such as the NHS (National Health Service) smoking adverts on T.V., also the advisor may bring in graphic pictures to shock people and make them understand what they’re doing to their bodies’ e.g.

The responsibilities and skills needed to be a smoking advisor are as follows:


Health Visitor

Health visitors are registered nurses or midwives who work to promote good health, and prevent illness in the community. But spend most of their day visiting people in their homes and helping with tasks.

Health visitors work with many different people in the community such as the elderly, disabled, and the long-term sick, and offers them support and advice to help people overcome their disabilities.

Health visitors have many duties they need to do:

• Advising the elderly on health issues – telling people about proper care needed to maintain equipment e.g. catheter care. • Advising new mothers on issues such as hygiene, safety, feeding and sleeping – this is because a new mother may not no about all the responsibilities that come with a child so the will need to be informed. • Counselling people on issues such as post-natal depression, bereavement, or being diagnosed HIV positive. • Co-ordinating child immunisation programmes.

• Organising special clinics or drop-in centres.

( To be a health visitor, you should be able to do all these things:

• Be able to get on well with all sorts of people – this is because they work with a wind range of people in all different circumstances. • Be interested in and aware of health and social issues –this is so they can communicate with all different sorts of people and be aware of any issues that need addressing. • Have very good communication and listening skills – this is so the patient can trust the health visitor and in turn give better care. • Be patient and persuasive – this is because it may be hard for people to do certain things or they may have learning difficulties which may hinder their care.

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• Be able to understand body language and other non-verbal communication – this is so you can make the best of a situation by interpreting it. Also it may improve communication. • Be responsible and be good time management – this is also to improve the relation ship between patients and the health visitor because if there late the patient may feel they are not wanted of no one has time for them. • Be able to work on your own – this is because a health visitor mainly works on their own in homes so you need to be independent. • Be mature and be able to deal with distressing issues.


As a qualified nurse or midwife it is necessary to take a degree or postgraduate course in public health nursing/health visiting if you wish to become a health visitor.

Courses last one year full-time or two years part-time and are available at colleges and universities throughout the UK.

Courses use both the theoretical (studying subjects such as community practice and public health, counselling and social policy), and practical placements supervised by an experienced health visitor.

Qualified health visitors are expected to keep their skills up to date through continuous development.

A health visitor also runs immunisation programmes set by the local government initiative i.e. in certain areas different illnesses may be more prominent so they will have different vaccines to immunise them.

Factors That Affect Health

Factors that affect health can be this such as eating habits, exercise, life style, attitudes and prejudices’, income, physical factors, environment etc. but there are many different views that go along with them, so to see if these descriptions meet with what normal civilians think are right (compared to professionals) I am going to do two interviews with two different people and see if there social factors and financial factors go along with these professional descriptions.

Financial Factors

Income factors are probably one of the main problems with trying to get good health care, this is when you do not earn enough money to get the things you need to survive and be well. If you do not have enough money to get adequate health care you may become unwell, also if you are unable to afford things such as health food, housing, etc. it could increase your chances of getting ill.

Also this may lead to the life changes or factors that affect your health, because you are unable to get what you want and need.

Social Factors

Social factors or social class are tied in with income because what group you’re in depends on how much you earn. Social circumstances contribute a lot to a person’s health because usually if you’re higher up the socio-economic ladder you will have more money and be able to afford better health care. These social factors also relate to family and culture.

• Family – how many people in your family, how they affect your life etc. • Culture – how people live their lives such as following religions (for example Jehovah’s witnesses don’t allow blood transfusions) etc.

Poor social and economic circumstances affect health and well being all the way through life. People further down the social ladder are usually twice as likely to be at risk of serious illness and premature death. (Appendix 15)

Also in certain classes things such as smoking or binge drinking can be more usual than in other classes. For example: • Children in a lower group are five times more likely to die from an accident, than those in a higher group. • People in class five are three times more likely to have a stroke than someone in class one. • Infant mortality is higher in the lower groups.

And all this is mainly because they cannot afford better health care and housing, healthier food etc. (N, Moonie: p138)

Life Style

People see Life style a choice you make such as drinking sensibly or the practice of safe sex. However, it can be more complicated than that e.g. if you have a low income it may be harder for you to eat healthier than those people who can afford a healthier life style. This is because trying to live a healthy life style is expensive, especially health food because it takes longer to prepare, also if you don’t have a local store that sales heath food i.e. organic things with no preservatives it can be hard.

Also due to many other factors such as up bringing, social factors etc. it may be hard to lead a healthy life according to the government views, because doing all the things you may need to do to keep healthy can be expensive so some people may not be able to afford it, also it can be hard to change you ways and if your set in a unhealthy routine you will only get more unwell. A recent survey says 46% of people agreed that there are too many factors out side a single person’s health. (N, Moonie: p123)

Attitudes and Prejudices

This relates to the preconceived ideal people have about each other and how they act around different people.

Environment Factors

Your environment is all the things around you that affect your health such as housing e.g. if your child has asthma and you have a dusty house it may aggravate the condition and make the child unwell.

Physical Factors

This factor is al about you physical state i.e. healthy according to the government guidelines and whether you have any physical disabilities. If you have a disability it may restrict you from accessing all the services you need. Regular strenuous physical activity has a protective effect for heart disease and stroke, builds bone mass, improves posture and helps control body weight. Physical activity can also improve mental health and well-being.

(All of these factors are from N, Moonie: p131-145)


First of all I chose two factors that affect health, which were financial factors and social factors, next I came up with eight questions (five on finance and three on social factors see Appendix 12).

After creating the interview I arranged a time with two people and asked them my questions. I started both interviews by saying “all the information I get will remain confidential and it will only be used in my course work”.

Financial factors:

1. Does income affect how you want to live your life?

Both the people I interviewed believed they don’t always have enough money to live the life they want but for two separate reasons the first person said “my wages are not rising with rate of inflation” so this person doesn’t believe they earn enough with the cost of things in this country i.e. things cost more because of inflation. The second person said “some times I don’t have enough money to do the things I want e.g. go away on holiday with my friends. But I am unemployed at the moment so that doesn’t help” so the reason this person cannot afford the life style they want is because they are unemployed and are currently out of money.

2. Or how does your life affect your income?

Both the people say their social lives and bills are too expensive so they don’t always have the amount of money they want.

3. What things do you feel you are unable to access due to your income? Person 1 – this person doesn’t believe they can access holidays etc. so in other words time to relax and get away. Person 2 – this person believes that they are unable to socialise some times because of their income and this is a major part of their life.

4. What things do you feel you are able to access due to your income? Both people feel they are able to access all the important and necessary things and the stuff they want to do for themselves.

5. Do you think your income affects your health in any way? Both believe that there income doesn’t affect their life in any major way.

Social Factors:

6. Do you follow your friend’s example i.e. peer pressure? Person 1 – this person does the things they want to do when they want to do them and doesn’t follow their friend’s example. Person 2 – this person says “Yes, but not peer pressure” so they follow what their friends do but they don’t believe there being forced or persuaded to do something they don’t want to do.

7. Is your family a positive or negative affect on your life and health? Person 1 – this person thinks that their family are a positive affect on their life. Person 2 – person 2 thinks “Yes and no because my family are just annoying and stress me out, but the support me when I need it”. Like in most families some things get on each others nerves but when you really need them they are there for you.

8. Does your social class affect your life style or health? Person 1 – they think there social class doesn’t affect their life in any way. Person 2 – they think that it does because if they were higher up the ladder they would have more money and be able to do more of the things they want and need.

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In conclusion my primary research (the interviews) show that the definitions of the two factors I chose are correct and they say the same as the interviewees but in more detail. My definition gathered from research in books etc. “this is when you do not earn enough money to get the things you need to survive and be well. If you do not have enough money to get adequate health care you may become unwell” this is basically the same as what the interviewees said i.e. “Both the people say their social lives and bills are too expensive so they don’t always have the amount of money they want” so in other words both the definition and people say they don’t all ways have enough money do the things they like or access all the things they need.


(Appendix 19)

Aims and Objectives

In a group of three, me and the other people in my group did a presentation to a thirty-seven different people aged 15 – 18 in ten different groups about the dangers of smoking. At the beginning and end of each group we gave them a questionnaire to test their knowledge before and after and we took 12 samples of each from different groups to test if they had learnt anything.

We found out that before they only had a basic knowledge about smoking and after they had a more extensive knowledge and knew about smoking and its dangers in better detail. We knew this because we looked at the sample of questionnaires and saw how in much more detail they answered the questions. So we must have had an impact on their knowledge and views. However, we didn’t change some people views on smoking because they were slightly arrogant and just believed their life was their life. Aims:

To produce a presentation to inform people about the dangers of smoking and inform people on ways they can quit e.g. NHS help line.


• To know what’s offered by the NHS to help quit.

• By the end they should be able to identify the 3 main diseases caused by smoking and some substances in a cigarette.

• Raise awareness that smoking kills.

Key Tasks/Activities:

To produce:

• Make and collect in before and after questionnaires about smoking.

• Take part in talking to the people at the presentation.

• Posters and leaflets.

• Handouts with second hand smoke, dangers etc

• Power point presentation with the main major facts about smoking such as second hand smoke, the dangers of smoking, withdrawal symptoms etc. also videos showing the dangers of smoking e.g. NHS adverts from T.V. and shocking things about smoking


What do you hope will change as a result of your activities? To help people understand the dangers of smoking and hope they change their behaviour as a result of the presentation.


How will you measure if the described change is occurring? Has occurred? To measure my presentation and see if the desired results have happened I will look at the before and after questionnaires and see if there knowledge has improved.

Evaluation Skills:

Communication skills

I think my communication skills were quite good as I took it in turns with the people in my group to talk to people however one of the other people in the group spoke a lot more than the rest. Also because I was working the power point presentation there was a barrier between us all, so people may not have opened up as much and spoken as much as they might have if it wasn’t there.

Team Work and Work Load

Yes I believe the work load and team fork was shared fairly. Also I think it was appropriate for the people in the group.

Resources used

We used quite a lot of resources such as books like Moonie and the NHS booklets also I’ve been on the NHS web site and looked at the stop smoking advice they give.

Activities used

The activities we used to show people about the dangers of smoking are handouts a PowerPoint presentation with videos and a large poster with lots of information on. Also during the presentation we had small discussions about the material and answered any question the people had.

The Environment

We did the presentation in a classroom with the others in our class but there was three different groups doing different things. One of the other groups had a loud video, which sometimes overpowered what we were doing and was a distraction.

Also we had 2 change rooms at the start because the room was needed for a test by another class, so we had to move all the equipment and reorganise the set out.

Health and Safety

The only health and social issues I think there were was the electricity we had to use to power every thing however there were floor plugs with caps on and we weren’t messing about with anything. Also all the cables were hidden out the way so no one could trip over them.

Were the Aims and Objectivities Achieved?

Yes all the aims and objectives were achieved because we saw from the questionnaires that their knowledge improved and they knew the main diseases and more substances in a cigarette. Also we produced an interesting presentation. For example of questionnaires and to see if the people’s knowledge improved see (Appendix 17 and 18)

Would You Do Anything Differently Next Time?

If I were doing the presentation again I would use a separate room so there were no interruptions, and I would try and be more involved and speak more.


In conclusion there are many things that contribute to people health such as life style, attitudes and prejudices etc. and they affect different people in different ways. This is why we looked at them in detail first because if we didn’t fully understand all the things that affect health, we wouldn’t have been able to do an affective campaign.

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Health and Social Care Essay

The types of incidents and emergencies which are arising in section A, •Accidents in this section we can see that the accident has happened because a s they quoted ‘some this explains that one of the staff member was abusing one of the elderly person. •Fire is also accrued in section A in the accidents ‘The flooding has caused electrical and a fire has started the lower floor kitchen of the home and is a spreading quickly’ this shows that fire started in the resident’s floor.

•Major disaster caused in this case flood because ‘The flooding has caused electrical and a fire has started the lower floor kitchen of the home and is a spreading quickly’ this shows that that is all flooding and also the fire. •Suspected abuse because ‘the management of the home were in the meeting about a whistleblower who has reported that one member of staff has been abusing residents with dementia’ •Spillages because it happened of the incidental mentioned it been ‘ in the rush hour to escape some of the nursing stand have knocked over a trolley contain medication for residents which are now mixed up’ this shows that the incident happening in the hurry.

Responses in incident A

There has been an incident which is a ‘whistle blower who has reported that one of the members has been abusing the residents with dementia when the flooding was discovered’.

The first priority when working with this incidents and emergencies is to confirming the safety of people and review the policies and policies and procedures that follow the serious incident. The response to this situation is to investigate the incident e.g. dealing with the suspected abuse. To stop this from happening is to have awareness of the causes and taking direct action to minimize the effect. Creating procedures that should be followed in the future and ensure that all the adults are informed. Ensure that all adults are aware of the action that should be taken, and do an annual review that should be taken.

The second priority when ensuring safety of property for the incident A reviewing the priorities from the outside the property for incident A there has been fire and also flooding so the property has been damage. The third priority I need to review is the ensuring safety of the environment for incident A it has been happening a lot of flooding as it burned the house down and the flooding caused a lot of damages to the environment the houses and other substances.

The fourth priority is reviewing of policies and procedures following critical incidents because once the crisis has passes, it is a good time to consider how well policies and procedures worked. Managers should review how smoothly the incident has dealt with better. The review might highlight a weakness. For example in incident A staff might have been unfamiliar with a policy, which meant that they did not instantly know what to do. As a result the manager way revises training for their staff.

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The fifth priority that I revise for incident A that implementing improvements for the future because in order to avoid the same difficulties happening again if a similar incident occurs, any policy changes need to be implemented quickly. This may involve changes to the training schedule, or to the way information is presented. It might also involve organisation outside the care setting.


The first response for the incident A is maintaining respect and dignity for the elderly person whiles saving an elderly life in incident A, has to be the top priority in like this emergency situation you should always try, if possible to respect the dignity of the people you are helping. Discourage crowds of on looks, and use blankets or coats to cover people who have been receiving treatment to cover the people who have been receiving treatment. Rescuers should speak to people in a professional way, and this will reassure them and give them confidence.

The second response for incident a is minimising the risk for incident A. so the people incident A is begin deal with highest possible help and for not making them worry and not begin stress about the other things because it might effect elder person if they have lost something.

The third response I would make for incident A is accessing support for the incident or emergency because the staff people who work there may be involved in rescuing or caring for casualties can find they are emotionally traumatised after whats being happened at work were they worked with eledry people rescuses may experience flashbacks of the incident and nightmares that they wouldn’t want to remember. There are several organisations that offer support to both victims and emergences service personnel’s during and after incident. These include the Red Cross, the Salvation Army and other organisation. Sometimes the manager for that person who experience the most main give a few days off work so they can rest their minds. Also that person can go to counselling if its required and it is always advisable to talk over the experience even if this is not done in a formal session.

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Health and Social Care Essay

Discuss the factors that can impact on an individual’s quality of life (1000) Quality of life is a personal opinion as what one person feels is an adequate standard of living may be greatly different to another persons. As quality of life doesn’t just refer to the physical but to psychological factors affecting people this again is another reason why quality of life cannot be measured. This is due to the fact that differing emotional states of mind will allow one person to deal with issues more effectively than someone else. Physical factors affecting a person’s quality of life surround physical health, when a person is feeling well and free from pain other issues in their life are easier to deal with. The physical factors are nutrition, exercise, comfort, safety and hygiene. Nutrition and eating a balanced diet is vital to a person’s wellbeing. If someone has inadequate food they will not receive the right amounts of vitamins and minerals needed for growth, everyday activities and keeping the body’s defences against illness working. This is the same if a person has an unhealthy diet, but the added issue that could arise from this, is that the person could end up very over weight and suffering from obesity related illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease or arthritis. Exercise is the second physical factor that can affect quality of life. It is commonly known that exercise releases endorphins which can aid the feeling of wellbeing, therefore helping a person to cope with life in general. Exercising reduces the chances of getting some diseases such as Cancer and can lower your blood pressure.

Research has shown that arthritis suffers who exercise for at least two hours a week are more able to handle their pain, carry out their daily activities. Comfort, safety and hygiene are in a category together as they complement each other and come hand in hand. They refer to a variety of aspects such as being pain free, not being hungry, being too hot or cold, having a clean place to live, with kitchen and bathroom facilities fit for use without risk of food poisoning, feeling safe within their environment, for babies ensuring that their nappy is changed regularly so that they don’t become sore, ensuring noise levels are not disturbing sleep or are too loud causing agitation. Any of these things alone could greatly affect quality of life but due to socioeconomic factors it is likely that some people will experience a number of the factors above. The physiological factors affecting quality of life are the things that influence the way a person is feeling about themselves and can affect their confidence and self esteem. These include work opportunities, communication, freedom to make life choices and dignified and private care in a confidential environment. Work affects quality of life both positively and negatively depending on the circumstances. If a person feels that they are well paid, are respected within the work environment, have good working conditions and feel fulfilled, then this will enhance their quality of life as it will boost their self confidence and going to work will not be a chore.

However if a person feels that they are expected to do long hours for minimum wage, in unpleasant or stressful situations and do not feel that they are respected within their job, this can make them feel under-valued and cause depression or make the person not want to attend work and in turn lowering the persons quality of life. Having opportunities to communicate with others is very important as if a person feels isolated from their wider community this can really affect their self esteem and could cause depression. This can be particularly problematic for the elderly or infirm who tend to be house bound, sometimes the only interaction they may receive is from home carers or medical staff. As carers it is very important to remember this and ensure that during calls the client gets the chance to talk and communicate any issues or needs or just the chance to have that human contact. Autonomy is vital for every human being as it is our control about things happening to us, being able to make life choices freely and without pressure allows a person to stay in charge of their life. The use of advocacy services are an important for clients that have conditions like dementia, their ability to communicate their choices could be limited and these services help to ensure that their wishes are heard and upheld. These choices could be as simple as what the client would like to eat but this is still important and gives empowerment to the client.

Clients that are in residential care or even in their own homes need their privacy and dignity to be held in high regard, according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights’ ( so not only is this a human right but it is a responsibility of the care giver to ensure that the persons quality of life is not effected by something that they do. As a carer you could be doing very intimate personal care for a client, care must be taken to ensure that the client feels comfortable and trusts the carer as they are putting themselves in a very vulnerable position. Simple things such as knocking before entering a client’s room can help them to feel they still have some control. Within this situation the confidentiality of clients details are also paramount, again a client must be able to feel that their personal information is only being shared with the appropriate agencies and is not left open for anyone to get hold of.

This could be in the form of notes, medical records, personal care plans or hand over notes from carer to carer. Within those the professional language used must be upheld, as the client could be upset if personal thoughts about them were written in their notes, again this would not be respectful. All of the factors mentioned above will have bearing on a person’s quality of life but what must be remembered is that whether this is a positive or negative experience depends on individual’s ability to cope with situations. As what one person feels unable to cope with and has a negative effect on their quality of life someone else may not have a problem with and may in fact improve their quality of life.

Analyse why nutrition is important to maintaining a good quality of life (400) Nutrition is key to a good quality of life for a number of reasons such as avoiding malnutrition, disease prevention and helping the body to function to its full potential. Food also however provides the happy factor, the feeling of satisfaction and pleasure that can arise from eating our favourite foods and the feeling of being full and satisfied fulfils the psychological aspects of quality of life. Nutrition is important throughout all stages of life but the two most important stages are during childhood and the elderly. In childhood the development of the body and brain is at its most prominent, they are being educated in every aspect of their life, learning new life skills and cognitively learning through the education system. A balanced diet aids concentration and helps the child to receive the right calories to ensure that they do not become overweight or underweight, as both can have detrimental effects on their growth. If a child becomes overweight this can affect their self esteem and confidence, they will be less likely to become active and involved in sports due to feeling embarrassed about the way they look and this can only add to the weight problem.

On the other hand if a child becomes malnourished they may be unable to concentrate in the class room, can become ridiculed for their size as they will often be far smaller in stature than their peers and become very sickly due to their inability to fight off infection which again will impact on their education. The constant feeling of hunger and lack of satisfaction will greatly impact their quality of life and they could become introvert because of it. In the elderly diet is crucial to stave off problems like osteoporosis. An increased intake of calcium through milk, yoghurt, cheese and green leafy vegetables can help with this. The elderly can sometimes struggle with digestion or chewing and so the types of food they eat may be restricted, so it even more important that the balance of foods that they eat fulfil the bodies requirements of all the food groups and are calorific enough to sustain and satisfy them. Throughout life though a balanced diet helps all ages with the prevention of diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, stokes and high blood pressure. The recommended daily intake of calories varies whether you are male or female and your age and activity levels, if a person sticks to their recommended calorie intake this can prevent weight gain which will in turn improve quality of life. As when a person is feeling fit and healthy as they will have increased energy levels, feel more able to undertake everyday tasks and have self confidence in the way they look.

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How would the recommended calorie intake for a female change throughout her lifetime? (400) During a woman’s lifetime her calorie intake will differ during the various stages of her life, calories are just one part of the equation however as the way those calories are made up are just as important and these change throughout her lifetime also. As a young child through to adolescence the focus of calories needs to be protein based as the body and brain are developing rapidly, calcium intake is also vital due to bone and teeth development. Vitamins and minerals are also important to aid growth but also to boost the immune system. It is recommended that the calorie intake is between 100-500 calories per Kg of body weight for an infant reducing around the age of four to approximately 1400 calories per day depending on the levels of activity. During puberty and through the menstruating years a woman must ensure that she increases the amount of iron she consumes as iron is lost through menstruation. At this stage a woman should be taking in a balanced diet consisting of around 2200 calories per day, it is important that this still contains calcium based foods as this is the time that she will build up stores in her bones to help combat the loss of bone mass through aging which can lead to osteoporosis in later life.

During pregnancy there needs to be a shift in the calorie intake ‘Based on recommendations from the Institute of Medicine, during pregnancy, women need to increase their intake by 300 calories per day.’ This is not a large amount extra and perhaps surprising few extra however the reasoning behind this is to provide the added nutrients without the woman gaining too much weight which often happens during pregnancy. If a woman chooses to breast feed her baby she must again make alterations to her calorie intake, now increasing it by around 500 calories. It is very important that within those calories though vitamin A is increased from 500 mg per day to 900 mg per day, this is due to its immunity boosting abilities that will pass on through the breast milk to the baby. Care must be taken however as taking too much vitamin A over a long period of time can have a detrimental effect on bone strength making them susceptible to fracture later in life. After the age of 50 calorie intake should reduce quite significantly for a woman the range is between 1600 calories per day to 2000 calories per day. The deciding factor on how many calories should be consumed is purely down to the amount of physical activities the individual does on a daily basis, the lower amount of movement, the lower the calorie intake. Regardless of the age of the female the message is the same the mix of foods within the calories consumed on a daily basis must be balanced and contain the recommended portions from each of the main food groups to ensure a healthy body.

Discuss the range of eating disorders and analyse how they impact upon an individual’s quality of life (1200) Eating disorders are very common place especially in teenagers, they affect both men and women, however it is estimated that between 19 and 30% of young women are diagnosed with an eating disorder compared to 10% of young men. Eating disorders are normally seen in three categories, these are anorexic, bulimic and binge eating. They are all equally dangerous and can all lead to death. There are many reasons why a person may have an eating disorder, this can range from people not making time to eat a balanced meal due to work commitments or social activities, picking or faddy eaters, having a distorted view of your body image, thinking that you are overweight when in fact you are not, the medias depiction of the perfect body and the desire to recreate this, the need for control, psychological problems stemming from family issues or relationship problems and finally biological links and susceptibility to such disorders. Anorexia can begin with the desire to lose weight, a person becomes obsessive with their calorie intake and controls every mouthful of food they eat, as they see the weight dropping they enjoy the success and want that feeling to continue, they will often exercise strongly using more calories than they are taking in. once the disorder has got to this point the person often then sees themselves in a distorted way, thinking they are still overweight. They can become very sneaky in the way they disguise the fact that they are not eating properly, by pretending they have eaten whilst out at school or college or eating alone so that they can dispose of the food when no one is looking. Women who become anorexic can sometimes stop menstruating due to their body weight dropping so low and can in the long term affect their fertility. People suffering from anorexia often also struggle with depression or anxiety and can seriously damage their bodies organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys and digestive system.

Damage to the heart occurs due to the fact that if a person is too underweight they can have low blood pressure, in turn this causes the heart to beat too slowly putting strain on it as it tries to pump blood to the organs in your body. Most anorexics are dehydrated damaging your kidneys but also impacts on the amount of blood circulating the system, because of these factors your heartbeat can become irregular which if not treated can cause more damage still. Bone damage is caused due to the body producing less oestrogen which is the hormone that keeps your bones strong, if this continues for an extended amount of time then bones can become susceptible to breaking and the body’s ability to repair them will be greatly reduced due to poor bone density. A person suffering with anorexia will have a severely affected quality of life, not only will they feel ill due to the stresses they are putting on their body’s organs but the psychological indicators of such a disorder in terms of the obsessive, depressive and secretive behaviours displayed, mean that they very often shut themselves away from friends and family becoming very isolated which in turn makes the feeling of self doubt worse and so the cycle continues. Bulimia is another eating disorder that holds life threatening side effects. This differs from anorexia in as much as the person although obsessed by food does not always lose weight. This is due to the fact that some bulimics use laxatives to induce faeces production, what they don’t realise however is that these only remove the fluid from the body from the lower intestine yet the calories are absorbed in the upper intestine.

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The most common trait of bulimia is vomiting; a person may binge on food and then force themselves to be sick to avoid the weight gain. Bulimics tend to hide this fact and become clever, disguising the noise and smell of vomit to avoid being discovered. There tends to be guilt feelings from a person suffering from bulimia as unlike anorexia the person usually recognises that there is a problem with their pattern of eating. Continuous vomiting and laxative use however do have serious repercussions for a person; medically they are putting themselves at risk of heart problems, mouth ulcers, inflammation of the oesophagus and swollen salivary glands. Psychologically they are at risk from depression, obsessive behaviours and panic attacks; suicide is also problematic due to the fact that the person has long term body conscious issues. Quality of life for a bulimic person is reduced mainly due to the psychological factors stemming from the disorder, the person will tend to retreat from society, their work could be affected because of ill health or the inability to cope with the stress and this therefore affects their financial situation. Relationships can be affected with both family and friends as the bulimic tries to distance themselves in order to keep their secret or because of the guilt they feel about what they are doing. The final eating disorder is binge eating, it is felt that this is the most common of all eating disorders suffered by around 12million people in the UK alone and according to Fairburn and Beglin statistical collation experts, suggest that ‘up to 15% of young women between 16 and 24 had binged in a period of three months at least once.’ (

This disorder is less about control than the first two disorders and in fact could be described as a lack of control, where eating is concerned, sufferers tend to eat when not hungry, eat even when feeling full, will eat in secret because they feel ashamed of what they are doing and habitually eat the ‘wrong’ types of food without the ability to stop. People who fall into this category are normally very overweight or obese and normally there is a psychological link to their eating pattern such as eating for comfort due to feeling of depression or sadness, eating when bored as they have few social links due to embarrassment about their size or the lack of energy to socialize with peers. A binge eater’s quality of life can be affected in a variety of ways but for this group it is more the physical aspects due to the weight gain causing medical problems such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. These then have the knock on effect of not being able to exercise easily, which in turn due to the lack of activity adds to the feeling of self loathing, depression and uselessness, which then leads to comfort eating and so the cycle of abuse continues and quality of life decreases further.

All of the eating disorders discussed have detrimental effects on a person’s quality of life due to the limitations on what a person can do while suffering with one of these disorders. Each of them have physical ramifications causing damage to major organs and causing the body to function abnormally, all of them can affect the fertility of a person whether male or female as the chemical balance of the body is thrown off track when the body is mistreated. The physiological impact on quality of life can also be seen in each of these disorders; people suffering from any of the disorders above tend to have feeling of self loathing and guilt and most tend to suffer from mental health issues to varying degrees, this in turn tends to alienate individuals from those around them in an attempt to protect them from discovery and leaves them isolated and depression sinks further in when lines of communication are closed and social networks cut off.

Bibliography 17:13, 8.3.14 17:31, 8.3.14 16:42, 9.3.14 17:15, 9.3.14 17:44. 9.3.14 19:08, 9.3.14 19:19, 9.3.14 20:58, 9.3.14

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Health and Social Care Essay

People use different ways to communicate with other people, depending on the situation in a health and social care setting. Informal is mostly used between people who know each other very well and formal for individuals who do not know others to well or have not met before. People who are expected to talk in a formal language in a health and social care setting are the care workers. Care workers should ensure they know the difference between the two different conversational languages and use the correct one accordingly. For this essay I will be analysing the two different ways to communicate to people and give examples to why people use these ways to communicate. Formal conversations are mostly used between two individuals who are of a profession or who have not met before. Formal language doesn’t use contractions for example, He is going out now. NOT he’s going out now. Vocabulary is also different, please refrain from smoking (formal) please don’t smoke (informal).

According to stretch and whitehouse (2010, p6) ‘formal communication is understood by a wide range of people.’ This means that people from different backgrounds/ ages can understand the concepts of formal language. Informal language is less strict on grammar and often uses shorter sentences. Informal language also uses slang instead of using the correct words for things. This type of language is normally spoken and not written. It is ok to talk to friends in an informal manner but you wouldn’t talk to your patients about their medical guidelines in this language you would talk to them in a formal way. In a health and social care setting informal language could be used when you’re giving a patient an update if you’re just walking down the hall way.

People need to know when it is acceptable to use either formal or informal language in a health and social care setting. If an individual doesn’t know when they are supposed to be using formal language then they can make themselves look unprofessional and that they don’t know how to speak in a formal manner. Also if they use informal instead of formal then it’s harder for people to communicate back in the group. In summary, informal and formal communication are quite different to each other. If an individual was to use the wrong form of language in a health and social care setting then they can make that person feel disrespected, whereas if they were to use the correct form then they can communicate more effectively.

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STRECH, B. & WHITEHOUSE, N. (eds) Health and Social Care Level 3 Book1, Pearson, Harlow Essex

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Health and Social Care Essay

We are now living in an ageing society and so health and social care will play a part throughout our life course in one way or another. I shall start the main body of my assignment by providing an explanation of what is meant by the life course. I will then move onto my experiences of adulthood and of using health and social care services, showing as I go how block 1 has helped me to critically reflect upon these and the outcome. Critically reflection means that I will analyse, challenge and question within this assignment.

I will also show the different methods of reflection to explore my life course and show how important reflection can be in health and social care setting. After reflecting I will discuss other aspects from within the learning guides. I then will come to the end of the assignment with a brief conclusion. The term life course is made up of expected age related events throughout life, that are traditions within a society. These life courses can change in different cultures.

These events within a life course can affect how people live which is called life course perspective, by understanding a person’s life course, we can use it to provide appropriate support and provision. In learning guide three, open university, five principles by Bengston et al (2005), occur within the life course perspective; by discussing these we have a better understanding of the life course, ‘It establishes a common field of inquiry by defining a framework that guides research in terms of problem identification and formulation… ‘, (Bengston et al, 2005, Chapter 1).

The first is called linked lives, which is how our lives are affected by others, they have are very influential, especially family. The second is time and place, it discusses how things such as historical events, living in a time of economic decline for example, The Great Depression, can restrict certain opportunities and shape who people are and become. The third is timing, this consists of the timing of specific events within a person’s life that may or may not fit in within society’s norm of when the event should happen such as education and having children.

The fourth is make hoices about what to do and have plans, it is about agency, how they plan their life, have influence over it and can continually assess if it is going to plan. However I feel that this can be critiqued as still there are arranged marriages, controlling relationships, forced prostitution, all of these have little agency over their life as well as many other cases. The fifth and final one is life-long, this shows that ageing is not just an older stage of life but is happening to all of us, it is a life-long process and events can determine the outcome of later life.

Applying these to health and social care settings can help complete a picture of an individual’s life, I will also apply some of the five aspects to my experience. To critically reflect on my own experiences I had to figure out which parts of my life would be relevant. At the end of my reflection I will show how these examples changed my values and ethics and also now what I expect from health and social care professionals. The three types of reflection by Barker (2010, p. 122) cites (William 2001) within learning guide one, open university, are probably the best method to help reflect on my first experience.

The first type of reflection by Barker is content reflection this consists of what happened. What happened is that I had a swift transition from childhood to adulthood as I became a mother at sixteen. The second part of reflection is process reflection which is why it happened. It happened because at the time I felt older than my years and to show my parents and friends how grown up I was, I got pregnant. The third part is called premise or critical reflection which shows why it happened and the judgement for it.

As a teenager all I cared about was my feelings and nobody else mattered it was what I wanted and so I made sure it did. I was treated as a social outcast by certain family and was also treated in a very patronising manner by the GP and other health care professionals such as midwives, throughout my pregnancy and early motherhood. By drawing on this as an experience I wanted to show that my values back then were selfish and all about me and becoming a mother this changed my outlook by making my child my priority and I used this as a strength to prove the professionals wrong and that I would make a good mother regardless of my age.

I realise now that a lot of judgements were made because this was not classed as society’s norm also shows the second principal of time and place as I was classed as the modern youth culture. I also feel that if the professionals had taken the time to understand my life course as discussed within learning guide three, open university, they would have understood why I had taken this course of action. ‘When people don’t do what seems to be the obvious, sensible, rational thing to promote their own health and wellbeing, it can be tempting to characterise them as ‘awkward’, ‘irrational’, ‘their own worst enemy’ ….. (Open University, LG 3. 2).

I feel that this sentence sums up how I was treated, and the assumption of me by the health professionals. I chose this to show that I still had the rights to be treated as any other mother to be and not as a social outcast from a modern culture. I wanted also to bring in that this may also be classed as an ethical dilemma for certain members of staff as they may feel uneasy dealing with a teenage mother to be. Ethical dilemmas often arise in health and social care as mentioned in learning guide five.

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I will be using the three suggested methods of reflection by Rolfe et al (2001), (LG1, open university), for my next experience. The first method is what the situation is, looking into any problems and any feelings about it. This situation is that I was diagnosed with Sero-negative arthritis at 25, I was devastated, I had two children by this point to look after and an abusive partner who was no help. The second method consists of so what, I took this to mean, what was learnt and any thoughts about the situation.

At the time I was understandably upset but I had very good family and friends to help, shows the importance of linked lives. I had to very nervous of going back to the judgemental professionals that I’d dealt with earlier, they were not very informative and I was placed on a waiting list to see a specialist. The attitudes of the professionals was that I had been diagnosed, deal with it basically. The third method is now what, what needed to be done, improve my understanding.

I researched as much as I could, realised it usually affected people between 40 – 50 so learning this I felt old showing the fifth principle by Bengston et al, that ageing happens to us all, I was suffering from what I thought was an older persons illness. I kept going back to the GP time after time pushing my way up the waiting list, showing them research of what can happen without early treatment to ensure I was seen to as quickly as possible, this caused a little conflict between myself and the GP as I felt I knew more than they did and they did not like that fact.

I feel that reflecting back on this again the health professionals and the care I received was poor. I eventually had care by rheumatology staff who looked at my age and would assume that I was not suffering as bad as the others, I was let down by the health service as a whole. I also wanted to show that they were not taking into account my quality of life was going to suffer if I wasn’t treated effectively. Chronic illness is discussed also as a biographical disruption.

Biographical disruption is an event outside your expectation of your life course that is unwanted or not expected. Being diagnosed with Sero-negative arthritis definitely fits in with this analogy, in fact a paper was written discussing how chronic illness as biographical disruption, ‘My contention is that illness, and especially chronic illness, is precisely that kind of experience where the structures of everyday life and the forms of knowledge which underpin them are disrupted. , (Bury, Chapter 5, Reader). Using another method of reflection by Schon (1983), (LG1, Open University), I will explore my third and last chosen experience. The first is reflection in action which is how it sounds by using past experience, knowledge to guide you. Although I am now in a happy relationship, I was once in an aggressive and violent relationship for ten years and it affected my every aspect of my life from my confidence to new relationships.

By using this type of reflection, although until reading this type of reflection I had not even realised I had done it, I used my previous relationship to ensure that I would be treated like a woman in my new relationship. The second is called reflection on action this is basically thinking back on what actions we took after the event. I had left after an incident which had needed a police visit and so social services had been notified because of the violence to ensure the children had not been involved and I found them very judgemental of the fact I had stayed for so long in an abusive relationship.

I showed social services that I had asked for support for me and children by an external organisation as soon as I left and that I was aware we would need it. Social services told me that we would need to work together to ensure that the action I had taken was sufficient and that all the steps necessary to ensure that we were all supported were taken. At first Social Services were quite rude and intrusive by I realised that it was their job to be intrusive and once I let my guard down with them, I actually found that they were there to help.

I anted to show this as an experience because I was brought up with strong family values and ethics so I stayed in the relationship because I did not want a broken family for my children even though looking back now I know that it was the wrong thing to do. I also feel it must be hard for social care providers to sometimes understand my reasoning for staying as my family values when their values may have been different causing the initial tension. I realise now that sometimes even though you were raised with certain values and ethics sometimes yours and your families’ welfare takes priority.

I also wanted to show that that the fourth principle by Bengston et al is not always possible, throughout this relationship I had no autonomy, in a controlling environment you can only do what you are allowed to do and not everybody has the chance of breaking free. The quality of life, for me and my children was also affected, I have taken an extract to show my point that, ‘There are objective qualities too, and some of these, such as sufficient nutrition, a non-hazardous environment, and a long and healthy life are universally, or virtually universally uncontroversial as components of quality of life. (Phillips, chapter 3, Reader).

Within the quote it mentions a non hazardous environment which is the opposite of what we were living in. By reflecting about the above experiences, and others not mentioned, I feel that I have had a difficult life course but because of them I feel I have built up resilience. My experience of adulthood started a lot earlier than was planned, it was not an easy option but I adapted well. Adulthood did not really get easier for me until recently where I found my independence and was safe away from harm.

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With my experiences of adulthood not being so great, I would say that I feel a lot older than I am, if I bring in positive ageing or successful ageing which was discussed in learning guide two then I would say I definitely do not fit that description the next quote helps explain why. ‘Successful aging is more than the absence of disease, important though that is, and more than the maintenance of functional capacities, important as it is.

Both are important components of successful aging, but it is their combination with active engagement with life that represents the concept of successful aging most fully… ‘, ( Rowe and Kahn, 1997, Open University). I am more aware of my ageing process since being diagnosed at such a young age of sero-negative arthritis but as it is not life threatening I feel I have a long time left yet until the end of my life.

I also think that because I made the decision to leave my abusive partner that my quality of life has dramatically improved if I had stayed in that environment I feel that I would not be here now to talk about it. My values and ethics have been influenced by a lot of my experiences over the years and have definitely altered. My values and ethics consist of what is good for me and the children, if I am happy and content then they will benefit it means that I can also now offer a more open, respectful and secure upbringing.

I am now going to bring my assignment to an end by summing up my conclusion. With the experiences that I have mentioned within my assignment you can see that my interaction with the world of health and social care has been quite eventful. I have been faced with professionals who have judged me and made assumptions and also who have made me feel inadequate but I was also helped by social services and feel stronger because of that so I am unsure of how to sum up the field of health and social care as it covers such a wide aspect within our life courses.

If there was more training provided in understanding life courses and offering person centred care then I feel things would improve but in a time of economic decline I cannot imagine that the funding for this would be available. I do feel that there will always be prejudices within the health and social care profession and that their personal values and ethics may also always play a part in the way they offer support. (

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Health and Social Care Essay

We acknowledge with sincere thanks the many people who gave generously of their time to help us with this work. We particularly appreciate the expertise and advice o? ered by Arnon Bentovim, Richard Velleman, Lorna Templeton, Carolyn Davies and Sheena Prentice. The work has been funded by the Department for Education and we thank sta? in the department, particularly Jenny Gray who supported us throughout the work with her interest and valuable comments.

The work was assisted by an advisory group whose membership was: Isabella Craig and Jenny Gray (Department for Education); Christine Humphrey (Department of Health) and Sian Rees (NICE); Arnon Bentovim (consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and the Tavistock Clinic); Marian Brandon (reader in social work, University of East Anglia); Carolyn Davies

(research advisor, Institute of Education, University of London); Jo Fox (social work consultant, Child-Centred Practice); David Jones (consultant child and family psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry; University of Oxford); Sue McGaw (specialist in learning disabilities, Cornwall Partnership Trust); Sheena Prentice (specialist midwife in substance misuse, Nottingham City PCT); Wendy Rose (The Open University); Lorna Templeton (manager of the Alcohol, Drugs and the Family Research Programme, University of Bath); and Richard Velleman (University of Bath and director of development and research, Avon and Wiltshire Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust). Introduction This second edition of Children’s Needs – Parenting Capacity provides an update on the impact of parental problems, such as substance misuse, domestic violence, learning disability and mental illness, on children’s welfare. Research, and in particular the biennial overview reports of serious case reviews (Brandon et al 2008; 2009; 2010), have continued to emphasise the importance of understanding and acting on concerns about children’s safety and welfare when living in households where these types of parental problems are present.

Almost three quarters of the children in both this and the 2003-05 study had been living with past or current domestic violence and or parental mental ill health and or substance misuse – often in combination. (Brandon et al 2010, p. 112) These concerns were very similar to those that prompted the ? rst edition of this book, which was commissioned following the emergence of these themes from the Department of Health’s programme of child protection research studies (Department of Health 1995a). These studies had demonstrated that a high level of parental mental illness, problem alcohol and drug abuse and domestic violence were present in families of children who become involved in the child protection system. Research context

The 2010 Government statistics for England demonstrate that, as in the 1990s, only a very small proportion of children referred to children’s social care become the subject of a child protection plan (Department for Education 2010b). However, the types of parental problems outlined above are not con? ned to families where a child is the subject of a child protection plan (Brandon et al. 2008, 2009, 2010; Rose and Barnes 2008). In many families children’s health and development are being a? ected by the di? culties their parents are experiencing. The ? ndings from research, however, suggest that services are not always forthcoming. Practically a quarter of referrals to children’s social care resulted in no action being taken (Cleaver and Walker with Meadows 2004).

Lord Laming’s progress report (2009) also expressed concerns that referrals to children’s services from other professionals did not always lead to an initial assessment and that ‘much more needs to be done to ensure that the services are as e? ective as possible at working together to achieve positive outcomes for children’ (Lord Laming 2009, p. 9, paragraph 1. 1). Practitioners’ fear of failing to identify a child in need of protection is also a factor driving up the numbers of referrals to children’s social care services which result in no provision of help. ‘This is creating a skewed system that is paying so much attention to identifying cases of abuse 2 Children’s Needs – Parenting Capacity

and neglect that it is draining time and resource away from families’ (Munro 2010, p. 6). Munro’s Interim Report (2011) draws attention once again to the highly traumatic experience for children and families who are drawn into the Child Protection system where maltreatment is not found, which leaves them with a fear of asking for help in the future. A ? nding which was identi? ed by earlier research on child protection (Cleaver and Freeman 1995). Evidence from the 1995 child protection research (Department of Health 1995a) indicated that when parents have problems of their own, these may adversely a? ect their capacity to respond to the needs of their children.

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For example, Cleaver and Freeman (1995) found in their study of suspected child abuse that in more than half of the cases, families were experiencing a number of problems including mental illness or learning disability, problem drinking and drug use, or domestic violence. A similar picture of the di? culties facing families who have been referred to children’s social care services emerges from more recent research (Cleaver and Walker with Meadows 2004). It is estimated that there are 120,000 families experiencing multiple problems, including poor mental health, alcohol and drug misuse, and domestic violence. ‘Over a third of these families have children subject to child protection procedures’ (Munro 2011, p. 30, paragraph 2. 30).

Children’s services have the task of identifying children who may need additional services in order to improve their well-being as relating to their: (a) physical and mental health and emotional well-being; (b) protection from harm and neglect; (c) education, training and recreation; (d) the contribution made by them to society; and (e) social and economic well-being. (Section 10(2) of the Children Act 2004) The Common Assessment Framework (Children’s Workforce Development Council 2010) and the Assessment Framework (Department of Health et al. 2000) enable frontline professionals working with children to gain an holistic picture of the child’s world and identify more easily the di? culties children and families may be experiencing. Although research suggests that social workers (Cleaver et al.

2007) and health professionals are equipped to recognise and respond to indications that a child is being, or is likely to be, abused or neglected, there is less evidence in relation to teachers and the police (Daniel et al. 2009). The identi? cation of children’s needs may have improved, but understanding how parental mental illness, learning disabilities, substance misuse and domestic violence a? ect children and families still requires more attention. For example, a small in-depth study found less than half (46%) of the managers in children’s social care, health and the police rated as ‘good’ their understanding of the impact on children of parental substance misuse, although this rose to 61% in relation to the impact of domestic violence (Cleaver et al. 2007).

The need for more training on assessing the likelihood of harm to children of parental drug and alcohol misuse Introduction 3 was also highlighted by a survey of 248 newly quali? ed social workers (Galvani and Forrester 2009). A call for more high-quality training on child protection across social care, health and police was also made by Lord Laming (2009). Munro’s review of child protection in exploring ‘why previous well-intentioned reforms have not resulted in the expected level of improvements’ (p. 3) highlighted the ‘unintended consequences of restrictive rules and guidance’, which have left social workers feeling that ‘their professional judgement is not seen as a signi?

cant aspect of the social work task; it is no longer an activity which is valued, developed or rewarded’ (Munro 2010, p. 30, paragraph 2. 16). The experience of professionals providing specialist services for adults can support assessments of children in need living with parental mental illness, learning disability, substance misuse or domestic violence. Research, however, shows that in such cases collaboration between adults’ and children’s services at the assessment stage rarely happens (Cleaver et al. 2007; Cleaver and Nicholson 2007) and a lack of relevant information may negatively a? ect the quality of decision making (Bell 2001). An agreed consensus of one another’s roles and responsibilities is essential for agencies to work collaboratively.

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The evidence provided to the Munro review (2011) found ‘mixed experiences and absence of consensus about how well professionals are understanding one another’s roles and working together’ and argues for ‘thoughtfully designed local agreements between professionals about how best to communicate with each other about their work with a family… ‘ (Munro 2011, p. 28, paragraph 2. 23). Although research shows that the development of joint protocols and informationsharing procedures support collaborative working between children’s and adults’ services (Cleaver et al. 2007), a survey of 50 English local authorities found only 12% had clear family-focused policies or joint protocols (Community Care 2009).

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Health and Social Care Essay

P2: Describe the Origins of Public Health Policy in the UK from the 19th Century to the Present Day.

1837- The law started registering births, marriages and deaths and began to notice differences in areas. This was because of diseases going round and many people were dying. They wanted to figure out where about the illnesses were most common. 1848- The Liberal government brought the Public Health Act into law. 1849- Unfortunately, a massive amount of 10,000 people died from the disease cholera.

1853- Vaccination for smallpox was made compulsory and started by Edward Jenner; this was because a great amount of people were getting ill and dying from it. 1870- The government forced local authorities to educate people about diseases, so that they then knew and could learn about them and help to prevent any more. 1875- Public Health Act forced local authorities to provide clean water, have proper drainage and appoint medical offices for each area. This was to improve deadly diseases and illnesses which were continuing to harm people. 1906- In this year free school meals law came about.

1907- Medical school examinations for children were introduced. 1918- The British Prime Minister Lloyd George promised soldiers returning home from the war, ‘Homes fit for Heroes’. It was important for people to have a good home environment. 1921- The local authorities were required to set up TB clinics. 1934- The government passed the free school milk act and local councils were encouraged to give poor children free school meals. This was because they were unfortunate and were not getting the correct amount of food and drink and it could have affected their health. 1942- Sir William Beveridge published a report on the best way of helping people on low income. 1944- Clement Attlee created the NHS based on the proposals of the Beveridge Report white paper published. 1948- On the 5th July the new NHS was launched.

1970- Margret Thatcher became the new Secretary of State and demanded cuts on four main areas: further education fees, library book borrowing charges, school meal charges and free school milk. 1980- Black Report came about, discussing inequalities in health between the rich and poor. It aimed to reduce child poverty, reintroducing free schools meals and milk, improving housing, employment, schools and more. 1998- Acheson Report, Acheson was asked to review inequalities in England and identify priority ones for the development of health. 1999- “Saving Lives Our Healthier Nation” this was what the Labour government released as a health strategy.

P1: Describe key aspects of public health strategies.

There are many strategies that have been used and have had a positive and a negative outcome when tried out in cities.

Firstly, monitoring the health status of the population, this is where tracking changes and alerting people to potential problems would happen. An example for this would be ‘Census’ this where every 10 years since 1801 the nation chooses one day to do the census survey. In the survey it consists counting all people and households. Overall it’s the most complete information source that the population that the nation has. The most recent census survey was held on the Sunday 27 March 2011.

Identifying the health needs of the population is a strategy that can and has been used within the population. In this strategy we are identifying implications of trends and patterns to services. A good example is in schools or any type of educating/studying places or just general talks where people are being taught about diabetes, better dieting and exercise. This would help peoples health increase more by having the knowledge about this.

In addition, another strategy that has been used around the population is to develop programmes which would then try and reduce risks and screen for diseases. Doing this would reduce ill health by looking at and identifying people that are at risk and then promoting health. Years gone by the population have tried this strategy; for example, doing cancer research, advertisement programmes to let people know and smear tests.

Controlling communicable disease, this is where programmes and schemes are made and brought out that are immunisation programmes which are there to reduce the impact of diseases. The nation for many years and are continuing on doing the same have TB injections. This is an example of controlling the communicable disease. These injections are there to immune human bodies to illness and disease which is called Tuberculosis.

Furthermore, another strategy when it comes to public health is promoting the health of the population. Many companies and groups of people have experimented on trying to accomplish this. By doing this they have been promoting health activities to improve their health and their fitness. A lot of the programmes are basically trying to engage people so they understand they need to improve their health so they don’t turn obesity and generally just too improve and increase their fitness level.

Planning and evaluating health and social care provision this is where the nation is accessing and impacting of health services. In every city there needs to be health services to help anyone that is in need. One of the services that are in many cities is the contraception service. These are companies that give tips and advice to young people that are sexually active. They also hand out free condoms so young girls don’t get pregnant when they are not ready and don’t want too.

Finally, target setting, this is where targets are all set to reduce disease and to improve health. For example, pregnancy is a target where the nation wants to reduce how many young girls get pregnant. To reduce this contraception is purchasable in every supermarket, pharmacy’s etc… In addition, there are companies that give away free contraception to reduce teenage pregnancy. Not only does contraception help prevent pregnancy but prevents people catching sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, Chlamydia and syphilis.

M1: compare historical and current features of public health.

Things that happened years ago have all changed to nowadays; either by a few changes but still very similar or dramatically changed in a positive way.

Firstly, access to medical care. Years ago medical care in the 19th century was not very good. The hospitals were very basic, many beds in a large room (ward) there were very rarely curtains around the beds for privacy because in those days clothes were short and extra material would be made into clothing. Also, they may not have been very clean, they were hygienic to work in but for people that were very ill they may of made that person more poorly. Clinics were similar; they had the basic bed to check patients on and the small amount of medicines. Not all the time did they have the correct suitable medication for patients.

So some patients may have had to suffer for longer than what they should off because it was hard to get medication that was going to cure what the patients had. They had doctors but not many; there would probably be one in each area. For them it would be hard work because if hundreds of people became ill they would have to try and cure and help all of them as soon as possible before anything spread to others or if it became worse. Nowadays, everything has improved since the 19th century. Hospitals are extremely huge with thousands of beds and many nurses and Doctors that are there to help and make people better.

The beds and wards are much more advanced now; each bed is a medical bed than can be adjusted electrically. There are also curtains and clean beddings on each bed and gets changed more regular than what it would of years ago. Millions of pounds have been spent on machinery in the hospitals that help prevent patients getting more ill than what they are. For e.g. Ventilators they help people breathe if they are not capable to do so themselves while there body is mending itself. Clinics that we have in the days have improved over the years.

If anyone has a problem they can walk in to a clinic or make an appointment at the Doctors/Pharmacy to be checked out. Most often, people that need medication are prescribed for their medicines and can get it straight away. Or if not straight away, within in the next day or so if it is needed to be ordered in. There are many more Doctors in each area, so it is easier for people to be seen to when they have a problem or not feeling very well. This is good because if there was an illness going round and a lot of people were getting it, the Doctors could help prevent other people catching it by asking them to come in and be immune with medicine so they do not become ill.

Housing in the 19th century was extremely poor. In March 1840, the government were so concerned about sanitation and living conditions that they set up a Parliamentary Health Select Committee to report on Health of Towns. Its findings revealed the scale of overcrowding; this was causing extreme filth and diseases that resulted up in a widespread death. There would be a bunch of houses probably in a group of 10 that were in a block, usually with a down stairs and upstairs. For middle class people families would be living in 1 room together or if they had enough money and they were lucky they would get half of a house.

All the houses would share the toilets which were outside the buildings. This caused a lot of disease because of all the natural waste of other people that others had to be around and had to use the toilet after when they wasn’t clean at all. People would become very ill and then it would spread to others which caused a large amount of people in an area to have a serious illness which most probably would lead to death. These days, housing has increasingly changed. They are much cleaner and people own them there self and do not have to share unless it isn’t their property and it’s a home that holds many people.

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People also rent houses that they can then say its there’s until they move out and is then owned by someone else. People have money for cleaning products to clean their house which is good because if nothing was cleaned people could become poorly from filth that can cause infection’s and diseases that people could then catch. Each and every house has either 1 or more toilets within the household. Neighbours do not have to share a toilet outside the house like they used too, they all just share within their house mates, which is so much cleaner. However, even though the housing conditions have improved by a lot in the past years, there are still some areas that are poorly looked after which affect people living around there. There are council houses all over each city that people live in but they do not own it it’s the councils and usually these houses are not in the best condition because people in it cannot afford to look after it properly.

Many new drinks were invented in the 19th century and early 20th century. India Pale Ale was first made about 1820. Pimms was invented in 1823. The first golden lager was invented in Bohemia (Czech Republic) in 1842 by a man named Joseph Groll. The widget for beer cans was patented in 1985. Back in the day there were quite a few drinks about and people would happily drink them. Even if they didn’t know what was inside of them. It was mainly work men that consumed the most. After work they would head to a bar of somewhere that sells alcohol and they would have a few people they went home to see their family. Through the 1800’s young children could drink there was no law to say there was a restricted age on drinking alcohol. However in 1923 a law was passed in Britain banning the sale of alcohol to people under 18.

People may not of known how much they could drink until it would become dangerous. People were drinking non-stop at some points a then became very poorly. In Britain these days, the same law is around for the no drinking unless 18 years or over. However, when buying alcohol now if the person looks under the age of 25 years the person that is selling the alcohol needs to ask for an ID to make sure they are not selling it to someone that is under aged. Britain has also been known to be called ‘Binge Britain’ this is because so many people binge drink every week. Every night and especially on the weekends a lot of people end up in hospital getting their stomach pumped because they have consumed too much alcohol and have passed out because they are so dehydrated and their body cannot handle any more of the bad liquid.

Income from the 19the century to now has changed massively. Years ago people would work hard and for long hours of the day and get paid such small amounts. In the 1800’s wages and average living standards were extremely low and 45% would actually amount to very little. In 1834 the weekly wage of an average agricultural worker was nine shillings. It’s the equivalent of 45p and would be worth just under £48 today. A lone mother would get just over four shillings a week, roughly the equivalent of 20p, which would be worth an estimated £19 today. This could of and most probably effected peoples health because they may not off been able to afford certain products for themselves or their family. Someone may have been poorly and needed particular items to make them better and if they couldn’t be bought then that person would have to suffer, Nowadays wages are different to what they used to be.In this essay I am going to talk the patterns and trends of health and ill health among different social groupings. I will talk about each pattern and trend in its own paragraph, Social class, Gender, Ethnicity, Age and Geographical location. I will talk about the links between these to health issues. I will back these up through the use of evidence such as statistics. I will then conclude what I have found out. Firstly I will talk about each pattern and trend. Social Class

Social class helps to deter the reasons for individual’s health and ill health. Social classes also help with understanding health and ill health, this is done through the basis of individuals lifestyle class, for example the lower class who work in the worst conditions and have the lower ranked jobs are seen to have the poorer health. Were as the higher class are them which work in jobs that mean they work higher into the society such as office work. Meaning they’re less likely to contract or suffer with an illness or such like because their environment is completely different. Another thing which means individuals is more likely to have better health care, due to their higher position in society and better paid jobs. Yet as society has developed further more, The Equality Act 2010, now covers individuals to receive fair payments no matter your class ranking or your gender. [NVLE]

Social class determines a lot of health and ill health trends across the world. There is overwhelming evidence that this is the case and that life expectancy is due to this rating system of social classes. Members of higher social classes are living longer and experiencing better healthcare than members of the lower social classes. For example if someone of lower class comes it a health care profession with an issue but is drunk they’re treat noticeably different to the higher class people who need medical help. Research in the past such as the black report has shown that differences in health and well-being were an effect of the level of peoples income, as well as the quality of their housing and the environment which they lived and worked in. [Stretch and Whitehouse 2010]

As you can see here, that social class plays a large part in the whole families health as well. It also shows us that the individuals who are in the higher social class, the ones with the high income, have a better chance when the individual comes to being treated and have a better chance because of the factors of their housing, income and the wider range of opportunities available with that amount of money readily available to them. This demonstrates the huge difference based around their background, jobs and life compared to an individual who has a much less income and is in the bottom of the class rankings. There are several different influence which can cause this to happen for the individuals, a lot of chances can be taken away from the individual as a result of the social class system, as this demonstrates it can be very unfair to certain individuals. [change In the social world]


Gender plays a larger role in individuals health. This plays a large part on the individuals choices and opinions which take place, this is because of the rights which men hold compared to the ones which women held. This plays a big part in the individual based around their work and past experiences, for example women pay for attention about their health because they seek more medical help about things compared to men, this is because of their background such as working history and women have more attention towards their health care. This means that women gain the necessary treatment at a more beneficial time based around their illness because of their more frequent trips to doctors and medical professions, who diagnose them with an illness or issue which enables them to receive the adequate care. Were as men don’t tend to visit the doctor as regularly, meaning they don’t gain the same treatment and often die at younger age. This is called Disease prevalence. From here the main thing which medical professions tend to diagnose women with is depression.

Gender also determines how the individuals treatment is seen and how their illness is advanced, this means that most of the time men’s treatment is more intense because they leave the issue to progress compared to women. Another thing is that women tend to live longer than men and this is proven by statistical graphs, these show that women live a longer life then men.

The reasons for this are based around women and men, these show different variation in lifestyles and job workings etc. This graph shows the life expectancy over several years has increased, but it has shown that the male gender has still increasing at a lower level then female gender. [AIHW]

There are many other issues associated with gender, these are associated around the lifestyle factors and habits such as smoking. There is a higher death rate based around males which can be linked with their higher levels of smoking and drinking. This is also based around the individuals participating in dangerous sports and activities. This Is based around their need for more adventure and risk taking, this can also be linked with road accidents. Meaning a higher death rate for males between 17 and 24. [Stretch and Whitehouse 2010]


The link between race and illness is difficult to study systematically because there are several different racial types or races throughout the world and travelling has become more available these racial types have expanded. Another thing which means finding patterns and trends based around an individuals racial type has become harder, is the fact that there are now more difficult, because a lot of small ethnical groups live within inner city areas. The connection based around individuals living within cities is poorer housing, pollution and higher employment and deprived areas. This means that its harder to deter whether the individuals poor health is because of the their ethnicity or poverty.

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As well as the implications of higher poverty and the lack of access to health services throughout the area of that individual. Another issue based around trying to treat individuals is language and cultural difficulties, these are things which are standing in the way of individuals being able to receive health care or limit the access to certain health care. An issue which also means that individuals struggle around the basis of health care, such as religious and cultural matters, this is supported by the fact that Asian people, they speak little English and require a female doctor.

Due to the issue of different racial groups and the several different languages and due to everyone having different first languages, then individuals may need different communication techniques such as translators. Due to these being in a short supply then these aren’t often in place. Health and social care workers need to understand individuals cultural and religious belief, this means that people need to be fully met, if not then the individual is being left vulnerable to higher levels of ill health. [Stretch and Whitehouse 2010]


As people age you expect them to suffer a certain amount of difficulties, such as body functions becoming less efficient and them becoming less agile. As time has progressed this has changed, now people over the retirement age are more fit, healthy . these individuals contribute to our society through paid work, voluntary actions/ activities and caring for people throughout their families. This is supported by the 2001 census which revealed that 342,032 people ages 65 and over provided 50 hours or more unpaid care per week.

It also remains true that there is a higher level of illness among the older population and particularly among the people over the age of 75. Throughout a 3 month period in 2003, 24% of people over the age of 75 attended causality or out-patients department of a hospital, compared with 14% of people of all other ages. These statistics are from the General Household Survey 2003.The Alzheimer’s Society in 2007 estimated that one in 20 people over 65 and one in five people over the age of 80 suffered from dementia. [Stretch and Whitehouse 2010] (extend)

Age is something which creates several different patterns, this is based around the fact that as people age they become more prone to extracting an illness or disease or something such as a life long problem. This means that the individuals require more treatment and help. Yet as this treatment and helps is advancing the individuals life expectancy is continually increasing. Yet as you can see in the older generations, that the individuals with longer life expectancy are women, this can reflect back to the factors which are demonstrated in gender, the men go out smoking, drinking and socialising, were as the women tend to stay at home caring for their family and are deprived from those opportunities. This shows that the women tend to be healthier and live longer with less health problems.


There are also regional variations in patterns of health and illness. Throughout different parts of the country mortality and morbidity rates vary and also within towns and cities throughout the UK. The poorer regions and the poorer parts of cities have a higher level of illness. This can be based around the pollution and deprived areas within the cities. This is because of poorer sanitation and poorer facilities throughout the area. This can also be related to groups and people within the area, such as gangs. This can aslo be related to crime within that area, meaning that the safety and the area has become more deprived.

For example, research has identified that there are regional trends in the incidence of lung cancer across the UK. Within England the rates of people with lung cancer are higher than average in the north-west, northern and Yorkshire regions and below average in the south-western, southern and eastern regions. [Stretch and Whitehouse 2010]

Location reflects and accounts for many areas of health and social care which are based around the individual, for example the availability of health care professions for the varying ages. You may have to travel at distance to reach a suitable health care profession, this can be based on the fact that if you live within a small area in a city which is seen as deprived and has high levels of crime, then people may be unprepared to work within the area. Another factor may be based around the community of people within that area, such as ethnicity groups and people who use drugs, alcohol and such like, these may never think about seeking medical help as they’re unaware of their body and if anything is wrong. This is all based around the individual developing trends and patterns of ill health around certain areas because of their needs and problems, poorer living conditions and pollution within that

area. [NVLE]

I conclude form what I have written above, that all of these, Social class, Gender, Ethnicity, Age and Geographical location of the individual, plays a large part based around the individuals health. I have found that many lifestyles factors have contributed to the individuals health, yet equal many judgemental factors have also contributed to the individuals health. I found that social class has contributed to the individuals health because of their availability to wider health care and the prices which may have relation to their illness. Were as gender has contributed to the individuals health because of their leisure and more daring activities and lifestyle choices which they consume, as well as their working area. Ethnicity has contributed to the individuals health care based around the fact the individual has moved and is living within a small area which may be deprived, (linking with location) and is unable to communicate and pay for their health care because of the move and change. Age contributes to the individuals health care because of the growing issues related to becoming older and now having to look after younger family members, this has also been contributed to because of their lifestyle when they were in their teens and early adulthood and the choices they made then such as smoking. Location has contributed to health care because of the area in which the individual can afford to live and the events which may happen within that area, such as crime and the poor facilities around. As I have concluded there are many contributions throughout these health and social care patterns and trends, they all have their own individual way of contributing to the individuals care.


[AIHW] 2013. Life expectancy.[Online] Available at [Accessed 10th March 2014]

Health and Social Care Level Btec level 3 book , Beryl Stretch and Mary Whitehouse 2010


[change in the social world]2009. [Online] Available at [Accessed 10th March 2014]

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Everyone is born into this world by the choice of the parents, no one asked for it. And so we all have no choice into which country we are born, who our parents are, what sex we are, and the colour of our skin. But all of these factors combined give us our culture. It makes us who we are. As we grow older our parents or peers instil us with a set of beliefs, moral and social, and this stays with us up to the age where we are able to think and act independently. Then we are able to change these beliefs to that of our own. This then allows us to have a set of preferences for the way we live our life. What happened in our past we cannot change, and it is from our past that gives us our heritage. Who we are and where we came from. All of these beliefs, culture and heritage are personal to us, make us who we are, they are an everyday important tool in the way we live our lives. Though they are not defined! We can change and we must change in certain environments.

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However does this mean that when we are in the workplace we can forget our own identities and that of others? No. It means that we have a common set of values that we will all abide by in order to treat all people fairly. For example not treating male residents any different to female residents, offering them the same opportunities. But we must also understand very clearly that each individual has their own set of beliefs, culture and heritage and that we must not discriminate base on this. What we can do is learn to understand this. Embrace it and promote it. It is very easy to believe that our own way of doing thing is correct and anyone different is wrong or inferior. This is due to a lack of understanding of the unknown.

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In my workplace we use inclusive practise in all areas. Examples of this can be asking individuals what time they would like to be assisted to bed and not assisting all residents at a set time. It could be offering the individual a choice of clothes to wear and not making that choice for them. It could be asking the individual residents what they would like to eat and giving choice. Not giving all residents the same meal. It can be as simple as talking with the residents and not talking over them. Asking them what they want and not asking other staff members. It could be helping the residents access the local library at their convenience and not waiting for the once weekly trip by bus. These are all examples of how inclusive practise helps the residents contribute to the care they receive. This is essential in promoting wellbeing and raising standards of comfort and happiness.

Exclusive practise should not be accepted in the workplace. Examples of this could be having separate lounges and dining rooms for Male and Female residents. Having only activities that favour one gender. e.g. Knitting, flower arranging and card making. And not having an activity that would suit a male resident. It could be only celebrating Christmas in the Christian calendar and not considering those who are of another faith and allowing them to celebrate their own festival too. It could be only providing one option at meal times and not considering those who have another taste. It could be waking all residents up at the same time in order to get your jobs complete and not respecting the individual’s right to choose when they want to wake up. All of these practises hinder the progress of good care and will prevent the individual having a high sense of wellbeing.

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Health and Social Care Essay

Explain how the plan meets the health and wellbeing needs of the individual In health and social care the wellbeing of the individual is essential for all round health and well-being. Using the case of Miss JB, this essay I will explain how my plan will meet the health and wellbeing needs of this individual. To assist this process an action plan have been drawn up to support the short term, mid-term and long term goals of the individual to enable Mr JB to achieve his health and wellbeing needs. NOW TALK ABOUT WHAT HEALTH AND WELL BEING IS

A person’s health and well-being is affected by a number of different factors. In general terms, health and well-being can be defined as…… having a balanced diet (e.g. improved immunity, feeling healthy controlling weight) adequate rest and sleep (e.g. improved concentration, refreshes body, restores energy) regular exercise (e.g. improved fitness, weight control, circulation, mobility) supportive relationships (e.g. friends, family, professionals, improved self-esteem, self-worth) adequate financial resources (e.g. social security benefits, free prescriptions, free dinners, pension, mobility allowance)

stimulating work, education and leisure activity (e.g. improve mental ability, valued) According to Mr JB BMI he is considered to be overweight and he does not get much exercise or sleep. Mr JB also lives in a confined space, sharing 2 bedrooms flat with 7 people. He is takes paroxetine and mirtazapine for stress and depression and does not spend any time with his family. Mr JB is at high risk I have created a plan to help improve Mr JB health and well-being. I have suggested the Mr JB move out of his parent’s house and buy a house of his own on a long term goal. I have also suggested to him that he could rent as an alternative action. The benefit of Mr JB owning his own home is he will have his independence, having his own space for him and his family and feel less stress about living with his parents. Having regular exercise will help Mr JB to lose weight; I have suggested that he exercise three times a week on a mid-term goal. For an alternative action he needs to lose 3 stone in 3-6 months. He need to join a gym, drink more water and eat healthy (five a day fruit and vegetable).

The benefits he will get are self-confidence, energy which will help him to spend time with his family, relief of stress and reduce the risk of a heart attack. Regular physical activity can help you prevent or manage a wide range of health problems and concerns, including stroke, metabolic syndrome, type two diabetes, depression, and certain types of cancer, arthritis and falls. Mr JB will also need to take paroxetine gradually. Stop Paroxetine hydrochloride abruptly can cause withdrawal symptoms or cause your original condition to return. In these instances, reducing the dose of Paroxetine hydrochloride gradually over time may reduce the chances of having these problems. Spending quality time and creating happy memories with his family will help reduce stress and strengthen the bond between him and his family which will result in being more relax less stress and help him to stop depending on his medication.

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I have suggested that he stop smoking because the amount he smoke long term can cause lung cancer, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alternatively he should reduce that amount he smoke daily from 10 cigarettes a day to 3 a day and also used Nicorette patches to help him to stop over a period of 6 months on a short term plan. If he decides to follow the plan to stop smoking the result can be rewarding; less stress, reduce headache, feeling less tired, your sense of taste and smell improve and your heart will be less strained and work more efficiently which reduce that chance of lungs cancer and heart diseases. The recommended amount of alcohol to drink for a man is 21 units a week. Mr JB drinks 28 units a week. Your liver processes alcohol. It can only cope with so much at a time. Drinking more alcohol than the liver can cope with can damage liver cells and produce toxic by-product chemicals.

The more you drink, and especially above the recommended limits, the greater the risk of developing serious problems such as: liver disease (cirrhosis or hepatitis); cancer; gut and pancreas disorders; depression; anxiety; sexual difficulties; muscle and heart muscle disease; high blood pressure; damage to nervous tissue; serious accidents; obesity (alcohol is calorie-rich). Also can mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and various other problems. I have suggested that Mr. JB reduce his alcohol intake by 19 units a week which is just under the recommended amount. The benefit of reducing his intake will reduce his chance of liver disease;

You will immediately start having more money, reduce calories in take, Your liver will begin to rejuvenate All the little aches and pains throughout your body will slowly but surely go away, Your natural energy will slowly but surely return, You will find joy in all the little things of life, Your family will love the new you When I created this plan for Mr JB I thought about his preferences and circumstances I have chosen long term, mid-term and short term goal for him to achieve. I thought about what are his favourite five a day and encourage him to buy the and gradually introduce new ones if need. Mr JB like the idea of going to the gym so I suggested he join one, he work on shift base, so when he is on late shift I suggest that he take his younger child to school in the morning and pick them up when he is on early shift which will enable to spend more time with his children.

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Health and Social Care Essay

Explain how communication affects relationships in the work settings Depending on whether communication needs are met you can encourage an individual to participate or discourage support and trust. By making sure communication needs are met you encourage equality and promote empathy and shared understanding.

Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication Consider the person you are talking to and find out their preferred method of communication by seeking out advice from their care plan or family and friends, you have to take into consideration their language, weather they use sign language, prompt cards or expressions etc. Observing the individual while they communicate will give you a good indication of their preferred method of communication.

Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways. Hand gestures, voice tones, languages and touch are all methods of communication but may be interpreted or used differently with people from different backgrounds or cultures. for example i may shout to express annoyance and another individual may shout to show excitement.

Identify barriers to effective communications

Barriers may include: Not understanding or being aware of an individual’s beliefs, needs, wishes, values and culture. Not making communication aids available or making sure they are in working order. Being dismissive and unresponsive. Not taking the time to listen and understand, not giving the person a choice to talk in privacy and being in a noisy environment.

Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively To help an individual communicate sufficiently you can obtain support from the persons GP, family/ friends, Social worker and advocate. You can ask for help also of speech and language services, translation services and interpreting services

Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality

Confidentiality means to keep information safe and private. You should only pass on information when having obtained consent from the individuals, on a need to no basis or when the individual is in immediate danger

Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns. This may be breeching a person’s confidentiality and not respecting the individual’s right to privacy. Putting the rights of others before the individual and it could also be a safe guarding issue

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Explain expectations about own work role as expressed in relevant standards I am expected to adhere to the contract that my company has put in place that I signed on accepting the job role and the job description. I am expected to work within the company and legal guidelines.

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