Effects of Unemployment Essay

The stabilization of human personalities; every individual child or adult needs emotional security and a source of release from stresses and strains of every day life. This provided by emotional support of partners and the chance for parents to indulge with their children. This helps to prevent stress from overwhelming the individual and threatening the stability of family and society. Parents provides economic support to its members particularly when they are young, paying for expensive personal items as well as child care.

This financial support at times can be extended beyond infant hood with extra cost such as private education or higher education. Other functions of individuals in employment, tend to provide economic and emotional support when a member of the family is ill, disabled or in poverty. Financially stable families offer economic, cultural and social support that allows status and the prospects of social mobility for its members. But all this can be changed by a single life event in a person’s life as well as their families and it can be significantly devastating.

A persons health and well being is significantly influenced by the life events and the effects of the social environment that they live in. these events can effect our health and wellbeing when a change of circumstances occurs. The aim of this essay is to explore how this life of events can change a person’s health and wellbeing for example: psychologically, physically, and socially and their behaviour. Events like losing a job has a great impact on a person’s life and their family members, it can also affect a person’s health and well being.

A financially stable person losing their source of income can be devastating and can cause emotional distress and depression. (NHS research 2009) states that the most common cause of stress in today’s society is relationship breakdown, loss of a job, money issues and moving house. Stress can result fro, continuous causes, changeable, unpredictable or predictable causes e.g. life events or occupational demands (psychology through diagrams). Homes and rahe (1967) states that stress can be caused by greater susceptibility to physical mental health disorders (psychology through diagrams p. 194) stress can lead to a person’s behaviour change.

A person might start smoking to try and relieve stress. (Dr Parrot American medical journal) states that smokers mistakenly believe that cigarette smoking can help relieve stress. (Live bates) director of ASH explains further that cigarette smokers experience the relief from their addiction but of stress. Cigarette dependency can gradually disappear when one makes a choice to quit. Smoking is addictive and is harmful to a person’s health internally and also externally.

Smoking causes high blood pressure, raised heart beats , shortness of breath, chronic coughing , impotence and infertility, long term smokers have a higher risk of developing respiratory track infection and lung cancer which means smoking can cause death. Recent studies show that thousands of people all over the world die each year from medical complications which are caused by smoking (smoking advice information). In the United States smoking remains the greatest preventable cause of death (journal of environmental and public health 2012 may 4th).

Smoking is another expensive addiction which can add more strain on a non income household. Smoking is an addiction and addictions need feeding, that means that the little money that coming into the house hold could be spent on feeding the addiction , leaving no money for food, rent and basic things which sustain a house hold. This leads to changing diet to cheaper food stuffs which are most likely to be unhealthy. Low income leads to an unhealthy diet which mostly is high in sugar and fat. Leading this new life style can cause a person to become obese and can also affect their health and well being. (Drewnowski, 2010) healthy food is more expensive than unhealthy food.

Unhealthy food is easily accessible in low income households there fore it is seen as the easiest option even thought they are full of sugar, unrefined grams of fat Diet which is full of sugar and fat is not good for human bodies because it leads to health problems. Children who suffer from blood pressure and high type 2 diabetes, Are at high to a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Also children are likely to become obese when they grow up. (2009 paediatric nutrition s. system) (Minister for public health) stresses that, it is a heart-breaking fact family from low income survive from bad food and they are at high risk from obesity. Most of the families on low income are people who are on benefits.

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DR Gerry Spence comments that most families on benefits suffer from obesity and they most likely rely on eating out of the chippy and on convenience stores. Also once a person loses his or her job the effect s can be devastating if they cannot be able to keep up with their mortgage, their home is at risk of being repossessed which could lead to homelessness, homelessness starts in reduction of availability of affordable housing and economic stresses in society. This leads to families having to move to different areas which they can afford.

Moving houses and changing school can b devastating to both children and parents. Children’s education can be highly affected by this change of school environment according to Stuart hall and Janet pawney; homelessness could have a very bad effect on a child’s education and health. In most cases when people are evicted or lose their housing due to other causes, most of them are housed by their local councils, if they are lucky they can be offered a council house. Most of the council houses according to parents and professionals are not present at all.

Most of them are in very poor states of repair and also might be damp and mouldy which can affect a person’s health and well being for example dampened accommodation can cause respiratory conditions to worsen. Also in this situation children are more exposed to tobacco smoke lack of study space and also lack of sleep at night as a result of a rowdy neighbourhood. This change of location affects adults as well as children. Children can become lonely because they have left their families or have not been able to make friends.

They feel isolated and this can lead to social isolation which is another cause of poor health. According to (R.C.N) people who are from socially included neighbourhood experience poor health outcome this include self reported health morbidity and life expectancy. Also children from socially excluded neighbourhoods are more likely to get involved in crime. They may get involved with other children in the neighbourhood or school who are involved in unhealthy activities for example drugs, alcohol and smoking.

These activities are usually caused by children joining gangs who participate in these events. The peer pressures caused by the gangs are what lead to these unhealthy activities. Office of (D.P.M 2004 September 9th) states that in most cases social exclusion is concentrated in the poorest communities and neighbourhoods. When a person is socially excluded they find it hard to creatively take part in most of the society’s activities for example taking part in local elections, leisure centres which are available in the community.

This can have a long term effect on them when they grow up; they might find it very hard to achieve good grades which can lead to unemployment in the future. (DPM 2004) states that education can be used to predict future outcomes in the areas of employability, health, criminal activity and earnings. This can also be used to achieve a reduction in social exclusion. In this we have discovered that social exclusion is the gap between those who are forced to the fringe and those who are active members of the society. We have seen how socially exclusion can affect our health and wellbeing.

Also our behaviour, we have seen that social exclusion can have a great impact on children’s education which can determine their future employability, health, criminal activities and earnings. This essay explores how we live can affect our health and wellbeing. It van have an impact on a persons mental health, behaviour and physical health problems. This essay shows how a one event can have a big impact on the whole family involved. It can affect the present and their tomorrow (future). The evidence shows that once a change of events in ones life and how the person deals with it negatively, it can be devastating. This is because our bodies react differently to stress.

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Abnormal psychology by Richard gross& rob mcllvoen

Http://www.smokingadvice.info/smoking-advice/effects-of-smoking.php http://www.hindawl.com/journals/jeph

www.ash .org.uk/beyondsmokingkills.co.uk


AS & a level psychology through diagram by Grahame hill


The guardian July 9th 2013


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Effects of Unemployment Essay

Psychological Effects of Unemployment and Underemployment

The current state of the economy continues to be an enormous stressor for Americans, with 78 percent reporting money as a significant source of stress (APA, 2009). Unemployed workers are twice as likely as their employed counterparts to experience psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, low subjective well-being and poor self-esteem (Paul & Moser, 2009). Like unemployment, underemployment (e.g., people working part-time because they cannot find full-time employment) is unequally distributed across the U.S. population, with women, younger workers and African Americans reporting higher rates of involuntary part-time employment and low pay, as well as higher proportions of “discouraged” workers who have given up on searching for a job (McKee-Ryan et al., 2005). Unemployment not only affects those who lose their jobs. Coworkers who are still employed may experience a heavier work load and suffer from anxiety that they too will soon be unemployed, (Kivimaki, Vahtera, Elovainio, Pentti, & Virtanen, 2003). Unemployment and underemployment also affect families and communities. ————————————————-

Effects on Families

According to the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues’ Policy Statement “The Psychological Consequences of Unemployment,” the stress of unemployment can lead to declines in individual and family well-being (Belle & Bullock, 2011). The burden of unemployment can also affect outcomes for children. The stress and depressive symptoms associated with job loss can negatively affect parenting practices such as increasing punitive and arbitrary punishment (McLoyd, 1998). As a result, children report more distress and depressive symptoms. Depression in children and adolescents is linked to multiple negative outcomes, including academic problems, substance abuse, high-risk sexual behavior, physical health problems, impaired social relationships and increased risk of suicide (Birmaher et al., 1996; Chen & Paterson, 2006; Le, Munoz, Ippen, & Stoddard, 2003; Verona & Javdani, 2011; Stolberg, Clark, & Bongar, 2002). ————————————————-

Effects on Communities

Widespread unemployment in neighborhoods reduces resources, which may result in inadequate and low-quality housing, underfunded schools, restricted access to services and public transportation, and limited opportunities for employment, making it more difficult for people to return to work (Brisson, Roll, & East, 2009). Unemployed persons also report less neighborhood belonging than their employed counterparts, a finding with implications for neighborhood safety and community well-being (Steward et al., 2009). High unemployment and growing income inequalities are key factors in declining social climate (International Labour Office, 2010). The United Nations (2010) claimed that growing social inequality fueled by extended, global unemployment will increase social unrest and tension and a growing sense of unfairness. Increasing inequality in advanced economies is fundamentally linked to growing rates of physical, emotional, social and political disorder (Wilkinson & Pickett, 2010). ————————————————-

Unemployment and Stress in Different Populations

Unemployment does not affect all groups equally. Rates are higher among Latinos/as (13.1%) and African Americans (15.7%) than European Americans (9.5%). Immigrants (Kochhar, 2009) and people with disabilities (Shapiro, 2009) are also especially vulnerable to layoffs as are those without college degrees (Leonhardt, 2009). Unemployed women report poorer mental health and lower life satisfaction than unemployed men (McKee-Ryan et al., 2005). Women are more likely to report that they have consumed unhealthy foods, or skipped a meal as a result of stress. Women are also more likely to report physical symptoms of stress, including irritability, anger, fatigue and lack of interest or motivation and energy (APA, 2009). In combination with other health disparities, the unequal impact of unemployment on some groups may have devastating effects on already vulnerable communities. ————————————————-

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Solutions and Recommendations

The negative effects of unemployment can be lessened. Individuals who face unemployment with greater financial resources, as well as those who report lower levels of subjective financial strain, report better mental health and more life satisfaction than those who experience unemployment with fewer economic resources and a greater sense of financial stress (McKee-Ryan et al., 2005). Social support can also mitigate the negative impacts of unemployment and underemployment (Belle & Bullock, 2011). For example, being married is a protective factor during periods of unemployment and underemployment (Dooley & Prause, 2004; McKee-Ryan et al., 2005). APA supports critical and proven programs to prevent unemployment and provide support for those who are unemployed, and urges Congress to: Support the National Commission on Employment and Economic Security Act. Sponsored by Representative Alcee Hastings (D-FL), this legislation would establish a national commission to study and address employment and economic insecurity and their effects on mental health.

The commission would examine issues of economic and psychological insecurity within our workforce due to employment displacement. Furthermore, the commission would provide recommendations to Congress and the President on how to reduce economic and psychological effects of unemployment. Fund job training and reemployment programs that take into account the psychological and emotional needs of workers and help prevent long-term unemployment. For example, the Michigan Prevention Research Center (MPRC), a program funded for 20 years by the National Institute for Mental Health, developed and evaluated the JOBS Program to help unemployed workers effectively seek reemployment and cope with the multiple challenges and stressors associated with unemployment and job-searching. Currently supported by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the JOBS Program is a group-based intervention that has the dual goals of promoting reemployment and enhancing the coping capacities of unemployed workers and their families. Reauthorize and expand the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program to provide temporary assistance to the long-term unemployed. APA supports more federal support for increased benefit levels for States, more time for clients to access mental health services, and suspending the work first requirement, to encourage training and education.

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