Educational Psychology Essay

Fluency is” a measure of the reader’s competence at decoding and recognizing sight words with automaticity at a specified reading level” (Pennington, 2013). It is believed that the higher the level of fluency, the higher the level of comprehension. Fluency involves three major areas: intonation, pacing, and phrasing. Intonation is the pattern of pitch change when reading a passage.

It allows the audience to tell when there’s excitement or even a question. Pacing is the speed in which the student reads a given passage, and phrasing allows the student to use “meaning and structure sources of information” to help them solve problems as they are reading (Reading Recovery, n.d.). For the purpose of this task, I will describe a three-day literacy unit including the strategies, activities, and the reason for both.

The first day of the unit to improve fluency will involve choral reading. Choral reading is when the students all read together in unison. Not only does it improve fluency, but also self confidence in students who might otherwise not like to read in front of the whole class. It is also good for building vocabulary. For the choral reading part of the unit, I will use the

book, Chicka-Chicka-Boom-Boom. This book has text with a rhyming pattern which is an excellent way to improve fluency. For the next day’s unit, I will use partner reading to try and improve fluency. The students will be paired in groups of two, one with a higher reading level to help the lower level reader. Each will read every other page from the book Alexander and the Terrible, No Good, Very Bad Day.

This book has a rhyming pattern which helps improve fluency. Partner reading encourages cooperation and supports the peer-assisted learning. The two students will re-read missed words to each other to support their partner’s reading.

The third day of the literacy unit will be a reading theater. “Reader’s Theater is a dramatic presentation of a written work in a script form” (Teaching Heart, 2008). Students are given a part from a script and practice reading their part with expressive voices and gestures.

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Reader’s Theater addresses all three aspects of oral reading fluency: intonation, pacing, andphrasi ng. Studies show that it “enhanced oral reading word recognition, comprehension, and also boosted confidence and motivation toward reading” (Millin & Rinhart, 1999). The students will read the book, The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle.

They will divided up into groups of five children, all with different reading abilities, and each reader will be assigned a number from one to five. They will each be given a script with the different parts highlighted with numbers one to five and read their particular assigned part.

Each of the three chosen strategies support the three parts of oral reading fluency: intonation, pacing, and phrasing. Repeating these strategies will help readers of all levels to improve their oral reading fluency and in the process, build their self-esteem and develop a more positive attitude towards reading.

References

Millin, S. K., & Rinehart, S. D. (1999). Some of the benefits of readers theater participation for second-grade title i students. reading research and instruction. Informally published manuscript, University of West Virginia, Morgantown, West Virginia, , Available from Title I. Pennington, M. (2009, June 15). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://penningtonpublishing.com/blog/reading/how-and-why-to-teach-fluency/Teacher’s Heart. (2008, July). Reader’s theater. Retrieved from http://www.teachingheart.net/readerstheater.htm

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Educational Psychology Essay

Education is essential to the success of the individual and communities. Public schools are charged with the responsibility of preparing students for college/university; while college/university are expected to prepare students for the work force. An inclusive approach to teaching; learning and assessment is forseen in the ‘The Revised National Curriculum Statement’, as part of this result we as teachers need to address barriers that learners may experience. As teachers we will only succeed in doing this if we are aware of social; emotional; physical as well as other barriers our students may experience.

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We as future teachers have to try get the necessary resources even though the inadequate number of schools and available classrooms restricts the effort to supply in the need for education. I as a teacher would look into starting charity fundraisers even getting the children involved in order to get the necessary funds to help my school with the lack of resources etc. The language of teaching and learning, can be a barrier seeing as some parents cannot read or write the language of teaching, they are not equipped to assist with homework or projects .

As a teacher I would try to start an afterschool programme in which students can ask for help with certain homework or projects they may experience problems with. 2. SOCIETAL BARRIERS Includes Sever Poverty; Late Enrolment; gangs/violence at home or in neighbourhoods; gender issues in cultural groups and societies. I will go on to discuss Severe Poverty which is a large barrier to learning (in any country) but in S. A in particular. If students don’t have access to their basic needs such as: nutrition; shelter; water; electricity; toilets; transport and basic medical treatment.

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As teachers we should be well educated about the pandemic HIV-AIDS, I as teacher will make sure I understand and have the necessary skills and knowledge to be of help to my students whom have been diagnosed. I will also incorporate a week in my curriculum to dedicate to HIV-AIDS to my students in which I will have them do some research and I will explain the necessary knowledge my students need to know, and by so doing reduce the chances of my students being discriminated or labelled. 3.

PEDIGOGICAL BARRIERS

Insufficient support of educators; inappropriate and unfair assessment procedures and inflexible curriculums. Seeing guidance regarding inclusive assessment methods is given in the ‘Guidelines Document’, which was published in ‘National Department in Education in June;2002′; states that the curriculum can be very inflection in nature and not meet the diverse needs of all learners. Therefore I as a teacher would ensure that all learning styles are accommodated in my classroom.

Ensure that my students will be allowed to work at their own pace which in turn will also make no child feel left behind and faster students impatient, I will also ensure that no learner is excluded from any subjects based on gender; religion; and physical disability. 4. MEDICAL BARRIERS Sadly there are more than 4000 medical causes of disabilities in learners. To name but a few: sensory disabilities; neurological disabilities; physical disabilities and cognitive disabilities. As a teacher I would pay special attention to my learners as well as observe them closely in order to diagnose a problem as soon as possible.

As a teacher I will always maintain an organised classroom, be prepared with a clear vision of what I would like to achieve on a specific day as well as have a ruff plan of what I would like to achieve in a year. I will ensure that my students will always know their routine and what I expect of them. My classroom will be a safe and supportive environment.. I will make sure I’m able to adapt my teaching practice when necessary, I will also do my best at maintaining as flexible curriculum as possible.

I will always keep learning and educating myself so as to be able to identify as well as understand barriers to learning; in turn making sure I have the necessary knowledge to to adapt my teaching and assessment methods, to assist each child with a barrier in my classroom, As a teacher in my community, I will pay attention to all the above mentioned barriers; make sure all students get the best education possible. I will be sensitive to my students needs as well as my communities needs. SOURCE: curriculum-wecape. school. za/resource_files/40112654_inclusive_eng_12-27. doc

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I like to believe that everyone has their own goals and dreams they would like to accomplish. Every person’s dreams and goal differ from one another. My name is Gwendolyn Pavon, and I too, have goals and dreams that I hope to accomplish. Having a future and a good career is something I have always dreamed about. My current academic goals are to stay in school. Being in school is my main priority, and focusing on my schoolwork is important to me. I have the opportunity to be in school and receive financial help and I won’t let this opportunity pass by.

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I’m not the smartest person out there, but I know that I’m a pretty bright person. Although being in school isn’t something I like so much, I have decided to continue going. My weaknesses as a learner outweigh my strengths. I can get very distracted easily and I have trouble staying focused on a topic. I have to constantly remind myself to get back on topic.

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Getting distracted interferes with my learning, but I work at it every day to try to focus on my work. The good thing is that if something really interests me, I give it my full attention.

Being in school and sitting through fifty minute classes isn’t something I always enjoy but I do have days where I enjoy the classes. Focusing on my school work will be a little complicated for me, but I’m willing to put in all my effort to continue my education. Getting an education, being successful, and accomplishing my goals and dreams are really important to me. I will prove to people that I will be successful and continue getting an education.

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Educational Psychology Essay

1. Understand the principles and requirements of assessment. 1. 1. Explain the function of assessment in learning and development. Lambert and Lines (2000) define assessment as “the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to educational tasks. ” While this is an acceptable definition of assessment (as regards an educational definition), Graham Butt (Into Teaching: Part 2) expands on this definition by proposing that assessment has four main roles within teaching and learning.

Firstly, it provides feedback to teachers and students about each child’s progress in order to shape their future learning (a formative role). This is very similar to the diagnostic role of assessment in pin-pointing the precise cause of a child’s difficulty. The second role of assessment is that it provides information about the level of students’ achievements at a particular point, for example at the end of a school year or at the end of a Key Stage (a summative role). The third role of assessment is as a tool by which selection by qualification can be achieved (a certification role).

Finally, assessment helps people to judge the effectiveness of the education system as a while (an evaluation role). Prior to the work of Black and Wiliam (1998) very little was known about the formative role of assessment within teaching and learning, and it was clear that by 1997 the assessment emphasis within England and Wales was clearly focused on the function of assessment in learning and development is primarily to provide a measurable barometer for the students’ progress.

The key to effective practice is to be able to work out what a child’s specific needs are at one time, and to find ways of creating opportunities for them to succeed (Moyles and Robinson, 2002:281). Assessment is carried out through formative (checks throughout the course), impassive (to test against previous marks), and/ or summative (at end of course) activities to help the learner see their development whilst allowing the Assessor to give valuable feedback when appropriate.

Its purpose is to measure the learners understanding of the subject against the anticipated outcomes set by the criteria. For example, assessment provides clear measurement and recording of achievement during a course that provides identification of individual achievement or learners’ needs. I have found that by creating quizzes on socrative. com and/ or google forms that I can capture formative evidence of learners understanding of a task prior to the assessment deadline so I can intervene to give extra help.

It is widely recognized that the form and content of student assessment strongly influence students’ attitudes to study and quality of learning (Ramsden, 1997; Shepard, 2000). The learner’s development is typically measured using formative or summative assessment that meets criteria in a fit-for-purpose Assignment and consequently reflects the required standards and performance/ assessment criteria in any given course. The purpose is to monitor development via evidence that can be quantified and used as performance review/ targets/ benchmarking throughout a course.

From an Assessors point of view it is essential to ensure that assessment decisions are consistently reviewed and internally/externally verified where possible so as to contribute to the awarding institutions quality assurance and on-going development of best practice. 1. 2. Define the key concepts and principles of assessment. Principles are rules and functions of assessment which are based upon the concepts. (Gravells A. 2011, Principles and practice of assessment in Life Long Learning Sector).

The key concepts and principles of assessments include: Continuing professional development – At all times maintaining currency of knowledge and competency to ensure assessment practice is up to date. Equality and Diversity- all assessment activities embrace equality, inclusivity, and diversity and respect all aspects of society. Ethics: ensuring the assessment process is honest and moral, and takes into account confidentiality and integrity. Fairness –activities should be fit for purpose, and planning, decisions and feedback justifiable.

Health & Safety- ensuring these are taken into account throughout the full assessment process, carrying out risk assessments as necessary. Assessment methods must be suitable for the candidate’s needs. For example, a learner must have an option for an alternative whereby a mental or physical threat to their well-being could be presented by the assessment. Motivation- encouraging and supporting my learners to reach their full potential at an appropriate level. Quality assurance- this is an integrated process ensuring assessment decisions meet the qualification standards, and assessors are carrying out their role correctly.

Record Keeping- ensures accurate records are maintained throughout the learning and assessment process, communicating with others for example and awarding organisation. SMART- ensuring all assessment activities are specific, measurable, achievable, time bound and realistic Standardisation- ensuring the assessment requirements are interpreted accurately and that all assessors are making comparable and consistent decisions. Reliability – The assessment decisions must be by an assessor with competence in the discipline the work relates to so as to ensure a judgment that is informed by a professional perspective.

Risk assessments of locations my media student’s film in serve both to extend the learners understanding of health and safety whilst helping them help me make our learning space everyone’s responsibility. VACSR- is another important principle ensuring all assessed work is Valid: all the work is relevant to the assessment criteria. Decisions must be justified with clear referencing of assessment criteria stated by the examining body. Another Lecturer should be able to award the same grade for the piece of work as the same standardisation method is the barometer NOT the opinion of the assessor.

Authentic: the work has been produced solely by the learner. Current: the work is still relevant at the time of assessment. Sufficient: the work covers all the assessment criteria. Reliable: the work is consistent across all learners, over time and at the required level. (Gravells A. 2011, Principles and practice of assessment in Life Long Learning Sector). All the subjects (theory or practical) the assessment is carried on the basis of assessment cycle. http://www. gillpayne. com/2014/01/guide-understanding-the-training-cycle/ Purpose.

The aim, reason, and purpose of assessment is to help the learner track their progress, provide feedback, and inspire them to achieve. The trainer gains evidence of learning from assessment which can in turn be measured clearly against a criteria. This continuous assessment learning/ training cycle is designed to recognise prior learning and improve it with each assessment. The assessor grades the work so the trainer (if someone different from the assessor) can see the distance travelled on the course when compared to grades throughout the programme.

The organisation can use this quantitative data to track a class, department, and/ or, entire organisations performance in relation to peer organisations so employers can often assess their own staff’s performance. COGNITIVE The cognitive domain relates to the more traditionalist assumptions of academic/ intellectual learning. In this domain Bandler and Grinder counted ‘knowledge, comprehension/ understanding’ as well as ‘application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation’. Cognitive assessment should focus on the application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation rather than towards only the acquisition of knowledge and understanding.

To this end any theory in lectures must be made applicable in a video/ practical task that puts in to practice the idea/ terminology/ argument we have discussed – which in turn serves to consolidate and validate the learning. This domain relates to objectives concerned with knowledge and intellectual skills and there are six categories which can be used in lecturers: Knowledge: Asking learners to recall specific and general items of information (e. g. media terminology) and also information about methods (‘how do you add this effect? ‘), processes and patterns (using software such as Photoshop).

Comprehension: Encouraging recognition of items of information settings similar to but different from those in which they were first encountered e. g. relating theories and debates to contemporary issues such as Laura Mulvey’s Feminist theory of female objectification in mainstream cinema. Application: I actively build my learners understanding of our culture so they can explain previously unseen data or events by applying knowledge from other situations e. g. using simile, analogy, and metaphor in my verbal explanation/ articulation of concepts during lectures so they will do the same in their work.

Analysis: Learners are presented with problems to break down the blocks of information into elements for the purpose of clarification. This can be in the form of a provocative discussion, essay question that asks them to show comprehension of ideas in a structured essay with a clear conclusion. Synthesis: Learners are constantly asked to combine elements to form coherent units of information in their responses whether it be a Vlog, Podcast, or Written piece for Assessment. Evaluation: Throughout Assessments the learners are asked to make judgements about the value of information, materials, or methods for given purposes.

This is a common feature of each Edexcel Units as it demands reflection and growth on the part of the learner. AFFECTIVE The affective domain for Bandler and Grinder includes objectives which describe changes in interest, attitudes and values, and the development of appreciations. There are different levels of understanding: According to the theory the lowest level is where the learner is merely aware of the fact that other people have particular attitudes and values. As a learner progresses on our courses it is essential to develop this through their personal experience so they slowly develop affective ideas which are uniquely their own.

While some values are indoctrinated – respect for others’ rights, honesty, media law, understanding of morals/ ethics, the key is to enable the learner to come to this plane of understanding through a process of development and clarification in lectures. The Affective domain for Bandler and Grinder relates to objectives concerned with interest, attitudes, and values. The five levels of the affective domain from the simplest to the most complex are as follows:

Receiving: Sensitivity to certain stimuli and a willingness to receive or attend to them e. g.students receiving information from Lecturers about Media issues. Responding: Involvement in a subject or activity or event to the extent of seeking it out, working with it or engaging in it eg Twitter debates about contemporary issues such as engaging in discussion about the Woolwich attacks in 2013 using the hashtag #bcotterror Valuing:

Commitment to or conviction in certain goals, ideas, or beliefs e. g. constructing and arguing a point in an Assignment such as an essay in which the learner shows the pros and cons of existing theorists’ approaches to their Assignment subject.

Organisation: Organisation of values into a system, awareness of relevance of and relations between appropriate values and the establishment of dominant personal values e. g. constructing an essay that demonstrates structure and engaging with complex levels of conjecture, statement, and fact with objective, rigorous, scholarly approaches to balance in their argument beyond opinion. Characterisation by a Value Complex: Integration of beliefs, ideas, and attitudes into a total philosophy of world view e. g. a learner composing a project based on their own interests/ perspective informed by values acquired on course.

PSYCHOMOTOR This is largely defined as Physical and Motor skills. We work to develop key social and employability skills through what Bandler and Grinder categorise in to define as 6 categories: ‘Reflex Movements’ are developed with the use of equipment such as cameras and complex editing software to develop the involuntary motor responses to stimuli which in turn form the basis for all behaviour involving any movement.

‘Basic Fundamental Movements’ are developed by doing this as movements of using lighting, microphones, cameras etc. involve movement patterns which help the learner become more ambulatory. ‘Perceptual Abilities’ are tied in to this as they help learners to interpret stimuli so that they can develop their perception of visual and auditory risks, hazards, logistics to adjust to their environment and demonstrate coordinated abilities of eye and hand, eye and foot. Similarly the ‘Physical abilities’ of the learner are utilised and developed in our practical tasks as they are essential to efficient motor activity.

Due to the nature of a Creative Media professional the vigour of the person is tested by activities designed to measure the individual and how they meet the demands placed upon him or her in and by the environment. ‘Skilled Movements’ are a necessity in terms of storyboarding, engaging with complex editing software, and other tasks which ask the learner to efficiently perform complex movements. The learning targets are negotiated after gathering diagnostic information from the learner to gauge the potential/ possibility e. g. all skilled movement activities are based upon some adaptation of the inherent patterns of movement described in the ‘Physical Abilities’ demonstrated by the learner.

‘Non-Discursive Communication’ manifests itself relatively organically in our subject through interviews, debates, video-logs, discussions, podcasts, and any other form of media that captures a range of evidence of the developing communication skills from facial expressions to highly sophisticated choreography/ directing/ blocking of entire sets. [Source: Planning for Pre-Service Primary Teachers Prof Experience Unit, face of Education, QUT, Qld, 1998 (pp11-13)].I am a big proponent of social cognition, and I am going to use it in my classroom. I believe that is a student puts their mind to something, and they really try to accomplish that goal it can be done. In order to elicit this response one must often use the operant condition when it comes to learning. People thrive on the words of others and their praise. “In operant conditioning the organism learns that a particular behavior produces a particular consequence. If the consequence is useful or pleasurable, the organism will tend to repeat the behavior to produce the consequence again.

If the consequence is unpleasant, the organism will tend not to repeat the behavior. Pleasant consequences are sometimes called ‘rewards’, and unpleasant consequences are sometimes called ‘punishments’ (Berger p 42. )” This theory came about by the studies of B. F. Skinner. This is where I tend to move towards metacognition and self-efficacy. I believe that when a student does well on something it is quite satisfying, and they would like to see this result again. They noticed that when they studied hard the reward was the good grade. They receive their grade and self-gratification sets in.

If they did not study they may fail the test and they are then negatively reinforced because they do not want to see this result again. I want to use this conditioning and encourage my students to do well. I know they can do it; they just have to have the right attitude and behavior about it. An example of this reinforcement is if I tell my student, “good job, I really enjoyed that”, when referring to a project they did; the student will most likely work harder and come up with and even more impressive project. My student wants the affirmation that he did a good job.

The student want the positive reinforcement as it brings about a rewarding stimulus. This not only gets the student to do their work it also gets him thinking metacognitivly, which he will benefit from later on in life. He is looking at what he did to get my praise and analyzing what he did, and looking at how he can do better. This is exactly what I want from my students I want them to take an active role in their education. He does not know it, but my student through operant conditioning has arrived at a deep thought process. It is brilliant.

As teachers I believe we use operant conditioning every day. We will prompt our students with cues helping them arrive at the answer. In giving the students positive reinforcement they do get a true yearning to learn. It may start out as just for the reward, but it is my hope that eventually they realize learning is the reward. Classical conditioning is useful, and thanks to Pavlov; we see that it works. I do want to condition somethings so that there is an automatic response. For example, when I ask my students quite down they will automatically respond to my voice, I know optimistic.

In general though I prefer operate conditioning as it goes deeper into thinking. I again go with the cognitive approach when it comes to motivation. When someone internally processes something it becomes more real. It means more to them. When a student reflects on his work and looks at how he can improve upon it. This very closely reflects extrinsic motivation. Here someone does something to obtain something else. This could relate to the student who studies to obtain a good grade. I like this theory and will apply it to my classroom, because I really want to get my students gears turning.

“They emphasize the importance of creating learning environments that encourage students to become cognitively engaged and take responsibility for their learning. This goal is to get students to become motivated to expend the effort to persist and mat ideas rather than simply doing good enough work to just get my and make passing grades (Perry, Turner, & Meyer, 2006, p 467. )” If my students can come to the point of realization that studying equals doing well in the class I am in a good spot. Many students know this but they do not fully believe it because they have never tried (Wigfield, 2006, p 463.)

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Even stronger than this is intrinsic motivation. This motivation becomes so real to the student when they realize they can self-determine their outcomes. I love this method so much. The student is growing and understanding how to truly learn, they are learning that what they learn truly effects them. “In this view, students want to believe that they are doing something because of their own will, not because of external success or rewards (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001, p 464. )” They have learned to stop relying on others; they have learned to push themselves through life.

“Researchers have found that student’s internal motivation an intrinsic interest in school tasks increase when students have some choice and some opportunities to make personal responsibility for their learning (Grolnick, 2002, p 464. )” I want to motivate them by allowing them some freedom in my class. I will give my students choices because they then be more motivated to do the work with all their effort. The thing is, whatever choice they make they are still learning! Also they are processing it all through information processing to make sure that how they are acting now will be duplicated.

They know their actions constituted a response from me, which was giving them more freedom. They enjoyed this stimulus and will want it to continue, so they will work really hard. This loops them all the way back to operant conditioning and positive reinforcement! It is all connected. Another big thing with this idea is interest. “Interest is especially linked to measure of deep learning, such as recall of main ideas and responses to more difficult comprehension questions, than to surface learning, such as responses to simple questions and verbatim recall of text (Wigfield, 2006, p 466.

)” This is where I hope my passion for history comes in. I want to get my students excited about history. If I do get my students excited they will show interest and if they show interest they will understand the history at a deeper level than they normally would. My management plan also fits in with these ideas. I am going to run my classroom according to the authoritative perspective. I will be the teacher and the students will follow my rules, but they will be integrated into the classroom.

My students will have a say as to what goes on in my classroom, in our classroom (Baumrind, 1971, p 513.I will manage my classroom with effect rules that can be up for change depending if the students do not agree with the rules. “To function smoothly, classrooms need clearly defined rules and procedures. Students need to know specifically how you want them to behave. Without clearly defined classroom rules and procedures, the inevitable misunderstandings can breed chaos (Evertson & Emmer, 2009, p 515. )” I will have my procedures laid out at the beginning of the year so that the kids will have excuse when they do not follow the rules. I will be integrating William Glassers management plan.

He suggested that there be a classroom meeting every once and while. This is just a chance for the students to say yes or no regarding structures of the classroom. I will also manage my classroom by listening to what my students have to say. I want them to know that I do care. I want them to trust me. If there is mutual peace between us, there will be far less conflicts that arise. “When most of us think of your favorite teacher, we think of someone who cared about whether or not we learned. Showing that you genuinely care about student as individuals apart from their academic work helps gain their cooperation (Pianata, 2006.

)” Students feel safe and secure when the teacher shows that he cares. The classroom atmosphere if much more relaxed. It is not up tight and tense. If I teach like this a lot of anxiety and stress will be avoided. Target Group I am getting my teacher degree in secondary education. I will be teaching at the high school level. I would like to, at least some point in my career, teach in the Christian school system. I grew up in it, and I love what their mission is. I also would not mind teaching in a public school. It would be good experience for me and help me grow as a teacher.

I would like to teach in traditional public schools and in Christian schools. I would like the experience of both. Public schools would allow me to reach out to those who are really in need and to those who thirst for knowledge and cannot get it anywhere except through free public education. This would be especially true if I were in an inner city situations. I would not mind this at all as I volunteer now helping with inner city children. I have a heart for them and would love to serve as a teacher there someday. I want to offer them knowledge and help them meet their full potential.

I also would like to teach at a charter school. I observed a classroom at a charter school and I really liked. It is a good system and is run well and I would like to be a part of it, at least for a time. So, I am happy at any school; I will go where God sends me. The ages that I will be teaching will be ranging from the age of thirteen to nineteen. It is my hope that I will be teaching history. There is a scarcity of history teaching jobs right now, and I hope that will be able to find one. I absolutely love history and I really want to teach it.

The other subjects I would be teaching would be biology or just a general science class, and depending on where I teach, bible class. I would also like to teach at a smaller high school, about six-hundred to seven-hundred students. A big high school with two thousand people, I believe, is too impersonal. A smaller high school, like my own, is just the right size and encourages kids to get to know one another. Also, in a big school I could not be as relational to the students as I would want to because there would be so many in all my classes. Environment and Routines

If things are not explained clearly, or if things are not put in a well thought out manner; a teacher may run into behavior problems. In order to create good student behavior I plan to take the three-step approach that the Wongs developed. I need to teach my students how to follow procedures, or else I will run into problems. I must first explain the classroom procedure as clearly as I possibly can, and if there are questions I will answer them. Also it is a good idea to distribute my procedures at the beginning of the semester or at the beginning of a certain activity so the students know what is expected.

After I explain what is going on I should practice or rehearse the procedure until it becomes routine. “Behaviors must be taught, modeled, practiced, and retaught (Wong p 175. )” In going over the procedures repeatedly the students then understand what is expected of them. Finally I must reinforce this procedure and I also must reinforce what is the wrong procedure. After going about this my students will know exactly how to act and what is expected of them, and there should be very few behavioral problems. A positive classroom environment involves both the teacher and the student. The students must respect the teacher and his authority.

They must listen to what the teacher has to say, and they must be disciplined when they do not. The teacher also must respect the students. He must listen to what the students have to say, and he must not make it a dictatorship where the classroom is harsh and rigid in structure. The kids are only human. “A positive classroom environment encourages participation and risk-taking because students know they will not be harassed or belittled by the teacher. Students do not have to shrink within themselves to survive the forty-five minutes, ninety minutes, or full day with teacher who yells, throws things, or makes hurtful comments.

In a positive classroom environment students can make jokes, engage in their learning, banter with the teacher, and feel comfortable with the tasks given. ” (Kendrick) In a classroom a teacher should be encouraging to his students. He should let the students know that he believes in them. Students do not do well in class when their teacher does not believe in them. They stop trying, viewing themselves as failures, and it carries on later into life. I want to have a positive classroom environment. In order to achieve this I am going to teach from an authoritative classroom management style.

I will encourage my students to think for themselves, if I think for them no real learning is accomplished. I will engage my students and show that I do care about them. I will listen to what they have to say and if things need to be changed I will. I will allow them freedom within their education and learning in my classroom; but I will still clarify the rules and establish the standards with some student input. I am not there to be their friend, but I do want them to understand that I care about them and to have some say in their education.

I care whether or not I learn, and if I am doing something wrong I want them to feel comfortable telling me. To achieve a connection with the students I must be a good oral communicator. I must clearly communicate the information I am presenting. I will use words and ideas that meet the level of understanding of my class. I do not want them getting lost in my rhetoric. They will automatically tune me out if they think I am teaching above them; I have even done this myself without realizing it. Also many teachers speak way too fast and the students cannot keep up, or the teacher talks way too slow and the students are lost to boredom.

I must teach at an appropriate pace so that my students learn and remain interested. When I teach, especially in history, I must be precise. I am going to avoid being vague. My students will fail or do below their academic level if I am vague. I also will not just teach the facts; facts are what lose classes when it comes to history. History is so much more than just dates and it is still relevant today, even though they are just a bunch of, “old dead guys. ” Also I will have what I am going to do for class planned out.

I do not want to be disorganized, and I am not going to wing it through my teaching. I will have my lesson ready for each class so that I am ready to teach. The students will then have confidence in me as their teacher and I will not lose time to senseless things. (Florez, 1999) Each class period I am going to start with a couple of facts of history that happened on that day. This would just be a fun way to start off the class period. It is always to cool to see what happened in the past. I will begin each class with the objectives for the day so that the students know what we will be covering.

I will not always give out note sheets for my lesson, but sometimes I will hand out fill in the blank notes so that they can keep up and still learn. I will have them ready before hand each period. Also I do plan to have some group projects. At the beginning of the year I will number them off as to create groups of four; I believe more than this can be counter-productive. As the year goes on I will let them choose their own groups; this being because I now know the dynamics of my classroom much better, and I can switch people if I know work will not be done.

Every week I will allow the students to choose from a list of events in history relating to the period we are covering in class. I will have them explain what happened and how it relates to us today, and what we can learn from it. This project will consist of a one to two page paper and a one to two minute presentation. All history is relevant history and I want my students to understand that. As a history teacher, I would like major historical events to be represented on my walls. I am going to be going to be teaching secondary education.

I will not have the cute and cuddly decorations, but I will still have things that will bring the classroom to life. One thing I must have in my classroom no matter what, is a copy of the Declaration of Independence. I will also have the students add to the classroom with their projects and other things they do so that they feel a part of the classroom. I want to have a classroom where the students are excited to be there, in good measure of course, so that it is not so distracting that they do not learn. Twice a week I am going to hold a classroom meeting.

This is a meeting to make sure that my students are understanding the material, and that I am teaching to their needs. This is where the students really get to give their input on the class and what is going on. This idea was set forth by William Glasser. It follows my method of teaching, authoritative, and fits how I would like to relate to my students. This would take up to ten or fifteen minutes, but I do not believe it is wasted time. I will start off the meeting to see if anyone has any questions about the subject/time period we are on. I will establish if they are understanding it enough or not.

Then I will ask for suggestions on things I can improve upon, and also ask for things that they like. I will then change some things and keeps some things according to how I think the classroom would best fit the current needs of the students. I will make sure to always hand my students test within a week of the test date. I also appreciated it when the teacher had a set time that they would get my test and assignments back to me. I believe it is important for them to see how they did and then gage how they can improve for the next time. At the beginning of the year I will establish things like this with them.

They will then know what to expect from the class. I will set up my rules and regulations and procedures so that they will know how to act in my class. Also, every class period at the end I will have them write a few sentences on how what we learned in class effects us today. I want them to understand how the history we are learning relates to their own live and their interactions with others. Motivational Strategies Motivation focuses on mainly two categories, behavioral and cognitive. One of the big pushes in motivation is rewards or incentives.

These are positive or negative stimuli that drive the student to succeed. This can be allowing the student to do something special, such as playing computer games or going on a field trip. The other big approach is internal motivation. The student’s thoughts are what guide their motivation. Motivation is what pushes students forward towards their objective. The cognitive perspective encourages giving students should be given more chances to do things of their own desire and to give them more responsibility. They are then taking their education into their own hands.

They will have much more incentive to do well and strive for perfection; they are of course still monitored and rules still do apply. This strategy focuses on “goal setting, planning, and monitoring progress toward a goal (Shunk, 2008, p 462. ” If a student has a goal before them they will want to achieve it. This strategy has the student look at how their actions determine the outcome of their school work. They take responsibility and gain more incentive to do well. There are another two main types of motivation associated with behavioral and cognitive motivation : internal and external motivation.

Internal motivation is formed by our own wants, needs, and what we like to do. ” It is determined by your personal values and goals. The drive to do something because it is interesting, challenging, and absorbing is essential for high levels of creativity. Enjoyment based internal motivation is the strongest and most pervasive driver as is a belief that it is a good or right thing to do. Often it is something we pursue even without a tangible result. ” (Weisner) External motivation is the second kind of motivation. External motivation focuses much more on rewards than on one’s likes or goals.

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“Your motivation to attain your goal comes from a source outside yourself. It reflects the desire to do something because of external rewards such as awards, money, and praise. ” (Weisner) This motivation tool is much less satisfactory than internal. In my classroom I will use this motivation, but I will try to use internal motivation when I can. If a student is doing something because he is motivated by rewards it is not near as gratifying if done for self interest. I will use both in my classroom as, unfortunately; sometimes rewards and external motivators are the only ones to get them to do their work.

Some kids need incentives to be motivated to achieve their best, or to even try. They add interest or excitement to a classroom and in turn motivate them to do well. This is especially true of those who seem to not even care about the class (Emmer & Evertson, 2009, p 460. ) If I see that there is somewhat of a lack of interest in what I am teaching I could implement a game. The more they know the better they will be at the game. Most people are competitive by nature, especially those who do not care it seems. So , a game in my class would motivate them to pay attention and learn the material.

We could play history hot potato. A ball would be thrown around as history questions would be asked, if they took too long the student would have to sit down. The winner would then get maybe some extra credit points, or if I feel generous maybe some candy. In reaching the kids who do not care, I believe this is the best method. If they get something for learning they will start paying attention. This is not the most desirable, but this is sometimes the route that must be taken. (Skinner, p 236) There are also those who are just plain hard to reach; most of the time this stems from no confidence in themselves.

I will most often use the cognitive approach when it comes to this. I will encourage them to set goals. I will encourage them and I will make sure they understand that they as a student can effectively control their environment. (Shunk) I will constantly encourage them and remind them that they are smart and that they can do it. I will also use Skinner’s operant conditioning in this situation. I will use positive reinforcement. I will reinforce their work with a smile, or a “good job”. Students feed off the praise of their teachers; we as humans naturally want to please others.

Problem Behaviors The behaviors of students are not always conducive to the classroom and can cause disruptions. I will implement some rules so that they know exactly what is expected and I will have less problems. One rule that I think should be followed in my classroom is that the kids must be in their desks when the bell rings. This is a really good rule, because so much time can be lost on a class period just by making people sit down at the beginning. Another rule I would have for my classroom would be my students would have to bring all their books and materials to class.

This rule is good as it is a distraction to people when someone leaves the room. A third rule I would have in my room would be ‘hands to yourself. ‘ This rule prevents not only distraction between a couple people, but it also helps prevent distraction for others in the class. Another big rule I will have is no swearing, cursing, profanity, coarse jokes, or vulgar of any kind will be allowed in my classroom. They are not called for and should not be used, let alone in my classroom. A fifth and final rule I would implement would be that my kids would have to raise their hands to answer a question.

If the kids just blurt out answers it will be chaos and I will not be able hear what people are trying to say. These five rules will help run my class smoothly. Rules however are not a safety net against behavioral problems. When dealing with behavioral problems I am not going to send my student to the principal’s office right away. The most desirable action when dealing with behavior problems is to work it out with the student first; after trying hard to work it out if the student still refuses to listen then more drastic measures must be taken. I would at first use minor interventions.

(Evertson and Emmer, 2009, p 528. ) Nonverbal communication can be very useful when dealing with disruptions. One thing I could do is when a student is acting up is take make eye contact with them. I could give them the look, and convey with my eyes that what they are doing is not appropriate or I could make signs such as shaking my head, hand signal, or put my finger to my lips. This simple action lets the student know that they must get back on task. Another thing I could do is to keep the activity going. When there is not time in between things a student no longer has time to be disruptive.

This way one does not even have to address the behavior issue; it is eliminated by procedure. Placement can even change the behavior. I can move the spot where I am teaching from. If a student is acting up I can move over by them and usually they will quite down and get back to work. Sometimes the student just needs to be reminded what they are supposed to be doing, I could address the class reminding them what they are supposed to be doing; in doing so the distracted student gets back on task. Also, a student may just need to be told no. I would need to keep eye contact and keep my voice down.

I would address them with assertiveness and tell them that their actions are not accepted. I could also give the student a choice. He can either behave or accept the consequences. This makes him think and he will most likely choose to be good as to avoid a negative consequence. These strategies most often work as the student just gets off task and needs a little nudge in the right direction. The strategies above stem from positive and negative reinforcement and correlate with Skinner’s operant conditioning. The student, however, will not always respond to these strategies and more drastic measures.

The students will not always cooperate and sometimes more moderate action must take place. Some students will abuse privileges, be disruptive, or interfere with my work with individual students. There are always the students who completely abuse the privileges they have been given, when this happen the teacher can take it away. This takes away an activity that the students use to enjoy and the next time they will think about their actions twice. They will not want to lose their freedom again. Also if a student acts up I could remove the student from positive reinforcement.

If the student is removed from his element the gratification of his actions is taken away. I could take the student into the hall and talk to him one on one. This is never a pleasant experience and should stop the student from repeating the action; no one likes to hear, “can I see you in the hallway please. ” Also I could impose a penalty such as extra homework; this needs to be done with care so as to not stem more annoyance with the class. (Evertson, Emmet, Worsham, 2009, p 528. ) Also I could have my student attend detention for their inappropriate behavior. This enforces that their actions will not be tolerated.

“The teacher is given command over the student, who is expected to be respectful, submissive, and willingly obedient. When the pupil does not readily conform to the request made on him, discipline becomes necessary. By this is meant the use of coercive measures to bring about the desired behavior. “(Phenix p 41) If these actions still do not work a trip to the principal’s office or a phone call may be in order. Assessment Assessment is a big part of education, and helps a teacher gage how their students are doing. There are two main types of assessment in education, informal and formal.

” ‘Informal’ is used here to indicate techniques that can easily be incorporated into classroom routines and learning activities. Informal assessment techniques can be used at anytime without interfering with instructional time. Their results are indicative of the student’s performance on the skill or subject of interest. Unlike standardized tests, they are not intended to provide a comparison to a broader group beyond the students in the local project (Navarete. )” I will use a variety of informal assessment to tools to gage how my students are doing. One tool I will be using is regular homework.

This will tell me if they can grasp the subject enough that when asked to dive into the book and the content that they can give back to me a fair understanding of what is presented. Another tool I could use would be journaling. I would have my students journal about something they find interesting in what we are studying and then check how good their understanding of it is. When my class plays a game I can also check to see how well they know the material; if they are struggling for the answers something must done. Also general observation of my students is informal assessment.

I would look for participation and understanding in class, and also as I would walk around I would observe their work. (Navarete. ) “Formative assessment is utilized to immediately determine whether students have learned what the instructor intended. This type of assessment is intended to help instructors identify material which needs to be clarified or re-taught and should not be used to evaluate or grade students. Results of formative assessment can assist instructors to ascertain whether curriculum or learning activities need to be modified during a class session or before the next class meets (Formative.

)” I would quizzes mainly to judge this assessment. This is a quick way of assessing how much they know. It gages their current progress, not their progress as a whole. Other things would be reading quizzes to see if they get the material I have asked them to go over. It could also be something like a minute write where I have them write down something that tells me they understood what I thought during class that day. These tools give me a fast analysis or where they are at. Another assessment like this is the summative assessment. This assessment documents the students performance.

This assessment uses a lot of standardized tests and things related to that format. This allows the tester to understand where the students are at as a whole. In the classroom I would use this when administering unit end tests. I can see how they have progressed and I can assess what to do better for the next unit. A Measure I would measure my students how they are doing on my tests and assignments, if they are failing I am doing something wrong. This, however, is not the only way that I would measure if my management plan was working. I would, as stated above, have classroom meetings.

This would give me an opportunity to discuss with my students how the class is going. This would be my chance to get input on them on what I am doing right and what needs to be changed. I would hope that they would be mostly satisfied with the way things are going, but if they are not I will change my plan so they can learn better. This of course goes back to William Glasser and it also goes back to the authoritative management style. Glasser is very keen on having students involved in the classroom and the teaching process. I very much agree with him. The opinion of my students is very important to me.

The authoritative plan also focuses in on the student’s role. They need to have a hand in their education. If their voice is not heard, the students will just continue to fail and the teacher will not know why. So, if my plan is working well my students will do well on their tests, quizzes, and assignments and they will have positive things to say at our classroom meetings. Our relationship will be a cordial one and not one of animosity. Completed Rubric 1. I believe that I have a very compelling argument for my planned proposal. It fits to the rest of my paper and sets a precedent for how I will go about running my classroom.

I have many cited supports and they were all knowledgeable on the subjects I discussed. 2. I described all five of the target groups at a satisfactory level. I let the reader know exactly what my future looks like for teaching. The reader can look at any one of the components and know what I want to achieve in my vocation. 3. I believe that I very effectively communicated my rules policies and management ideas in such a way that is very understandable to students and teachers. This letter home is in a very nice format with great colors, and it is pleasing to the eye. It is attractive and professional.

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Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. [1] Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship.

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8 See also 9 References 10 External links Etymology[edit] Etymologically, the word “education” is derived from the Latin educatio (“A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing”) from educo (“I educate, I train”) which is related to the homonym educo (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”) from e- (“from, out of”) and duco (“I lead, I conduct”). [3] Education can take place in formal or informal educational settings. History[edit] Main article: History of education Nalanda, ancient center for higher learning

Plato’s academy, mosaic from Pompeii Education began in the earliest prehistory, as adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. [4]

A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088 Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid’s Elements published in 1607 Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe. [5] The city of Alexandria in Egypt, founded in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There mathematician Euclid and anatomist Herophilus; constructed the great Library of Alexandria and translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek.

European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD 476. [6] In China, Confucius (551-479 BCE), of the State of Lu, was China’s most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, Japan and Vietnam. He gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.

[citation needed] After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education. Some of these ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe’s modern universities. [6] During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School.

The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation;[7] and Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. [8] The University of Bologne is considered the oldest continually operating university.

Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south. The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly.

The European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion, arts and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars also brought back new ideas from other civilisations — as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge, science, and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid’s Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences. The Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe.

In most countries today, education is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far. [9] Formal education[edit] Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system.

School systems are sometimes also based on religions, giving them different curricula. Preschool[edit] Young children in a kindergarten in Japan Main article: Early childhood education Preschools provide education up to the age of between 4 and 8 when children enter primary education. Also known as nursery schools and as kindergarten, except in the USA, where kindergarten is a term used for primary education. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in a competitive world and education climate.

[citation needed] While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge. The true purpose behind kindergarten is “to provide a child-centered, preschool curriculum for three to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the child’s physical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them. “[10] This period of education is very important in the formative years of the child.

Teachers with special skills and training are needed at this time to nurture the children to develop their potentials. [citation needed] Primary[edit] School children line, in Kerala, India Main article: Primary education Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.

[11] Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools.

Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school. In India, compulsory education spans over twelve years, out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the republic of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on a national curriculum framework designed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Secondary[edit] Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School, New Zealand Main article: Secondary education

In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, “post-secondary”, or “higher” education (e. g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools.

The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used.

The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created, with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work.

This proved to be beneficial for both employers and employees, for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. In Europe, grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 16th century, in the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which themselves have an even longer history. Community colleges offer nonresidential junior college offering courses to people living in a particular area.

Tertiary (higher)[edit] Students in a laboratory, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University See also: Higher education and Adult education Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education.

Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.

University education includes teaching, research, and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges. In the United States, universities can be private and independent like Yale University; public and state-governed like the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education; or independent but state-funded like the University of Virginia.

A number of career specific courses are now available to students through the Internet. A liberal arts institution can be defined as a “college or university curriculum aimed at imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. “[12] Although what is known today as the liberal arts college began in Europe,[13] the term is more commonly associated with universities in the United States. [citation needed] Vocational[edit].

Carpentry is normally learned through apprenticeship. Main article: Vocational education Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts. Special[edit] Main article: Special education In the past, those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education.

Children with disabilities were often educated by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians (people like Itard, Seguin, Howe, Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. Special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its early years, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning. [14] Other educational forms[edit] Alternative[edit]

Main article: Alternative education While considered “alternative” today, most alternative systems have existed since ancient times. After the public school system was widely developed beginning in the 19th century, some parents found reasons to be discontented with the new system. Alternative education developed in part as a reaction to perceived limitations and failings of traditional education. A broad range of educational approaches emerged, including alternative schools, self learning, homeschooling and unschooling.

Example alternative schools include Montessori schools, Waldorf schools (or Steiner schools), Friends schools, Sands School, Summerhill School, The Peepal Grove School, Sudbury Valley School, Krishnamurti schools, and open classroom schools. To a greater or lesser degree, ideas from these experiments and challenges to the system may in time be adopted by the mainstream, as to a large degree has happened with kindergarten, an experimental approach to early childhood education developed by Friedrich Frobel in 19th century Germany.

Other influential writers and thinkers have included the Swiss humanitarian Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; the American transcendentalists Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau; the founders of progressive education, John Dewey and Francis Parker; and educational pioneers such as Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner, and more recently John Caldwell Holt, Paul Goodman, Frederick Mayer, George Dennison and Ivan Illich. Indigenous[edit] Na Schoolyard. Teaching indigenous knowledge, models, methods in Yanyuan County, Sichuan in China Main article: Indigenous education

Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to “reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students. “[15] Informal learning[edit].

Main article: informal learning Informal learning is one of three forms of learning defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Informal learning occurs in a variety of places, such as at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes language acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, in youth programs at community centers and media labs.

Informal learning usually takes place outside educational establishments, does not follow a specified curriculum and may originate accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements. It is not necessarily planned to be pedagogically conscious, systematic and according to subjects, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-related, and related to situation management and fitness for life. It is experienced directly in its “natural” function of everyday life and is often spontaneous.

The concept of ‘education through recreation’ was applied to childhood development in the 19th century. [16] In the early 20th century, the concept was broadened to include young adults but the emphasis was on physical activities. [17] L. P. Jacks, also an early proponent of lifelong learning, described education through recreation: “A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play, his labour and his leisure, his mind and his body, his education and his recreation.

He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of excellence through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. To himself he always seems to be doing both. Enough for him that he does it well. “[18] Education through recreation is the opportunity to learn in a seamless fashion through all of life’s activities. [19] The concept has been revived by the University of Western Ontario to teach anatomy to medical students. [19] Self-directed learning[edit].

Main article: Autodidacticism Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is a contemplative, absorbing process, of “learning on your own” or “by yourself”, or as a self-teacher. Some autodidacts spend a great deal of time reviewing the resources of libraries and educational websites. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in one’s life. While some may have been informed in a conventional manner in a particular field, they may choose to inform themselves in other, often unrelated areas.

Notable autodidacts include Abraham Lincoln (U. S. president), Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician), Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist), Charles Darwin (naturalist), Thomas Alva Edison (inventor), Tadao Ando (architect), George Bernard Shaw (playwright), Frank Zappa (composer, recording engineer, film director), and Leonardo da Vinci (engineer, scientist, mathematician). Open education and e-learning[edit] Main articles: Open education and E-learning In 2012, e-learning had grown at 14 times the rate of traditional learning.

[clarification needed][20] Open education is fast growing to become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as its efficiency and results compared to traditional methods. [21] Cost of education has been an issue throughout history, and a major political issue in most countries today. Open education is generally significantly cheaper than traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free. Many large university institutions are now starting to offer free or almost free full courses such as Harvard, MIT and Berkeley teaming up to form edX.

Other universities offering open education are Stanford, Princeton, Duke, Johns Hopkins, Edinburgh, U. Penn, U. Michigan, U. Virginia, U. Washington, and Caltech. It has been called the biggest change in the way we learn since the printing press. [22] Many people despite favorable studies on effectiveness may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons. [23] The conventional merit-system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities, although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom.

Presently, many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate. Due to the popularity of open education, these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more respect and equal “academic value” to traditional degrees. [24] Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. [citation needed] There has been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in traditional on-campus education, which is not often directly offered from open education.

[citation needed] Examples of this are people in open education forming study groups, meetups and movements such as UnCollege. Development goals[edit] World map indicating Education Index (according to 2007/2008 Human Development Report) Russia has more academic graduates than any other country in Europe. [when? ] (Chart does not include population statistics. ) Since 1909, the ratio of children in the developing world going to school has increased. Before then, a small minority of boys attended school. By the start of the 21st century, the majority of all children in most regions of the world attended school.

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There are 73 million children,[clarification needed] mostly female children in poor families, who did not start elementary school. There are more than 200 million children, mostly females from poor families, who did not go to secondary school. [25] Universal Primary Education is one of the eight international Millennium Development Goals, towards which progress has been made in the past decade, though barriers still remain. [26] Securing charitable funding from prospective donors is one particularly persistent problem.

Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have indicated that the main obstacles to receiving more funding for education include conflicting donor priorities, an immature aid architecture, and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the issue. [26] Additionally, Transparency International has identified corruption in the education sector as a major stumbling block to achieving Universal Primary Education in Africa. [27] Furthermore, demand in the developing world for improved educational access is not as high as foreigners have expected. Indigenous governments are reluctant to take on the recurrent costs involved.

There is economic pressure from those parents who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards the long-term benefits of education. [citation needed] A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole. [28] Sustainable capacity development requires complex interventions at the institutional, organizational and individual levels that could be based on some foundational principles:

national leadership and ownership should be the touchstone of any intervention; strategies must be context relevant and context specific;[clarification needed] they should embrace an integrated set of complementary interventions, though implementation may need to proceed in steps;[clarification needed] partners should commit to a long-term investment in capacity development, while working towards some short-term achievements; outside intervention should be conditional on an impact assessment of national capacities at various levels; a certain percentage of students should be removed for improvisation of academics (usually practiced in schools, after 10th grade). Internationalization[edit].

Nearly every country now has Universal Primary Education. Similarities — in systems or even in ideas — that schools share internationally have led to an increase in international student exchanges. The European Socrates-Erasmus Program[29] facilitates exchanges across European universities.

The Soros Foundation[30] provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalization of education. The global campus online, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during the actual classes. Education and technology in developing countries[edit].

The OLPC laptop being introduced to children in Haiti Technology plays an increasingly significant role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing countries. There are charities dedicated to providing infrastructures through which the disadvantaged may access educational materials, for example, the One Laptop per Child project. The OLPC foundation, a group out of MIT Media Lab and supported by several major corporations, has a stated mission to develop a $100 laptop for delivering educational software. The laptops were widely available as of 2008. They are sold at cost or given away based on donations.

In Africa, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) has launched an “e-school program” to provide all 600,000 primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. [31] An International Development Agency project called nabuur. com,[32] started with the support of former American President Bill Clinton, uses the Internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development. India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students.

In 2004, the Indian Space Research Organization launched EDUSAT, a communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country’s population at a greatly reduced cost. [33] Private v public funding in developing countries[edit] Research into low cost private schools found that over 5 years to July 2013, debate around low-cost private schools to achieving Education for All (EFA) objectives was polarised and finding growing coverage in international policy. [34]

The polarisation was due to disputes around whether the schools are affordable for the poor, reaching disadvantaged groups, provide quality education, supporting or undermining equality, and are financially sustainable. The report examined the main challenges that development organisations which support LCPSs have encountered.

[34] Surveys suggest these types of schools are expanding across Africa and Asia and is attributed to excess demand. These surveys also found concern for: Equity, widely found in the literature, as the growth in low-cost private schooling may be exacerbating or perpetuating already existing inequalities in developing countries, between urban and rural populations, lower- and higher-income families, and between girls and boys. The report says findings are that LCPSs see evidence girls are underrepresented and that they are reaching some low-income families, often in small numbers compared with higher-income families. Quality of provision and educational outcomes: You cannot generalise about the quality of private schools.

While most achieve better results than government counterparts, even after their social background is taken into account, some studies find the opposite. Quality in terms of levels of teacher absence, teaching activity and pupil to teacher ratios in some countries are better in LCPSs than in government schools. Choice and affordability for the poor: parents can choose private schools because of perceptions of better-quality teaching and facilities, and an English language instruction preference. Nevertheless, the concept of ‘choice’ does not apply in all contexts, or to all groups in society, partly because of limited affordability (which excludes most of the poorest) and other forms of exclusion, related to caste or social status.

Cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability: Evidence is that private schools operate at low cost by keeping teacher salaries low, but their financial situation may be precarious where they are reliant on fees from low-income households. The report said there were some cases of successful voucher and subsidy programmes; evaluations of international support to the sector are not widespread. [34] Addressing regulatory ineffectiveness is a key challenge. Emerging approaches stress the importance of understanding the political economy of the market for LCPSs, specifically how relationships of power and accountability between users, government and private providers can produce better education outcomes for the poor.

A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation rates of students from low income families. [35] Main article: Educational theory Purpose of schools[edit] Individual purposes for pursuing education can vary. The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes may also differ according to the sociological paradigm used. In the early years of schooling, the focus is generally around developing basic interpersonal communication and literacy skills in order to further ability to learn more complex skills and subjects.

After acquiring these basic abilities, education is commonly focused towards individuals gaining necessary knowledge and skills to improve ability to create value and a livelihood for themselves. [36] Satisfying personal curiosities (education for the sake of itself) and desire for personal development, to “better oneself” without career based reasons for doing so are also common reasons why people pursue education and use schools. [37] Education is often understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994).

Learners can also be motivated by their interest in the subject area or specific skill they are trying to learn. Learner-responsibility education models are driven by the interest of the learner in the topic to be studied. [38]

Education is often perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities[39] with the purpose of developing every individual to their full potential. Educational psychology[edit] Main article: Educational psychology Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

Although the terms “educational psychology” and “school psychology” are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists.School children in Durban, South Africa. In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method.

Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science,social sciences, humanities and applied sciences. [5] Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curricula or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music, dance, and theater. [6] [edit]Preschools

Main article: Preschool education The term preschool refers to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. [citation needed] While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess thatknowledge.

The true purpose behind kindergarten is “to provide a child-centered, preschool curriculum for three to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the child’s physical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them. “[7] [edit]Primary schools Main article: Primary education Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts ofBucharest, around 1842. Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education.

In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. [8] Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education.

The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.

In India, compulsory education spans over twelve years, out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the republic of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on national curriculum framework designed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. [edit]Secondary schools Main article: Secondary education Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School, New Zealand.

Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School, Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, “post-secondary”, or “higher” education (e. g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools.

The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used.

The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created, with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work.

This proved to be beneficial for both employers and employees, for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. In Europe, grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 16th century, in the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which themselves have an even longer history. MLC Kx12 in Portland, Oregon [edit]Autodidacticism Main article: Autodidacticism.

Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-directed learning that is related to but different from informal learning. In a sense, autodidacticism is “learning on your own” or “by yourself”, and an autodidact is a self-teacher. Autodidacticism is a contemplative, absorbing process. Some autodidacts spend a great deal of time reviewing the resources of libraries and educational websites. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in one’s life. While some may have been informed in a conventional manner in a particular field, they may choose to inform themselves in other, often unrelated areas.

Notable autodidacts include Abraham Lincoln (U. S. president), Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician), Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist), Charles Darwin(naturalist), Thomas Alva Edison (inventor), Tadao Ando (architect), George Bernard Shaw (playwright), and Leonardo da Vinci (engineer, scientist, mathematician). [edit]Vocational Main article: Vocational education Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft.

Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, architecture and the arts. [edit]Indigenous Main article:

Indigenous education Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism.

Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to “reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students. “[9] [edit]Anarchistic free schools Main article: Anarchistic free school An anarchistic free school (also anarchist free school and free school) is a decentralized network in which skills, information, and knowledge are shared without hierarchy or the institutional environment of formal schooling.

Free school students may be adults, children, or both. This organisational structure is distinct from ones used by democratic free schools which permit children’s individual initiatives and learning endeavors within the context of a school democracy, and from free education where ‘traditional’ schooling is made available to pupils without charge. The open structure of free schools is intended to encourage self-reliance, critical consciousness, and personal development. Free schools often operate outside the market economy in favor of a gift economy.

[citation needed] Nevertheless, the meaning of the “free” of free schools is not restricted to monetary cost, and can refer to an emphasis on free speech and student-centred education. [citation needed] [edit]Alternative Main article: Alternative education Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education).

This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods. Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education.

While some have strong political,scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools,independent schools, homeschooling and autodidacticism vary, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community. Alternative education may also allow for independent learning and engaging class activities. [10] [edit]Special.

In the past, those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were often educated by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians (people like Itard, Seguin, Howe, Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. Special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its early years, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning. [11] [edit]Education through recreation

The concept of education through recreation was first applied to childhood development in the 19th century. [12] In the early 20th century, the concept was broadened to include young adults but the emphasis was on physical activities. [13] Educationalist Lawrence L. P. Jacks, who was also an early proponent of lifelong learning, best described the modern concept of education through recreation in the following quotation “A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play, his labour and his leisure, his mind and his body, his education and his recreation.

He hardly knows which is which. He simply pursues his vision of excellence through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. To himself he always seems to be doing both. Enough for him that he does it well. “(Jacks, 1932). [14] Education through recreation is the opportunity to learn in a seamless fashion through all of life’s activities. [15] The concept has been revived by the University of Western Ontario to teach anatomy to medical students. [15] ————————————————- [edit]Systems of higher education Main article: Higher education.

The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.

Tertiary education generally results in the receipt ofcertificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. [edit]University systems Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU in Prague.

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University education includes teaching, research, and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (orpostgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges. In the United States, universities can be private and independent, likeYale University, they can be public and State governed, like the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education, or they can be independent but State funded, like the University of Virginia. [edit]Open

Higher education in particular is currently undergoing a transition towards open education, elearning alone is currently growing at 14x the rate of traditional learning. [16] Open education is fast growing to become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as it’s superior efficiency and results compared to traditionalist methods. [17] Cost of education has been an issue throughout history, and a major political issue in most countries today. Open education is generally significantly cheaper than traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free.

Many large university institutions are now starting to offer free or almost free full courses such as Harvard, MIT and Berkeley teaming up to form edX Other universities offering open education are Stanford, Princeton, Duke, Johns Hopkins, Edinburgh, U. Penn, U. Michigan, U. Virginia, U. Washington, Caltech. It has been called the biggest change in the way we learn since the printing press. [18] Many people despite favorable studies on effectivness may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons.

[19] The conventional merit system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities. Although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom. Currently many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate. Due to the popularity of open education these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more respect and equal “academic value” to traditional degrees.

[20] Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. [citation needed] There has been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in traditional on campus education that is not often directly offered from open education. [citation needed] Examples of this are people in open education forming study groups, meetups and movements such as UnCollege. [edit]Liberal arts colleges.

Saint Anselm College, a traditional New England liberal arts college. A liberal arts institution can be defined as a “college or university curriculum aimed at imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. “[21] Although what is known today as the liberal arts college began in Europe,[22] the term is more commonly associated with Universities in theUnited States[citation needed]. Examples include St. John’s College, Reed College, Carleton College, and Smith College.

[edit]Community colleges Main article: community colleges A nonresidential junior college offering courses to people living in a particular area. ————————————————- [edit]Technology Main article: Educational technology One of the most substantial uses in education is the use of technology. Also technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education).

This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual learning environments. One such tool are virtual manipulatives, which are an “interactive, Web-based visual representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing mathematical knowledge” (Moyer, Bolyard, & Spikell, 2002).

In short, virtual manipulatives are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical mathematical manipulatives, which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. Virtual manipulatives can be easily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets, allowing for easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results, suggesting comparable, and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness compared to standard teaching methods.

[citation needed] Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions. [23] American students in 2001, in a computer fundamentals class taking a computer-based test Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a

“diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information. “[24] These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels, in both formal and non-formal settings. [25] Older ICT technologies, such as radio and television, have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.

[26] In addition to classroom application and growth of e-learning opportunities for knowledge attainment, educators involved in student affairs programming have recognized the increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about students. Motivation and retention counselors, along with faculty and administrators, can impact the potential academic success of students by provision of technology based experiences in the University setting. [27] The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.

Usually, various technologies are used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For example, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka. [28] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.

[29] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies. [30] The term “computer-assisted learning” (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching. Classrooms of the 21st century contain interactive white boards, tablets, mp3 players, laptops, etc. Wiki sites are another tool teachers can implement into CAL curricula for students to understand communication and collaboration efforts of group work through electronic means.

[citation needed] Teachers are encouraged to embed these technological devices and services in the curriculum in order to enhance students learning and meet the needs of various types of learners. ————————————————- [edit]Adult Main article: Adult education Adult learning, or adult education, is the practice of training and developing skills in adults. It is also sometimes referred to as andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn). Adult education has become common in many countries.

It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. A number of career specific courses such as veterinary assisting, medical billing and coding, real estate license,bookkeeping and many more are now available to students through the Internet. With the boom of information from availability of knowledge through means of internet and other modern low cost information exchange mechanisms people are beginning to take an attitude of Lifelong learning.

To make knowledge andself improvement a lifelong focus as opposed to the more traditional view that knowledge and in particular value creating trade skills are to be learned just exclusively in youth. ————————————————- [edit]Learning modalities Students in laboratory, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University. There has been work on learning styles over the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn[31] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[32] recommended varying teaching strategies.

Howard Gardner[33] identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligencestheories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[34] focused on understanding how people’s personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc’s Type Delineator[35] follows a similar but more simplified approach. It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning “modes”.

The learning modalities[36] are probably the most common: * Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. * Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. * Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities. Although it is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness,[37] recent research has argued “there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational practice.

“[38] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them. [39]Guy Claxton has questioned the extent that learning styles such as VAK are helpful, particularly as they can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict learning.

Instruction

Teacher in a classroom in Madagascar Instruction is the facilitation of another’s learning. Instructors in primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers, and they direct the education of students and might draw on manysubjects like reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers, instructors, or professors, depending on the type of institution; and they primarily teach only their specific discipline.

Studies from the United States suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. [42][43] With the passing of NCLB in the United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified.

A popular way to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers (SETS), but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive to learning and inaccurate due to student bias. [44] ————————————————- [edit]Theory Main article:

Education theory Education theory can refer to either a normative or a descriptive theory of education. In the first case, a theory means a postulation about what ought to be. It provides the “goals, norms, and standards for conducting the process of education. “[45] In the second case, it means “an hypothesis or set of hypotheses that have been verified by observation and experiment.

“[46] A descriptive theory of education can be thought of as a conceptual scheme that ties together various “otherwise discrete particulars. . . For example, a cultural theory of education shows how the concept of culture can be used to organize and unify the variety of facts about how and what people learn. “[47] Likewise, for example, there is the behaviorist theory of education that comes from educational psychology and thefunctionalist theory of education that comes from sociology of education. [48] ————————————————- [edit]Economics Main article: Economics of education

Students on their way to school, Hakha,Chin State, Myanmar It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. [49] Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation.

Therefore, a country’s ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of “human capital”. Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions[50] and the role of cognitive skills. [51] At the individual level, there is a large literature, generally related back to the work of Jacob Mincer,[52] on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital of the individual. This work has motivated a large number of studies, but is also controversial.

The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. [53][54] Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis famously argued in 1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between the egalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production on the other. [55] ————————————————- [edit]History Main article: History of education Nalanda ancient center for higher learning. Plato’s academy, mosaic from Pompeii.

The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universitat Berlin 1994, “began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770”. Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation.

Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially. When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc. , formal education, and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC. [citation needed] The first large established university is thought to be Nalanda established in 427 A.

D in India. [56][unreliable source? ] At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, China, Greece, and Persia. The first university establishments in the western world are thought to beUniversity of Bologna (founded in 1088) and later Oxford university (founded around 1096). A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088. Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid’s Elementspublished in 1607. In the West, Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC.

Plato was the Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician and writer of philosophical dialogues who founded the Academy in Athens which was the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Inspired by the admonition of his mentor, Socrates, prior to his unjust execution that “the unexamined life is not worth living”, Plato and his student, the political scientist Aristotle, helped lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. [57] The city of Alexandria in Egypt was founded in 330BC, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of the Western World.

The city hosted such leading lights as the mathematician Euclidand anatomist Herophilus; constructed the great Library of Alexandria; and translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek (called the Septuagint for it was the work of 70 translators). Greek civilization was subsumed within the Roman Empire. While the Roman Empire and its new Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD 476.

[58] In the East, Confucius (551-479), of the State of Lu, was China’s most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, Japan and Vietnam. He gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in the East into the modern era. In Western Europe after the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church emerged as the unifying force.

Initially the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe, the church established Cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education. Some of these ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe’s modern universities. [58] During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School.

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Educational Psychology Essay

Education in the past had been deemed as a must for one to have a bright future. However in today’s world, the success brought about by education becomes subjective to people. This brings about many controversies as to whether education is really essential for us to succeed in life. Education exists in many forms, ranging from paper qualifications to character education, all with a common target to empower the knowledge and information of people. It is only through education that a person can be judged based on his capabilities and qualifications for his future endeavours.

Personally, I feel that education caters to the various aspect of success in life. In my opinion, success is the amount of material well-being as well as the lessons learnt to value add oneself in the end. Hence I believe that education still remains as one of the key factors in life. BODY Point 1: Topic Sentence: The focus of education now is a more adaptable-based economy where creativity and the ability to adapt to various changes is the key to success. Elaboration: -The world has become more interconnected than before. With the use of mass media, ideas and information are widely spread throughout the world and are easily obtainable.

-Through education, people learn the skill to exhibit their opinions and make informed decisions in life with the information they acquired. -People will acquire their own sets of solutions to problems using the resources they learnt, and are able to creatively alter working attitudes and styles to suit the needs of the society. This greatly aids them in adapting and integrating into the society quicker. Example: For example, Schools have begun incorporating external curricular learning where students are encouraged to expose themselves to different contents to promote critical thinking and discussion among peers.

Concluding Statement: Hence this encourages people to constantly bring up new ideas and opinions to their peers via read extensively. Thus the importance of education helps to cultivate learning and value-adding themselves in order to survive in the pressure cooker. Point 2: Topic Sentence: Education builds the foundation and basis of a person and also imparts life-long learning attitude and skills which are essential tools for success. Elaboration: -To be successful in life, a person should be able to make morally-sound and informed decisions.

This will not only prevent the person from being morally upright but also learning from pass mistakes. -In addition, with the right attitudes in mind, a person can become more self-motivated and thus achieving success in their economic goals. Education helps students pick up good habits and recognize what is right and wrong. -A more appropriate learning venue will be the school. They have rules in place and students will be given chances to learn from their mistakes even if they have broken the rules. In other words, schools allow students to learn more effectively aside from the regular curriculum. Example:

For example, when a student is caught committing theft in school, he or she would likely to be punished rather than being put behind bars. Thus, schools and classroom are often thought as the ‘safe’ place to make mistakes. It is in these places that students are able to learn from their mistake and not repeat it. Concluding Statement: The crucial thing about Education is the fact that student effectively learn when they are being put into a situation. The learning process becomes optimal when they are able to resolve the problem independently. More importantly, they learn the skill of dealing with situations.

Point 3: Topic Sentence: Education allows people to be exposed to new opportunities which serve as an essential stepping stone to success. Elaboration: -Education can help one to break away from the poverty cycle that some people are undergoing. Education provides them with suitable jobs prospect and the essential skills in surviving the working world. -Education also opens up new areas in life for women as they are encouraged to take on political roles and be career-oriented through education, integrating from housewives in the past to a significant figure in the society.

-This provides opportunity for larger pool of talents in the economy, inspiring more people to achieve greater heights in life with educational qualifications. Example: Hillary Clinton is a successful female politician who has been many in the United States of America, aiding in the development of the country. Concluding Statement: Education is important in providing more opportunities for people to find their dream jobs and have alternative routes working towards their future endeavours. Point 4: Topic Sentence:

We cannot neglect the fact that education consists of tests and examinations which serves as a certification for us to search for better job prospects and become successful. Elaboration: -It is impossible to neglect paper qualifications as it is the first item where jobs identify a potential person and their working capabilities. -Though there may be other working attitude that companies lookout for, it is inevitable to differentiate the elites from the normal working class and the only solution to this will be through their paper qualifications.

-Overtime, the key to success may change but education for certification itself, will remain as the top priority in today’s increasingly pragmatic world. Concluding Statement: Hence, this encourages more people to realise how art greatly benefit the country. Aesthetic education not only helps people to appreciate the abstract but also invoke their creativity and passion for the performing arts. This in turn allows them to gain greater knowledge and be all-rounded in various areas. Transition Statement:

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However, there are people who agree that education is not as important anymore in contributing to the success in life. Rebuttal Point 1: Topic Statement: Many of the current methods of teaching provided by schools are insufficient. Elaboration: -Textbooks and notes kind of education allows less room for the growth of creativity and innovation. -Thus, it is unlikely for a student to excel in his later stages of life as he or she may only be able to regurgitate what is in the notes but not able to apply the knowledge effectively.

-As such, the current form of education may not be able to equipped students with the right keys to achieve economic success in life since they are not given the opportunity to freely express themselves from what they have learnt. -That having said, we cannot deny that most of the curriculum time must be placed on academic education. It is impossible to lengthen curriculum time anymore with the current hectic syllabus that students are taking. Hence there is little or even impossible to provide more of the character development in schools. Example:

For example, the education system in China and Singapore still focus very much on the transfer of knowledge through textbooks and notes. Very little emphasis is placed to character education or real-life situation in relation to the contents learnt in schools. Concluding Statement: School education might be lacking a little of the aspect of free expression for students. Thus Schools must strike a balance between academic education and creative teaching learning environment for the students to ensure a holistic development of the children’s potential.

Rebuttal Point 2: Topic Sentence: Good character and attitude in working may also eventually outweighs the use of education as it creates a more work-friendly environment. Elaboration: -One is said to be more worker-friendly when the person is able to corporate well within a team. Pleasant attitude and social skills also play an essential part in contributing to a person’s performance within a company. -A more amicable person will be preferred over a person with poor working attitude thought he might have the qualifications and degree for the job.

-That having said, we cannot deny the fact that having a degree or a qualification serves as a ‘passport’ for entering any workforce. Example: Most company will look at your qualifications before anything else. Hence it is essential for someone to have the required qualifications before even getting a chance of being employed. The other aspect of being work-friendly will only be identified through time and that is something we cannot use as a ticket for employment. Concluding Statement: Both character and qualification are important, hence it is undeniable that we must have proper education before employing for a job.

Personal skills are also greatly needed to be in the driver seat among the rest. Rebuttal Paragraph: That having said, there are still exceptions to the issue. For example, Schools are encouraging and inculcating life skill workshops into the school’s curriculum where students are excused from lessons to attend lifelong social skills which aids them in character development and self-discipline so that they are better prepared for working life. The increase in focus of moral education is on the rise as well. People have come to realise that results may not represent everything of a person.

Hence, education still serves its purpose in moral education. Conclusion: Essentially, education still remains as one of the important keys to success today. However, in a world where it is ever-changing, requirements and formulas to success are also ever manipulating. Thus, adjustments to the education systems may not catch up fast enough in paces with the demands of the society. Therefore, it should be recognized that to succeed in life today, one not only needs education, but also personal efforts, good learning and working attitudes in order to keep up with the demands of success.”Education” is a broad term that can have many meanings, but it is generally defined as the process of learning and acquiring information. Formal learning in a school or university is one of the most common types, though self-teaching and so-called “life experiences” can also qualify. Communities around the world place a high value on educating people of all ages, whether formally or informally. It is widely believed that constant exposure to new ideas and skills makes people better workers, thinkers, and societal contributors. Formal Schooling.

Most people associate education with schools and classrooms where trained teachers present information to students. Classroom learning generally starts when a child is relatively young — around age five in most countries — and continues until the teenage years. The purpose of most classroom learning is not to prepare a child for a specific job, but rather to help him or her develop critical reasoning and thinking skills. Reading, writing, and math are very common lessons for young learners. As students progress in their schooling, they often come into contact with more challenging subjects like written composition, history, and advanced sciences. Educational Structures Around the World.

Different countries place different emphases on education, though some form of schooling is mandatory for young children almost everywhere. Requirements are usually based on the belief that an educated population is best suited for advancement, both internally and internationally. In most places, childhood schooling is offered free of charge; university training is also underwritten with government funds in some places. The Importance of Assessment

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Exposing students to new ideas and essential facts is only part of most educational goals. Students are also expected to retain most if not all of the information that they learn in school. Teachers and professors commonly use exams and graded assignments to assess learning. Standardized tests are one of the most popular ways of driving curricula and lesson planning throughout the world.

These sorts of tests help make sure that all students are learning the same basic things, no matter who their teacher is or where they attend school. Sometimes, laws also have a role to play, like the United States’ No Child Left Behind Act. This act creates a way to measure how much each child is learning across different school systems to ensure that all children receive a minimum level of knowledge. Advanced University Training

Many people choose to extend their formal education beyond what is required by pursuing university studies. Students typically have a wide range of choices when it comes to subject area and degree options, and most schools offer programs at varying levels. Those who are very passionate about a particular topic often choose to study it intently at the graduate level; others who hope to enter certain specialized professions may also seek out more nuanced educational opportunities, such as law school or medical school. Life Experiences and Informal Learning.

While book learning is very important, it is not the only form of education. Some individuals are self-taught, which means that they pursue knowledge on their own outside of a formal classroom. Many of these people may have read extensively or may have become experts within a given field. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, for example, was a college dropout.

Most of what he learned he taught himself. A range of “life skills” — things like self sufficiency, independence, and discipline — also frequently come within the broader umbrella of education. Cultural adaptation and the skills needed to engage in society can also be thought of as educational. In most cases, any time a person acquires a new skill or learns to act in a new way, he has been educated in some form or another.

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Educational Psychology Essay

Education plays an important role in our life. However, some people consider it only a necessary step in getting a job so they do not want to go to university after leaving school. “Knowledge is power” as the famous proverb says. It is transferred from generation to generation and comprises different facts, skills and information. Through learning people get knowledge and experience accumulated by their ancestors. Of course, higher education is not compulsory, but I strongly feel that going to university is very important to everybody. In my opinion, higher education gives great opportunities and opens all doors.

Only an educated person can get a good job and be promoted. Nowadays employers demand perfect knowledge. Education helps cultivate skills and provides mental, moral and aesthetic development. Personally, I prefer communicating with an intelligent person who knows a lot of interesting facts and who can share his or her ideas with me. However, some of my friends say that they do not want to go to university and they would better get a well-paid job soon after leaving school. It will give them an opportunity to get work experience and some useful skills.

But I doubt that they will be offered a really good job and that they will be able to succeed without higher education. In general, owing to education highly industrialized cities are built, new information technologies are developed, important discoveries are made. Without education society would become primitive as it used to be long time ago. To my mind, everybody must realize the importance of education as it is the guarantee of the development and well-being of our society. Home education is becoming more and more popular. However, some people say it has a number of disadvantages.

Most parents send their sons and daughters to school, but some of them choose home education for their children for some reason or other. Instead of going to school children are educated by their parents or professional tutors. Thousands of families in the UK are now practising home-education. Personally, I think that home schooling is an excellent alternative to traditional education. To my mind, it has a lot of advantages. Firstly, it is very convenient because you do not need to observe school hours, days or terms. Besides, you do not need to have a fixed timetable.

Parents can provide a more personalized and adaptable learning environment for the child. Secondly, the family can spend more time together. Thirdly, children who have special educational needs are home educated when school cannot meet the child’s needs. In general, home schooling gives you an opportunity to work on just what you want and when you want. However, a lot of people are sure that the aim of any educational establishment is not just to give knowledge but to help their learners develop communication skills and team spirit. Children’s interaction with pupils of their age influences their character building.

School is not only a place for the imparting of knowledge, but it’s a place for the creation and development of the child’s personality. To conclude, home schooling has its pros and cons and it’s up to the child’s parents to decide which kind of education is better for him or her. Anyway, parents must provide their children with full-time education suitable to their age, ability and aptitude. Some people say that online education is an excellent alternative to traditional education. But other people believe that virtual education cannot substitute traditional one.

Online education is rapidly increasing thanks to the development of computer technology. It is intended for those who can’t attend classes and communicate with the teacher face to face. Education is delivered via the Internet, multimedia resources or videoconferencing. Teachers and students communicate by exchanging electronic media or in real time. Personally, I think that online education is especially convenient for disabled people and for those who want to work and receive higher education simultaneously. You don’t have to attend classes and you can plan your day as you want.

In my opinion, receiving education online may be rather interesting. Some universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchase, student governments and even student newspapers. However, a lot of people think that online learning is not as effective as traditional education. Firstly, students don’t have an opportunity to communicate with their teachers and group-mates face to face. If they want to ask a question or to receive some additional information, they have to send an e-mail and wait for the teacher’s answer.

Secondly, it is rather difficult for teachers to control students’ knowledge, to evaluate their progress, to appreciate their abilities and to find an individual approach to everybody. To conclude, I think that online learning is a wonderful opportunity to receive higher education for some people, although computer-based activities will hardly be able to replace practical or classroom-based situations. Some people think that self-education is not very effective, while others say that it is the only productive way of learning.

Is it possible for people to educate themselves without help or support from others? Can self-taught people become famous and successful? In my opinion, people can learn without schools and tutors. You can read books, speak to educated people or spend a lot of time in libraries or on educational websites. Self-education has a lot of advantages. Firstly, self-taught people are not dependent on others for knowledge. Secondly, self-education can help you to be anything you want to be or to do anything you want to do. Finally, it usually costs nothing and it does not require fixed life style.

Many famous and influential writers, artists, architects, actors, musicians and even scientists were self-educated. They thought that working was also learning and self-education was associated with creativity. For example, Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor and writer was self-taught. However, some people depend on teachers and tutors for guidance. They want someone to help them and to show them the way. Others admit that they are too lazy to choose self-education.

Indeed, most people need somebody who will constantly make them study and encourage their efforts to learn. So I think that self-education is only for hard-working, persistent, diligent and curious people. In conclusion, I would like to say that if we learn the art of self-education, we will have an opportunity to improve our knowledge and acquire new skills whenever and wherever we like. I believe that the options of self-education are very flexible and the opportunities are unlimited. Some people think that when they don’t go to school, college or university, they don’t learn.

Others say that we learn as long as we live. Today a lot of people realize the importance of lifelong learning. In the course of our lives we acquire attitudes, skills and knowledge from daily experience, from family and neighbours, from work and play and from other sources. Lifelong learning means building, development and improvement of skills and knowledge throughout people’s lives and it comprises both formal and informal learning opportunities. To my mind, when people leave school or graduate from university, their learning continues. It takes place at all times and in all places.

Lifelong learning is a continuous process, going on from birth to the end of our lives. It begins with learning from families, educational institutions, workplaces and so on. Social organizations, religious institutions, the mass media, information technologies, environment and nature can also play a role in our learning. I strongly feel that both children and adults need continuous development of intellect and capability. Even elderly people never cease to learn. They can learn a great deal from such activities as art, music, handicrafts or social work.

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Lifelong learning helps people adapt to the modern life which is constantly changing. However, there are many unintelligent and ignorant people in the world. Most of them lack willingness and motivation to learn. Some people are not ready to invest time, money and effort in their education or training. Lifelong learning must be self-motivated because people usually take responsibility for their own learning. To conclude, I think that lifelong learning is extremely beneficial because it helps adapt to changes, develop natural abilities and open the mind.

It increases our wisdom and makes our lives more interesting and meaningful. Some people believe that exams are the best way to check the student’s knowledge. Others are convinced that exams don’t always accurately measure the level of knowledge. Most people have to get through exams at certain points of their lives. But what is the real purpose of taking exams? How important are they and do students benefit from them? I strongly feel that examinations are extremely useful because they make all students face an intellectual challenge and test their knowledge, skills and abilities.

Exams encourage young people to improve their knowledge of the subject and to revise information which has been learnt over a period of time. Students always know that they are to take exams at the end of the term and learn the new material little by little so that they won’t have to cram later. On the other hand, young people who often miss classes sometimes receive passing grades as easily as those who have attended classes regularly. When such students perform well on exams, it is obvious that they have crammed or figured out a way to cheat.

Besides, while for some people taking exams is no big deal, most of us feel stressed. If a student looks confused and worried and can’t answer the teacher’s question, it may be the result of his or her nervousness. Unfortunately, exams cannot determine stress factors and tell honest students from cheaters. But of course it does not mean that exams must be abolished. Though exams are not always the best method of evaluating the student’s knowledge, they have a lot of advantages and help teachers understand whether students are ready to be promoted to the next level.

To sum up, I think that examinations are important because they are a step toward students’ future success. Many people think that homework is essential for every pupil. Others believe that it is of little educational value and it may have a negative effect on learning. Some people think that homework is rote work which takes up children’s time, without offering any benefit. But others say that though boring, homework is going to benefit pupils later in life. Personally, I think that homework plays an important role in the pupil’s education.

Firstly, it teaches children to be responsible and hard-working because it fosters independent learning. Secondly, homework helps reinforce what pupils have already learnt, prepare them for upcoming lessons and extend what they know. So homework assignments make children learn more and revise the material that they have learnt at school. Thirdly, homework provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children’s education. However, too much homework is not good as children also need some time to relax, exercise and play. Homework takes a lot of time and effort. Some pupils sit up and do their homework all night.

It is a well-known fact that lack of physical exercises and good sleep leads to stress, heart attacks and obesity. What is more, some pupils do not have good dictionaries, encyclopedias, computers with a good internet connection and parents who can help them. As a result, children have great difficulty in doing their homework and begin to hate it. But I believe that if pupils were not given homework, they would spend their free time having fun or even doing something illegal. To sum up, teachers need to know what their pupils understand and can do independently. Therefore, they give pupils homework assignments.

I am convinced that homework gives you an opportunity to increase your knowledge, to improve your abilities and skills and to grasp new concepts. Most people think that it is very important to be literate. However, some of them say that literacy is not essential. The 21st century is the age of information and technological advances. However, millions of people all over the world remain illiterate. Even in developed countries a lot of people have low literacy levels. We live in a society where most people are literate. That is why a person will feel ashamed and ill at ease if he or she can’t read or write as well as others do.

As a rule such a person is considered unintelligent and ill-bred. To my mind, people who make a lot of spelling and grammar mistakes and who can’t pronounce words correctly find it difficult to find jobs, even when reading and writing are not necessary for the work. What is more, statistics show that illiterate people are poorer and have worse health. But in some families children don’t have an opportunity to go to school for different reasons. Such situation is wide-spread in Third World countries. In some families parents don’t read books and never write letters or postcards.

Reading and writing don’t play a big part in their lives. Such people make a lot of mistakes when they speak, but it does not necessarily mean that they are stupid or ignorant. They can be good workers and they can have much experience and worldly wisdom. To conclude, I think that literacy is very important for everybody. It helps us communicate with other people and find a good job. However, the ability to read and write doesn’t make people happy. Some people are convinced that holidays, traditions and rituals play a very important role in education. Others don’t find it necessary to observe traditions at school.

Traditions, holidays and rituals link the present with the past, help pass the knowledge, experience, wisdom, skills, habits and practices of the older generations to the new ones. So it seems necessary to make them part and parcel of the process of studies. I strongly feel that children, teenagers and young people should know and observe the traditions of their country. Holidays, traditions and rituals help pupils learn more about the history and culture of their country. Celebrating national and local holidays makes young people united and has a great impact on their character-shaping.

To my mind, children should also know the origins of some holidays and the way they are celebrated in other countries. However, some people are convinced that while at school pupils should concentrate on such subjects as mathematics, physics, chemistry or foreign languages. Most parents don’t find it necessary to overburden children with additional information when they have so much homework to do. Besides, they don’t understand how schools can integrate traditions, holidays and rituals into the curriculum. But I think there are many interesting ways to do it.

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For example, teachers can prepare lessons devoted to some public holidays or local occasions such as celebrations of birthday anniversaries. To conclude, our future depends on the younger generation and adults must teach them to preserve the holidays, customs, ceremonies, traditions and rituals that have become part and parcel of our existence. We should adopt other people’s experience and wisdom. And it is well-known that holidays, traditions and rituals hold them in full measure. Some people think that creativity is an essential ability which must be taught at school.

Others say that creativity is not very important. Teaching creativity is becoming a topical issue nowadays. But many people still doubt if this ability is essential for modern life. To my mind, teaching creativity is extremely important because school leavers and university graduates face a lot of challenges in real life. Nowadays employers demand not only perfect knowledge and work experience, but different qualities including creativity. If you want to become a good specialist, you should be able to produce new and original ideas and to use your imagination and inventiveness.

Creative people do their work faster and without much difficulty, while a person who lacks creativity does it under pressure, forcing his or her brain. So creative individuals are more likely to succeed, that it why teachers should focus on creativity rather than conventional skills. On the other hand, creativity is not always encouraged at school. When pupils are given different tasks, they are often supposed to do them following examples and the teacher’s directions. There is too much control at school and too little freedom. Besides, many tasks are not interesting and they don’t teach students to solve problems and to make

decisions. If teachers want to develop pupils’ creativity, they should let them make mistakes, experiment, express their ideas and look for unusual ways of problem-solving. Children should be taught to be original. They should also be taught to think, to make suggestions and to rely on personal judgment rather than actual facts. To sum up, creativity is an engine of success. In my opinion, both pupils and teachers must work hard to develop children’s creativity because it will help them realize the full extent of their own gifts.

Some people say that punishment should be used in class to achieve discipline and to make pupils study hard. Others are convinced that punishment does not motivate pupils to study well. There is still a lot of argument if punishment must be used in schools. Traditionally pupils are punished for poor progress, cutting lessons, lying, untidiness or rudeness. But some parents think that schools have very strict rules and that teachers sometimes demand too much. Personally, I think that if pupils don’t work hard enough and behave inappropriately, they should be punished.

For example, if the pupil receives bad marks, the teacher can phone his or her parents and tell them about their child’s poor progress. As a rule, Moms and Dads know how to punish their son or daughter. Parents can forbid their children to watch TV, play computer games or leave the house during the free time in the evenings. To my mind, it is useful to give pupils some extra work such as writing an exercise or an essay, copying out a paragraph from a textbook, learning a poem by heart and so on. It will help pupils improve their knowledge and it will certainly teach them a lesson.

However, some people believe that any kind of punishment humiliates pupils and makes them fear and suffer a shame. Such people say that it is better to use awards to motivate boys and girls to study hard and to behave well. According to them, good marks or praise show pupils how much their work is appreciated and valued. But to my mind, teachers should use both punishment and awards. To conclude, there are plenty of ways for teachers to control academic progress and to discourage pupils from breaking school rules. Anyway, I strongly feel that strict systems usually work well.

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Educational Psychology Essay

From 1834, the year of emancipation of slaves in Dominica and the other British West Indian colonies to 1845, the popular education that was existent was really religious education. The concept of a state system of education in the West Indies emerged in Britain in 1833 as part of the act to emancipate slaves in British custody. Prior to that, the masses of the people had practically no formal education. In Dominica, from 1834 onwards, the British subsidized primary education through grants but basically, education was imported and promoted mainly by missionaries.

The content of education was divorced from the interests and needs of the masses and the community. Emphasis was on the classics and the arts. There is little doubt that the churches original interest in education was the creation of influential educated elite. In practice, their interests were denominational, especially seen in the establishment of secondary schools. Proposed educational policies depended greatly on the availability of funds, which were always insufficient. Therefore, changes and reforms were minimal. The newly elected legislative councils and their leaders gave little support.

In reality, education, in practice was for a privileged minority. The populace remained virtually ignorant and illiterate. The pre-emancipation society was therefore not in any sense an educated one. Where slaves received any instruction at all it was of a religious nature provided by the church at long intervals. The authorities had no aims or standards; hence there was no system of formal education. It was against this background that the British Imperial Government incorporated an education grant in the 1833 Act of Emancipation to assist in the educational development of the Negroes.

Establishing schools for the masses was provided for by the Act, which included grant money from the imperial government to provide education in the ex-slave colonies. This grant money is known as the Negro Education Grant. It was regarded as an urgent matter. The total grant amounted to a mere ? 30,000 per annum for five years for all the BWI of almost one million people. The decision to allocate the grant was executed through the local legislatures and the religious bodies. The grant was decreased each year and ended in 1845.

The denominations were offered financial help to build schools, and later to assist in the payment of teachers’ salaries as the best means of developing a system of education. Dominica’s share of the Grant amounted only to ? 600 to be spent on 14,000 ex-slaves. This amount was very insignificant and was spent mainly by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPCK). After two years it became apparent that the desired and intended results were not forthcoming because of the many difficulties faced. Some churches were unable to accept more grants because they could not bear the recurrent expenditure on their schools.

In August 1837, the grant was switched to pay one-third of teachers’ salaries instead. This was insufficient, and the societies did not expand their operations further. As the expected expansion did not materialise the imperial government was disappointed. Hence, the union of the imperial government, local legislatures and the churches could not fulfil the early ambition to create a viable education system. Thus, in 1841, the imperial government started to withdraw the fund. The Mico trustees who had done the most protested, but to no avail.

In 1845 it came to an end, and so the burden fell on the West Indian legislatures and workers to increasingly support the education of their own children. In Dominica, the drive towards education for the masses was assisted by the local legislature, thus complimenting the work done by charities and the churches so that by July 1840, Dominica had 20 schools, 10 teachers, 1,086 pupils and total average attendance was 750. The British Imperial Government gave two main reasons for ending the NEG: 1. English workers were said to be worse-off than West-Indian workers 2.

The Baptists were said to be prospering – although they had refused all aid Both claims were false. The churches lacked both money and resources. The British felt in the case of Dominica that the Catholic Church could not and would not provide appropriate education. They therefore supported alternatives to church schools. They decided to provide secular schools and to withdraw grants to the church schools. This was strongly opposed until a compromise was reached. The main success of the period of the NEG was the idea of popular education.

The Provision of Secondary Education in Dominica: Providers and Gender Issues From the foregoing, one can appreciate the fact that the provision of education was a task that involved the participation of several providers or stakeholders: The British Imperial Authority, the Local Legislature or Assembly, the Church (especially the Catholics) and the Charities (especially the Mico Trust). Prior to emancipation, the provision of education was the responsibility of the churches and the charities. Education was very limited and very few benefited. In reality, what ever was taught was basically religious education.

With the passage of the Act of Emancipation, an attempt was made to establish popular education. The NEG thus provided the needed funds for this purpose but eventually ended in failure. These funds were channelled through the bodies mentioned above, especially through the charities and the churches. By 1868 the main providers were mainly the state (the Local Legislature) and the church. It must not be forgotten that the vast majority of the population were Catholics and therefore co-operation and compromise between the two bodies were of paramount importance.

By that date, the majority of primary schools belonged to the state i. e. 18 out of 33 (54%). This was unique, for no other West Indian society had such participation by the state in educational provision. In the case of secondary education, the provision was by the Church (Catholic). The first establishment for the provision of secondary education was the Convent High School (CHS) in 1858. This was exclusively for the children of the local elite. The children of the rural peasantry and the working classes were excluded. The state provided some funds for the school.

But there were no secondary education provided for the masses. It is again unique to Dominica in that early period that post-primary education was being provided only to girls when this gender was marginalized in the rest of the W. I and in Britain itself. Even today, in 2000, over 65% of secondary school students are girls. The figures for the Clifton Dupigny Community College, University of Technology (Jamaica) and University of the West Indies are roughly the same. In the case of Dominica, male marginalisation has had a long history, contrary to popular opinion.

Due to mounting pressure and clamour for secondary education for boys and the children of the masses, the state established the Dominica Grammar School (DGS) on the 16th of January 1893, with a registration list of 25 boys under the headmastership of one tutor, Mr. W. Skinner (M. A – a graduate from Catherine’s College, Cambridge, England). It was to be run as a government school, with the aim to provide higher education for boys. The building being used was a personal gift from Mr. Dawbiney, a respectable Jamaican who had settled in the island.

The DGS remained a boy’s school until 1972. This occurred at a time when the number of girls selected by the Common Entrance Examinations far surpassed that of boys. The first DGS girls came from the CHS and the WHS. The total number of girls on the roll for that year totalled 34 out of a total of 560 students. Thus a reluctant but necessary era commenced in that year – the DGS becoming a co-educational institution under the headship of Mr. J. K. Gough (B. Sc; Dip. Ed. from Scotland). In that same year there were 14 Dominican staff members who were university graduates.

Not to be outdone by the Catholics, the Wesleyan Society (Methodists) following the tradition of their rivals, opened the second high school for girls in the island, the Wesley High School (WHS) in October 1927. By that year, 80% of the students accessing secondary education were girls. This again was a unique situation second to none in the W. I. This further marginalized the boys given the restrictive and limited nature of access at the time. At this juncture, it is necessary to appreciate the great effort expended by the churches in the provision of secondary education in the island of Dominica, albeit for denominational reasons.

In 1932, the Christian Brothers (Catholics) opened the second educational establishment providing secondary education for boys, the Saint Mary’s Academy (SMA). By that year educational provision was roughly equal for both genders with boys now having the slight edge, notwithstanding the fact that the girls were doing better in entrance and scholarship exams. There were insufficient spaces available. An entrance examination would soon be rigorously applied to ration out, select and match the number of students to the available supply of places.

This state of inequitable affairs became unbearable as the girls were now being marginalized in favour of boys who were securing less ‘passes’ than girls in the exams. In other words, the selection was a function of available places. The two boys’ schools had more places than the two girls’ schools. Therefore, fewer girls were selected although their average scores were higher than that of boys who secured places. In the1972/1973 school year, the Labour government of Mr. Edward Oliver Leblanc took the bold step to make the DGS co-educational.

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This occurred at a time when the number of girls who had succeeded at the Common Entrance Examinations far surpassed that of boys. Since then, girls have kept on increasing the education gap or divide to the extent that in Dominica and the West Indies this problem of ‘male marginalisation’ and ‘male underachievement’ and the like, have now become so serious that it threatens the whole concept of male patriarchy. The year 1972 has been regarded as a milestone in Dominica’s educational history as far as secondary education is concerned.

From that year all new secondary schools have opted to become co-educational with the exception of the Saint Martin’s Secondary School in 1988. Another important milestone in our educational history is the year 1971. For the first time, secondary educational provision moved out of Roseau with the establishment of the co-educational Portsmouth Secondary School (PSS). This greatly reduced the cost burden to parents in the northwest, north and northeast of the island, who, hitherto had to make tremendous sacrifices to provide education for their children in the capital, Roseau.

By 1974, the Common Entrance Examinations as a selector of educational life chances was psychologically so devastating to pupils that those who were not selected felt that they were ‘rejects’ and ‘failures’ with no hope or future. It was against this backdrop that a group of concerned persons headed by Ms. Jean Finucane-James decided to provide a ‘second chance’ to those pupils that was not based on a selective exam. This co-educational school was named the Dominica Community High School (DCHS). Apart from the PSS, the early 1970s were characterised for having secondary education concentrated in the capital city of Roseau.

The ‘70s was a period of political upheaval. In August 1979, Hurricane David struck and the island was devastated: 43 deaths, massive destruction of crops and the forest, wildlife was decimated, schools and the social and economic infrastructure was destroyed. The economy came to a standstill. Educationally, the students suffered greatly. A large number of students from the northeast could not attend the Roseau schools. In the aftermath of the hurricane, two schools were opened in the northeast: St.

Andrew’s High School (SAHS) in 1979, located in Londonderry which is run and operated by the Methodists and in 1980, the Marigot Foundation High School (MFHS) headed by Mr. Martin Roberts, a former Methodist minister. The last named school was eventually renamed the Marigot Secondary School (MSS) when in 1999 it passed over to the state. These two schools are co-educational institutions. In this catchment area the Common Entrance Exams consistently selects more girls than boys. In the 1980s four schools were established. In 1981, the Seventh-Day Adventists began to provide secondary education.

The Seventh-day Adventist Secondary School (SASS) is located in the Portsmouth suburb of Granvillia. It is a co-ed school. In that very same year the co-ed St. Joseph Campus of the DGS was opened which later became a separate entity as the St. Joseph Secondary School. In 1996 it was renamed the Isaiah Thomas Secondary School. In 1988, two government co-ed secondary schools were established from what were formerly Junior Secondary Programmes: the Goodwill Secondary School (GSS) and the Grand Bay Secondary School (GBSS). In that same year, the Catholic–run St.

Martin’s School for girls upgraded its technical/vocational wing into a fully-fledged secondary school called the St. Martin’s Secondary School (SMSS). With the opening of these new schools and the continued use of the Common Entrance Exams the gender balance continue to be in favour of girls to the detriment of boys. In October 1994 the Nehemiah Christian Foundation headed by Mrs. Rhoda George opened the Nehemiah Comprehensive School with 60 boys and girls.

The school is located in Jimmit, Mahaut. In the financial year 1995/96 the government entered into a loan agreement with the World Bank to fund the Basic Education Reform Project (BERP). One of the three main objectives of the project was to expand access to secondary education. Under the project, this objective was fulfilled in the co-ed Castle Bruce Secondary School (CBSS) in 1998.

TABLE I DOMINICA: Academic Secondary Schools, 2002/03 |School |Year Founded |Boys |Girls |Total |Status | |Convent High School | | | | | | | |1858 |0 |493 |493 |Assisted | |Dominica Grammar School |1893 |518 |281 |799 |State | |Wesley High School |1927 |0 |287 |287 |Assisted | |St.

Mary’s Academy |1932 |420 |0 |420 |Assisted | |Portsmouth Secondary School |1971 |402 |435 |837 |State | |Dominica Community High School |1975 |79 |46 |125 |Assisted | |St. Andrew’s High School |1979 |233 |292 |525 |Assisted | |Marigot Secondary School |1980 |86 |59 |145 |Assisted | |Isaiah Thomas Secondary School |1981 |312 |393 |705 |State | |SDA Secondary School |1981 |108 |87 |195 |Private | |St. Martin’s Secondary School |1988 |0 |306 |306 |Assisted | |Goodwill Secondary School |1988 |380 |262 |642.

|State | |Grand Bay Secondary School |1988 |334 |343 |677 |State | |Nehemiah Comprehensive School |1994 |64 |73 |137 |Assisted | |Castle Bruce Secondary School |1998 |266 |291 |557 |State | |Orion Academy |2003 | | | |Private | |Total | |3 202 |3 648 |6 850 | | Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth Affairs, 2002/03 The School Curriculum Several factors impinge on the development of the curriculum in Dominica: slavery, colonialism, politics, economics, religion, socio-cultural biases, parents, teachers and the learners themselves.

In the pre-emancipation era the curriculum that existed was of a religious nature. The society was largely illiterate and ignorant. There existed no notion or idea of popular or mass education. With emancipation in 1834, the rudiments of a system of education began to take shape. The limited curriculum was non-scientific and bookishly academic based on rote and memory teaching and learning. By 1868, as the primary system took root the three r’s were taught namely reading, writing and arithmetic. The system that was taking shape was one that would provide labourers and servants and no more.

At the secondary level, the curriculum catered for the children of the elite: Maths, Science, Geography, English, Greek, and Latin. The colonial powers and the local legislatures controlled the educational system. In other words, the ruling elites/classes decided who should be taught, what should be taught, when, how and where. The entire process from start to finish was decided for the learner. In 1899, Agriculture was being promoted as a subject to be taught so that the learner would become an agricultural labourer or worker on an estate or join the ranks of the impoverished peasantry.

So agricultural schools were encouraged. In this way the islands would remain as sources of primary agricultural produce. When the British abolished the local legislatures and imposed direct crown colony rule the curriculum again was being used as a tool to keep the masses in their place. It limited them to learn the basics and agriculture. Attempts were made to improve education at the end of the First World War (1914-1918): salaries to teachers, payments by results and attempts at compulsory education. The West Indian Conference in Dominica in 1932 urged the region to struggle for compulsory education among other things.

This failed. In 1957, the ministerial system was brought to Dominica with some exercise of authority by the house of assembly. But power still lied with the British parliament. Budgets could be passed, but had to be approved by Britain. In 1967, Dominica became an associate state with Gt. Britain. All internal matters were under local jurisdiction, but foreign affairs, trade and defence resided with Gt. Britain. Dominica could now influence and shape educational progress, but very little happened. The primary system continued to develop. The high schools became stagnant.

The last one to be established was in 1936 (SMA). Thirty-seven years passed before the next one, the PSS was established. By 1978, the curriculum at the primary was now being driven by the Common Entrance Examinations to the detriment of all else. The same thing could be found at the secondary schools. The entire curriculum was driven by foreign external examinations. The foreign element was removed in 1985 when we switched from the Cambridge and London GCE ‘O’ Levels to the regionally based CXC examinations. But the GCE ‘A’ Levels still continue to dictate the curriculum at the post-secondary level.

In 1998, CXC began to test pilot its own ‘A’ Levels known as CAPE, which will soon replace the English-based GCE ‘A’ Levels. The School Curriculum and Examinations The CXC and the GCE curriculum dictate the locus and focus of secondary education in Dominica. These exams cater for the 30-40% of the ability range of secondary students. The entire curriculum was driven by foreign external examinations. The foreign element was removed in 1985 when we switched from the Cambridge and London GCE ‘O’ Levels to the regionally based CXC examinations. But the GCE ‘A’ Levels still continue to dictate the curriculum at the post-secondary level.

In 1998, CXC began to test pilot its own ‘A’ Levels known as CAPE, which will soon replace the English-based GCE ‘A’ Levels. The HSC, LSC and GCE dominated the curriculum of secondary schools since the 1880s. The failure rates were very high at both the ‘O’ and ‘A’ Levels. It was also a drain on the scarce resources of the region. The minimum of 5 ‘O’ Level subjects were required to move into the sixth form and five subjects were needed of which 2 must be at ‘A’ Level for university entry. The Caribbean was influenced by educational and curriculum developments in North America and Europe, especially Britain.

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Revolutionary curricular changes in maths and science were being undertaken in the USA as a result of the Russian success in Sputnik I. In the U. K, the Nuffield Foundation invested heavily in a science development project. In 1969-70, the West Indian Science Curriculum Innovation Project (WISCIP) began at St. Augustine, UWI, and Trinidad. It was a new approach with emphasis on enquiry and experimentation, understanding and constructive thinking. This was introduced in the DGS and the other high schools of the time. During that same period ‘New Mathematics’ was introduced in the schools’ curriculum.

All five of the secondary schools in Dominica adopted it. The Convent High School had their first ‘O’ Level candidates in 1971, and the DGS in 1972. Results in all Caribbean schools were not so good at first because of the unfamiliarity with the new approaches and topics such as inverses, identities, algebra of sets and matrices, decimalisation and metrification, vectors, inequalities and topology. At first most of the schools used the School Mathematics Project (SMP) books, but these were replaced by the Joint Schools Project (Caribbean edition) series, as part of the CEDO/UNESCO/UWI Caribbean Mathematics Project.

The CXC was established in 1972 to serve the Commonwealth Caribbean. The process took over 10 years. The CXC was to replace the GCE exams. It would develop syllabi, conduct exams and issue certificates. This was a form of asserting cultural and intellectual independence from our colonial past and from Britain. Politically, the Caribbean has eschewed integration. There was the West Indian Federation as colonies of Britain (1958-1962). It ended in failure due to insularity, nationalism and dependency.

With independence, the nations can dictate their educational goals and match these to national needs. In Dominica, we have not had a long history of educational reforms established in law. In 1949 an Education Act was passed to regulate and govern the sector. This was changed in 1997 when the new Education Act was passed. This was part of an attempt to harmonise education legislation in the Eastern Caribbean. In 1995 the Basic Education Reform Project was launched (BERP). The Project had three main objectives: 1. to strengthen the management and planning capacity of the Ministry, 2.

to enhance the quality of education, and 3. to expand and conserve school places. Economically, we live in an interdependent world, a global village. We are partners bargaining from a position of weakness. Unequal terms of trade, onerous foreign debts, trade deficits and balance of payment problems deplete our resources so that our educational budgets are severely constrained. In general (1999 – 2004), Dominica spends about 17% of its recurrent budget on education, 1-2% on materials and supplies and about 80% on personal emoluments. New Curriculum Developments.

Primary schools follow a curriculum, which has recently been reviewed by the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU). Schools have been provided with curriculum guides for English Language, Mathematics and General Science for Grades K to 6. Curriculum guides for Social Studies, Mathematics, Science and English Language were to become available in September 1999 for grades K to 6. A curriculum guide for Social Studies has been prepared for Form 1 at the secondary level. Workbooks for Grades k to 3 for English were to have been made available from September 1999.

In addition a curriculum guide for Health and Family Life covering primary and secondary age ranges is being monitored and supported in schools. A draft national policy for this was presented to Cabinet in August 1998 but has not yet been officially approved. The CDU has planned to review Music, PE, Art and Craft, and Agriculture in 2001 as well as to start writing and production of support materials for pupils and teachers. The revised primary schools curriculum appears to be appropriate at the national level. The main problem appears to be in its delivery.

The main need at the primary level for curriculum development is in relation to adapting the teacher’s guides for multigrade teaching and provision of differentiated activities for all subjects and all classrooms. Dominica does not have a National Curriculum and therefore, the curriculum de facto is determined by each school and in practice is closely related to the requirements of the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) other external examinations and higher ability students. A balance needs to be struck between the academic and practical skills education in the secondary sector in any future national curriculum.

The Ministry of Education has outlined the following process to arrive at the promulgation and implementation of the National Curriculum (NC): National Curriculum Committee (NCC) established in school year 1999/2000 NCC reviews existing curriculum: locally and regionally Under the NCC, Subject Teams and Subject Areas are established Development of Syllabi, and Curriculum Guides in Core Subject Areas Curriculum Training of Staff/Subject Team Members Resource Provision First Draft National Curriculum in Core Subject Areas Review of Draft Curriculum Development of Curricula in other subject areas.

Establishment of National Norms and Standards for all subjects Piloting of National Curriculum in a cross-section of schools Promulgation of National Curriculum by Minister of Education Use by all schools of the National Curriculum as of September 2003 The Secondary Education Support Project (SESP) had been working with the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) to write and pilot a revised curriculum for Forms 1 to 3 in the core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies, incorporating activities for average and below average ability pupils.

Drafts of curriculum guides for Form 1 have been completed and were made available to schools in September 1999. All the guides for the four core subjects were made available in 2001. The CDU also has completed work in Music, Art, Craft, and Agriculture. However, the major curriculum need resides in the consideration of a curriculum which will meet the needs of all students – academic, technical/vocational, aesthetic, spiritual, moral and for citizenship and fulfill the ambitions set out in the 1997 Education Act. This would be especially so when Universal Secondary Education is achieved.

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