а Cultural Framework of Beliefs and Actions Essay

Without considering some or all of these relationships, utterances can be analyzed only in terms of their surface meanings. Moreover, not considering an entire context allows us to impugn the intentions and motives of others, that is, to blame participants for asking questions. We cannot understand how an interpreter’s role emerges in actual interaction by simply hypothesizing what that role should be. The reality of practice does not conform to the ideology.

This example does allow us to ask about or ponder the expectations for interpreters to act as full participants and, likewise, to ask about or ponder the obligations of interpreters to respond as participants and to initiate actions through language as full participants. This then is where the boundary of ethical decisions might lie. The example that follows is another look at the Interpreter’s turn from Chapter 7 in which the Interpreter urges the Student to talk. Telling, encouraging, or urging а primary participant to talk can perhaps be debated from two perspectives.

From one perspective, one could argue that by encouraging the Student to talk, the Interpreter assisted the Student in acting appropriately in а situation where it was important for the Student to act appropriately because it is ultimately а gate keeping experience (Erickson and Shultz 1982). The Interpreter did not tell the Student what to say, but only prompted him to say something, thus interpreting the “ways of speaking” and norms within а professor-student interaction at a University and which also assisted in maintaining communication.

From another perspective, one might argue that urging any participant to talk is more responsibility for the direction and outcome of а speech event than an interpreter should assume and that the Student might have learned а valuable lesson about interacting with а professor at а relatively early point in his graduate career. To think about these perspectives, І present the example again, transcribed differently. For this discussion І present their utterances line by line, in sequence, without showing where the interpretation overlaps а speaker’s utterance.

І remind readers that glosses for ASL signs (all caps) represent only а portion of the meaning and can make the ASL seem simplified. In this example, translations of ASL utterances are in italics. S: YOU WANT ME IMPROVE NEXT WEEK CLASS (Pointing at the paper intermittently) Do you want me to improve this for next week’s class? І: So uhm you want this to be ready for next week’s class? P: Well could it be possible at all to get it to me by Monday?

In the second clause, the Interpreter signs oN which, in ASL, has the specific meaning of putting а concrete object on another concrete object, as in laying а book on а table. Its use here derives from using ASL signs in ways that correspond to English syntax (Winston 1989) and signifies а type of code-switching, which emphasizes the literalness of the translation. Perhaps it is this literalness that is stressed in an attempt to clue the Student that another meaning is lurking about.

Read also  Decisions About Turns

Next, the Interpreter repeats the lexical item PoSSIBLE three times, twice within а clause which is itself repeated. The first clause has the grammatical question marked on the face, as ASL ordinarily does. In the second clause, however, the Interpreter continues to use question marking on the face, but also adds а specific sign indicating that а question has been asked. The question is asked three times, another repetition. The most notable aspect of this translation is the repetition of words and clauses.

The Professor does not repeat her utterance, but the Interpreter does with clauses that are parallel in structure. Although studies in ASL are only beginning to study the functions of repetition, repetition in general functions to emphasize, and many languages around the world use repeated parallel structures for emphasis (Johnstone 1994). The repetition and parallel structures, the use of code-switching, the added question marker, and the stress on the way the signs are made all reinforce the emphasis on Monday and the sense that the Interpreter is trying to convey another message.

However, the Student fails to interpret the underlying message for himself. He understood that she wanted the assignment by Monday, but he had already told her of his weekend plans which precluded his having the assignment ready Monday. He did not interpret the indirect message as а request not to be denied. We can speculate that the collegial atmosphere created and encouraged by the Professor might have suggested to the Student а sense of permissiveness that did not exists.

We can speculate that as а man, and because of gender differences in women and men’s language, the Student heard the indirect message as an option to which he could say yes or no ( Tannen 1994). We can speculate that the Interpreter did not appropriately convey signals of authority that were particular to the situation. Whatever the reason, the Student interpreted the Professor’s utterances as the first part of а negotiation and responded with his own indirect message by talking about returning on Sunday; in essence he said no to the Professor.

More Essays

  • Decisions About Turns

    Overlapping talk is а difficult dilemma for interpreters. Whether the talk is simply of а back-channel nature or will become an attempt to take а turn does not deny its potential meaningfulness in conversational activity. As overlapping talk begins, any prediction as to its eventual length is а fifty-fifty...

  • Lengthy Lag

    From regular lag, another type of lag can develop–а delay that becomes too long for one of the speakers Lengthy lag occurs when а speaker perceives that the ensuing verbalizing or silence is taking too much time and reacts verbally or nonverbally. Typically this produces one of two results, the speaker who...

  • Simultaneous Interpreting

    These first two instances of overlap happen quickly and without need for а resolution. Then, а third instance of overlapping talk begins, all three are talking, and to intervene. The Student offers back-channel responses, the Interpreter begins translating and then the Professor begins to speak. Suddenly...

  • Reexamining Interpreter’s Role

    Immediately, the Interpreter knows that this response is not appropriate, and we find evidence for that in his talk and action, first, he says "uhm" at the same time the Professor says, "ok uhm. " He does not wait for а response from the Student but instead tries to hold the turn with his utterance. Then he...

  • The Three Teleological Frameworks and the Three Deontological Frameworks

    List and discuss in depth the three teleological frameworks and the three deontological frameworks. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Of these six frameworks, with which one do you most associate? Teleological frameworks focus in the results of the conduct of the individual is favorable or...

  • Randy Pausch, Speaking Skills

    When faced with the knowledge that you are about to do something you love for the last time, how would you react? When Randy Pausch, a virtual design professor at the University of Carnegie Mellon was given the diagnosis of liver cancer with only a few months to live, he knew that everything he did would be...

  • _the Last Lectur_ – Randy Pausch

    Randy Pausch, a remarkable professor in Carnegie Mellon, delivered his last lecture and book entitled "Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams" in 2007. Because he was diagnosed with terminal cancer, he was dying but he tried to leave what he wanted to educate his children in the future. After recalling his...

  • Existentialism and Contractarianism

    1) Read chapters One through three of your textbook 2)Compare and contrast the Existentialism and Contractarianism framework Compare: Both existentialism and contractarianism frameworks are two of the three deontological frameworks outlined in chapter one. Deontological frameworks focus on the duty or...

  • Classroom Management Debate

    Set of procedures the teacher uses in order to ensure the smooth and motivational interaction among learners. It also involves the e? cient use of audiovisual aids and other forms of realia and equipment. Critical points to consider: •Teacher Talking Time •Student Taking time •The use of L1 CLASSROOM...

  • Utilitarianism and Happiness

    This theory advocates that the actions worth is determined by maximizing utility (pleasure or happiness). it looks at the consequence of an action as to whether the outcome is good to the majority of people affected by it. According to Bentham, utilitarianism is the greatest happiness or greatest felicity...

Read also  Randy Pausch, Speaking Skills