Business Communication Essay

Communication is one of the most important parts of any relationship. Business relationships are no different. Having effective business communication or not having effective business communication can positively or negatively impact the success of an entire organization. Unfortunately, there are many barriers that can obstruct effective business communication. Those barriers come in four different categories. Those categories are personal barriers, physical barriers, sematic barriers and process barriers. A manager must know how to work around the communication barriers and use his or her communication skills to keep business operations going smoothly and to make improvements to the company. Personal Barriers:

The first kind of barrier that can impede business operations are personal barriers. One of the personal barriers that come into play are perception differences. People of many different backgrounds and perceptions exist in any given workplace. For that reason it is important for a manager to understand how to deal with the personal barriers that different employees may have to communicating. Different communication barriers have different solutions. Sometimes a sender of a message may not be able to communicate with the receiver what he or she is trying to say. Sometimes the receiver of the message has a different way of perceiving information and will interpret what is being said differently than it is meant. One of the best ways to avoid this occurrence is for the sender to ask the receiver questions to make sure that the receiver understands what the sender is trying to say.

While perception barriers can stop communications from being understood fully, listening barriers can also disrupt the transmission of a message. If the receiver does not have any listening skills, the sender will be unable to effectively send the needed information. Those who have poor listening skills will often misunderstand or misinterpret the information being conveyed. A manager must work on developing his or her listening skills if he or she wishes to be able to connect with his or her staff. A manger would also do well to work with his or her staff on developing their listening skills. A team that has good listening skills will be one that can communicate with each other effectively.

In addition to perception barriers and listening barriers, psychological distance barriers can hamper the transferring of information within an organization. Every person goes into work each day with their own frame of mind and his or her own attitude. If a person has a negative frame of mind and a poor attitude, he or she will be less open minded to any information that is given to him or her. A person’s individual perceptions can also effect his or her psychological distance barriers and add to a misunderstanding of communications. Identifying that one has a poor frame of mind or a bad attitude and determining its source is the best way to eliminate such communication barriers.

While perception barriers, listening barriers and psychological distance barriers are harmful one of the most detrimental kinds of barriers are emotional barriers. Humans are emotional and irrational creatures by nature. Emotional preconceptions can cloud how a person understands what is being said to him or her. A person might resist information or the information may be restricted due to his or her emotional issues. Emotional barriers cannot be ignored. Instead, a person who wishes to work past emotional barriers must understand the barrier and work towards removing the barrier. Physical Barriers:

Physical barriers is another category of communication barriers. The first kind of physical communication is when a communication tool is either used in an ineffective manner or the wrong tool is used to communication information. The medium used to deliver a message can be inappropriate for that piece of information. Therefore, it is important that the right tool be chosen to convey various bits of data.

While choosing the wrong medium to convey a message can be detrimental to the receiver’s ability to understand the message, geographical distance can also cause the information to be gabled. Lag times in the initial communication and feedback from that communication can cause misunderstandings. If the information does not get fully conveyed or gets conveyed too late because of long distances, it becomes useless. The best way to avoid miscommunication due to geographical barriers is to use the best method of communication for distances. With modern technology, video conferences and other electronic tools can keep information from becoming delayed and distorted.

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Inappropriate use of communication tools and geographical distance can be easily circumvented with modern technology. However, one physical communication barrier that is harder to avoid is noise disruptions. The world is a noisy place and sometimes noise can make it hard to understand what is being said. While often modern technology can help eliminate noise barriers, sometimes noise barriers cannot be helped. The best way to combat this issue is to acknowledge that noise barriers exist and to make sure that information is understood when that circumstance transpires. Semantic Barriers:

Semantics are often dismissed as unimportant. However, when it comes to effectively communicating meaning, semantics are vital. When the sender of information uses the wrong words to convey their message, the receiver may not be able to understand. Not only can the use of wrong words be confusing but the right words should be used when communicating information to the right people. Because different audiences have different perceptions, the sender of information must choose his or her words correctly to fit his or her audience.

The incorrect use of words will destroy effective communication; however, jargon is another sematic barrier that can ruin communication. Jargon is language that is used in a specific field. For instance, engineers have their own jargon that a sales person is not likely to understand. The success of a business relies on different people with different expertise coming together with a common goal. When one communicates with people who are not in his or her field, he or she should use language that can be understood generally. Even if a sales person does not understand specific engineering jargon, a sales person can understand a basic explanation of the product or situation. Process Barriers:

Process barriers are another category of communication barriers. One of the most detrimental of the process barriers is the lack of a hierarchy of communication dissemination. A hierarchy of communication dissemination can best be built by establishing a structured program and process of communication. Proper communication channels should be used to spread information throughout an organization. Every level of employee should understand how the hierarchy works and to whom to direct their questions.

In addition to the lack of a hierarchy of communication dissemination, communications that are too complex can be serious barriers. If the information being shared is too complicated the understanding of the information can be lost. To best avoid this process communication barrier, one should be sure to communicate the information at the level of those who are receiving it. Additionally, the sender of information should make sure that he or she is not making the information more complicated by presenting it in a confusing manner. Complex information can be clarified if it is broken down in a way that everyone from different disciplines and levels can understand.

Having a proper hierarchy of communication dissemination and delivering information in a less complex manner can help diminish communication barriers. Another way to break communication barriers is to establish an element of trust in the communication process. When there is a good level of trust between management and coworkers, many communication barriers can be removed. When one can trust those who are high up in the company hierarchy, creativity is more likely to flow freely from all levels of the company. Because creativity is the driving force behind most businesses, the high generation of creativity is important to an organization’s survival.

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A manager who is not aware of the four categories of communication barriers and their details will not be successful and will not contribute to the success of his or her company. Each barrier has different elements that can make communication attempts fail. Better communication can be achieved by working around and breaking down these barriers.

Managers must be realize that every person has a different background and will perceive things differently, he or she must understand that different people from different disciplines understand on different planes and managers also need to make sure that the right technology and tools are being used to send various communications. Business is all about communicating efficiently. Poor communication with coworkers and managers leads to inefficient work. When communication barriers are surpassed, productivity of a company will increase and a company can thrive.

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Business Communication Essay

To communicate with others, to convince and to find the compromise, to listen and speak – those are what the life consists of and the business life especially. Without those important skills no success may be reached, and people gain these skills and improve them during their whole life. I think nobody can remain indifferent to the relations between people, their behaviour and their individuality. It is no matter who are you – the manager of giant corporation or, let’s say, a low-paid employee in a small office – if you are involved into some kind of business activity and have some goals and wishes – you are compelled to have a deal with others, without possibility to stand out from communication.

Business communication involves exchange of information within an organizational setup. It is a continuous process. The more the business expands, the greater is the pressure on the business to find more effective means of communication both with the employees and with the society at large. Business communication is both written and oral. Written communication is important to fix accountability and responsibility of people in organization. This requires more of written communication (much of paper work). Everything should be communicated in written form by the manager to the people in the organization.

Written messages can be saved for future references and cannot be denied. Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

The object of this course paper is written business communication.

The subject is grammatical and stylistic peculiarities of business written interaction.

The aim is to explore the peculiarities of business communication in wide meaning in order to understand all the peculiarities of such type of communication and its necessity in modern world.

In accordance with the aim of investigation the following tasks were set: ✓ To define the concept of business communication; ✓ To analyze the most frequent types of written business communication and to explore them; ✓ To subscribe linguistic and sociocultural peculiarities of the style of business documents.

Chapter I

Characteristic Features of Business Communication

1. Functional Styles and their Classification

Functional styles of language are a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. Functional styles are thus to be regarded as the product of a certain concrete task set by the sender of the massage. Functional Styles appears mainly in the literary standard of a language. The literary standard of the English language, like that of any other developed language, is not so homogeneous as it may seem. In fact the standard literary English language in the course of its development has fallen into several subsystems each of which has acquired its own peculiarities which are typical of the given functional style.

The members of the language community, especially those who are sufficiently trained and responsive to language variations, recognize these styles as independent wholes. The peculiar choice of language means is primarily predetermined by the aim of the communication with the result that a more or less closed system is built up. One set of language media stands in opposition to other sets of language media with other aims, and these other sets have other choices and arrangements of language means. Functional styles are also called registers or discourses. In the standard literary English we distinguish the following major functional styles are distinguished:

1. The language of belles – letters.

2. The language of publicistic literature.

3. The language of newspapers.

4. The language of scientific prose.

5. The language of official documents.

As it has already been mentioned, functional styles are the product of the development of the written variety of language. Each functional style may be characterized by a number of distinctive features, leading or subordinate, constant or changing, obligatory or optional. Most of the functional styles however, are perceived as independent wholes due to a peculiar combination and interrelation of features common to all (especially when taking into account syntactical arrangement) with the leading ones of each functional style.

Each functional style is subdivided into a number of substyles. Each variety has basic features common to all the varieties of the given functional style and peculiar features typical of this variety along. Still a substyle can, in some cases, deviate so far from the invariant that in its extreme it may even break away. We clearly perceive the following substyles of the fire functional style given above. The belles-lettres functional style is subdivided into:

a) the language style of poetry;

b) the language style of emotive prose;

c) the language style of drama.

The publicistic functional style comprises the following substyles:

a) the language style of oratory;

b) the language style of essays;

c) the language style of feature articles in newspapers and journals. The newspaper functional style falls into:

a) the language style of brief news items and communiques;

b) the language style of newspaper headings;

c) the language style of notices and advertisements.

The scientific prose functional style also has three divisions:

a) the language style of humanitarian sciences;

b) the language style of “exact” sciences;

c) the language style of popular scientific prose.

The official document functional style can be divided into four varieties:

a) the language style of diplomatic documents;

b) the language style of business documents;

c) the language style of legal documents;

d) the language style of military documents.

The classification presented here is by no means arbitrary. It is the result of long and minute observations of factual material in which not only peculiarities of language usage were taken into account but also extralinguistic data, in particular the purport of the communication. The classification of functional styles is not a simple matter and any discussion of it is bound to reflect more than one angle of vision. Thus, for example, some stylicists consider that newspaper articles (including feature articles) should be classed under the functional style of newspaper language, not under the language of publicistic literature.

Others insist on including the language of everyday – life discourse into the system of functional styles. Prof. Budagov singles out only two main functional styles: the language of science and that of emotive literature. It is inevitable, of course, that any classification should lead to some kind of simplification of the facts classified, because items are considered in isolation. More over, sub-styles assume, as it were, the aspect of closed systems. But no classification, useful though it may be from the theoretical point of view, should be allowed to blind us as to the conventionality of classification in general.

1.2 Peculiarities of the Style of Official Documents

The style of official documents aims at establishing, developing and controlling business relations between individuals and organizations. Like their styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and, accordingly, has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. These parties may be: this state and a citizen, or citizen and citizen; a society and its members (statute or ordinance); two or more enterprises or bodies (business correspondence or contracts); two or more governments (pacts, treaties); a person in authority and a subordinate (order, regulations, instructions, authoritative directives); a board or presidium and an assembly or general meeting (procedures acts, minutes).

The aim of communication in this style of language is to reach agreement between two contracting parties. Even protest against violations of statutes, contracts, regulations, can also be regarded as a form by which normal cooperation is sought on the basis of previously attained concordance.

The most general function of the style of official documents predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most striking, though not the most essential feature, is a special system of clichés, terms and set expressions by which each sub-style can easily be recognized. For example: I beg to inform you, provisional agenda, the above – mentioned, on behalf of, private advisory, Pear Sir, we remain, your obedient servants…

In fact, each of the subdivisions of this style has its peculiar terms, phrases and expressions, which differ from the corresponding terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style. Thus in finance we find terms like extra revenue, taxable capacities liability to profit fax. Terms and phrases like high contracting parties, to ratify an agreement, memorandum, protectorate, extra – territorial status will immediately brand the utterance as diplomatic.

In legal language, examples are: to deal with a case, summary procedure; a body of judges; as laid down in. Like wise, other varieties of official language have their special nomenclature, which is conspicuous in the text and therefore easily discernible as belonging to the official language style. Besides the special nomenclature characteristic of each variety of the style, there is a feature common to all these varieties – the use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions, for example:

Ltd – Limited,

B/E – bill of exchange,

Gvt – government,

Appx – appendix,

$ – dollar,

₤ – pound…

Words with emotive meaning are not to be found in the style of official documents. Even in the style of scientific prose some words may be found which reveal the attitude of the writer, his individual evaluation of the facts and events of the issue. But such words are not to be found in official style, except those which are used in business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close, as Dear Sir, yours faithfully. Almost every official document has its own compositional design. Pacts and statutes, orders and minutes, notes and memoranda – all have more or less definite forms, and it will not be an exaggeration to state that the form of the document is itself informative, inasmuch as it tells something about the matter dealt with (a letter, an agreement, an order…)

Chapter II

Peculiarities of Written Interaction

2.1 Types of Written Business Communication

Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word. Communication is a key to any endeavor involving more than one person. Communicating through writing is essential in the modern world and is becoming ever more so as we participate in what is now commonly called the information age. In fact, written communication is the most common form of business communication. It is essential for small business owners and managers to develop effective written communication skills and to encourage the same in all employees. The information age has altered the ways in which we communicate and placed an increasing emphasis on written versus oral communications. The ever-increasing use of computers and computer networks to organize and transmit information means the need for competent writing skills is rising. Dr. Craig Hogan, a former university professor who now heads an online school for business writing, receives hundreds of inquiries each month from managers and executives requesting help with improving their own and their employees’ writing skills.

Dr. Hogan explains, in an article entitled “What Corporate America Can’t Build: A Sentence,” that millions of people previously not required to do a lot of writing on the job are now expected to write frequently and rapidly. According to Dr. Hogan, many of them are not up to the task. “E-mail is a party to which English teachers have not been invited. It has companies tearing their hair out.” Survey results from The National Commission on Writing study back up this assessment. They found that a third of employees in the nation’s “blue chip” companies write poorly and are in need of remedial writing instruction.

The need to develop good writing skills is only highlighted by the fact that in the information age, it is not uncommon to have business relationships with customers and suppliers that are established and maintained exclusively through the use of written communications. In this environment, “the words we write are very real representations of our companies and ourselves. We must be sure that our e-mail messages are sending the right messages about us,” explained Janis Fisher Chan, author of E-Mail: A Write It Well Guide-How to Write and Manage E-Mail in the Workplace, in an article appearing in Broker Magazine.

The key to communication, of course, is to convey meaning in as accurate and concise a manner as possible. People do not read business memoranda for the pleasure of reading. They do so in order to receive instructions or information upon which to base decisions or take action. Therefore, highly literary prose is not desirable in business writing. Overly formal prose may also be counterproductive by seeming stand-offish or simply wordy. A style of writing that is too informal can also convey an unintended message, namely that the subject matter is not serious or not taken seriously by the sender. A straightforward, courteous tone is usually the best choice but one that may not come naturally without practice.

Advantages and disadvantages of written communication

Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.

Written forms of communication have several advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that written messages do not have to be delivered on the spur of the moment; instead, they can be edited and revised several times before they are sent so that the content can be shaped to maximum effect. Another advantage is that written communication provides a permanent record of the messages that have been sent and can be saved for later study. Since they are permanent, written forms of communication also enable recipients to take more time in reviewing the message and providing appropriate feedback. For these reasons, written forms of communication are often considered more appropriate for complex business messages that include important facts and figures.

Other benefits commonly associated with good writing skills include increased customer/client satisfaction; improved interorganizational efficiency; and enhanced image in the community and industry. There are also several potential pitfalls associated with written communication, however. For instance, unlike oral communication, wherein impressions and reactions are exchanged instantaneously, the sender of written communication does not generally receive immediate feedback to his or her message.

This can be a source of frustration and uncertainty in business situations in which a swift response is desired. In addition, written messages often take more time to compose, both because of their information-packed nature and the difficulty that many individuals have in composing such correspondence. Many companies, however, have taken a proactive stance in addressing the latter issue. Mindful of the large number of workers who struggle with their writing abilities, some firms have begun to offer on-site writing courses or enrolled employees in business writing workshops offered by professional training organizations, colleges, and community education programs.

2.2 Business Letters, their Types and Components

Business communication is a permanent means of communication and is much easier understanding then oral means of communication. Good written communication contributes to success of an organization. It helps in building goodwill of an organization. Written business communication includes letters, memoranda, agenda, manuals, reports etc. 1. Business Letters: A very large part of the business of the world is conducted by means of correspondents. Therefore it is extremely important to be able to write good business letters – letters that represent one’s self and one’s organization to best advantage. Writing good business letter is a matter of detailed and often quite specialized technique, which is not so complicated as you may have been let to fear. All you need is a supply of visiting cards, some good paper, a pen, a computer and a little good will. It must have a good appealing layout. The content of the letter should be clear in mind of the writer.

The letter must be divided into paragraphs. It must have subject written and should be enclosed in an envelope. It should be surely used for future reference. It should be carefully written as it has an impact on goodwill of the organization. Examples of Business letters are – sales letters, information letters, problem letters etc. 2. Memoranda: Memos are generally short means of written communication within an organization. They are used to convey specific information to the people within an organization. 3. Reports: A report is prepared after lot of investigation. Whatever observations are made, an account of them is written in the report. Reports are important for analyzing the performance of the organization. It helps in taking important decisions within an organization.

4. Agenda: Agenda is an outline about all the contents of the meeting. It tells what is the purpose of the meeting and where are the participants heading. While designing an agenda one should be very specific. Designing an agenda beforehand helps the people to come prepared for the meeting. 5. Electronic Mail. Electronic mail, commonly known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.

The most popular type of written business communication is letter. Letter writing is an art. A letter on one topic can be written in different styles with the help of various formats. Writing a letter is a difficult task for some because of format used for writing. The letter has to have following parts. They are date, name and address of sender and receiver, salutation, main body and complimentary closure. When all these parts are combined together then you will get a well drafted letter. Writing as well as receiving a letter is always special. A Letter is a platform where you can express your innermost feelings in a straightforward manner. Business letters and personal letters are two types of letters. For all official and formal situations, you write business letter whereas letters written to friends, relatives, acquaintances are personal letters.

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Both follow the same format only the difference lies in the language used for writing. In business letters, formal language is used and situations discussed are work related. In personal letters language is informal and you discuss personal and intimate topics. A commercial business letter is a letter written in formal language, usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties.

The overall style of letter will depend on the relationship between the parties concerned. There are many reasons to write a business letter. It could be to request direct information or action from another party, to order supplies from a supplier, to identify a mistake that was committed, to reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong or simply to convey goodwill. Even in our modern days, the business letter is still very useful because it produces a permanent record, is confidential, formal and delivers persuasive, well-considered messages The most common types of business letter include:

1. Acknowledgement Letter: This type of letter is written when you want to acknowledge some one for his help or support when you were in trouble. The letter can be used to just say thanks for something you have received from some one, which is of great help to you. 2. Apology Letter: An apology letter is written for a failure in delivering the desired results. If the person has taken up a task and he fails to meet the target then he apologizes and asks for an opportunity to improve in this type of letter. 3. Appreciation Letter: An appreciation letter is written to appreciate some one’s work in the organization. This type of letter is written by a superior to his junior. An organization can also write an appreciation letter to other organization, thanking the client for doing business with them.

4. Complaint Letter: A complaint letter is written to show one that an error has occurred and that needs to be corrected as soon as possible. The letter can be used as a document that was used for warning the reader. 5. Inquiry Letter: The letter of inquiry is written to inquire about a product or service. If you have ordered a product and yet not received it then you can write a letter to inquire when you will be receiving it. 6. Order Letter: This letter is as the name suggests is used for ordering products. This letter can be used as a legal document to show the transaction between the customer and vendor. 7. Letter of Recommendation: This type of letter is written to recommend a person for a job position. The letter states the positive aspects of the applicant’s personality and how he/she would be an asset for the organization. Letter of recommendation is even used for promoting a person in the organization. There are several points that will help one in drafting a business letter: • Make sure that you type the letter. It should not be handwritten. • Always use a letter head to write a formal letter.

• If you don’t have a letter head, then type your name, designation and address at the top of the page. • Mentioning the date in a letter is a must as it serves the purpose of reference in further letter regarding the same topic. • After the date, you need to write the full name, designation and full address of the recipient. • Then you need to insert greeting to the person whom the letter is written. You have to use formal language. Take a look at this example: Dear Mr. Brown, • Now, you can actually begin to write the main message of the letter. In the first paragraph, you have to introduce yourself if the receiver does not know you. You could begin with a sentence like “We had recently met in a conference”, or “I had purchased a SIP from your company two months back.”

• After that you have to clearly mention the purpose of the letter. The purpose may be to lodge a complaint, request for information, compliment a product or service provided, discussing a business deal etc. You have to be brief and precise. • In the end of the letter, you have a complimentary close. The words that are included: Sincerely, thanking you, regards, etc. • The last thing is you need to type your name and sign the letter. • The letter should be printed in a readable font.

Business letter has a specific format. The letter is different from other forms of communication because of the format in which it is presented. The letter has a beginning, middle and an ending. All the areas of the letter have to be organized logical so that the letter is clear, complete and cohesive. A letter has different parts. All the parts have to be neatly drafted so that a meaningful letter is created. The block format is the most popular format of the business letter where all the matter is aligned to the left side and uses single spacing. The letter includes the following parts:

• Letterhead: The formal business letter should always begin with letterhead. Every organization has a letterhead used for all official correspondence. One have to begin the letter on the letter head of the company. The letter head gives the receiver an idea about who has sent the letter. • Date: The date has to be written exactly below the letter head. The date is important part of a letter and can be used as a reference. The date has to be written in full with day, month and year. For example: 25 December 2011 or December 20, 2011 • Receiver’s Address: The next important part is the receiver’s address. One need to include the name of the receiver, his designation and complete address. The inside address and the address on the envelope should always be same.

• Salutation: This is the opening line of the letter. It should begin with a greeting. In a formal business letter, one need to write dear followed by Mr./Ms with his or her name. It looks unprofessional, when a writer includes only the first name of the person. • Body: In the first line itself, a writer has to mention the message of his letter. The letter should be able to convey the message directly to the reader. The letter has no place for unnecessary words. It has to be concise but informative. The letter should consist of paragraphs. Each new point should have separate paragraph. The last paragraph should sum up the letter and ask the receiver to do an action based on the letter. • Complimentary Closure: In the end of the letter one have to use complimentary close. One can use words like “Yours faithfully”, “Yours sincerely”. Comma has to be included after the close. A writer has to insert his/her full name at the end leaving few spaces to sign the letter. After this is done a writer can include the enclosures.

Stylistic and Lexical Peculiarities of Business Letter

The layout of the business letter differs in some respect from that of the personal letter. Not only the sender’s address is given (as in personal letter) but also the name and address of the person or organization to which the letter is being send. This is written on the left-hand side of the page against the margin slightly lower than the date (which is on the opposite side). It should be the same as the name and address on the envelope. A letter written to a man should be add – reseed to, for example, Mr. D. Smith or to D. Smith Esq. (Esquire). A letter to a woman, should be addressed to, for example, Mrs. C. Jones or Mrs. C. Jones. If you do not know the name of the person for from your letter is intended you may address it directly to the company, e.g.: The Branded Boot Co. Ltd.,

5 Rubberheel Road,




Co. and Ltd. Are the usual abbreviations for Company and Limited. However it’s better to address your letter to some individual – The Managing Director, the Personnel Manager, The Secretary, The Branch Manager, The Export Manager – followed by the name of the company. If the person you are writing to is known to you, you should begin with, for example, Dear Mr. Thompson, Dear Mrs. Warren, etc. Otherwise you should begin Dear Sir (S), Dear Madam, or Gentlemen.

The body of the business letter usually includes:

a) Reference,

b) Information,

c) Purpose,

d) Conclusion.

You should begin your letter with a reference to a letter you have received, an advertisement you have seen, or an even which has prompted the writing of your letter. It is sometimes necessary to add some detailed information related to the reference, in a subsequent paragraph. The generally accepted way of writing the data is the following: October 17,200__

17 October,200__

October 19th ,200__

19th October,200__

The subject line is typed immediately below the salutation in the center. It helps to ensure that the letter is passed without delay to the right person or department : Dear Sir,

Your order # 0072/98

Purpose is the most important part of the letter, where you are expected to state clearly and concisely all the questions that you have been asked. As business letter are written on behalf of a firm, use ‘we’ and ‘our’ instead of ‘my’ and ‘I’. Do not use the short forms ‘we’ll’ ,’we’ve’ in all formal and business letters. Extra spacing is used between paragraphs to separate different points more effectively. Try to use short sentences and short paragraphs because it is easier to read and understand . Conclusion usually consists of some polite remark to round the letter off. Then usually follows the complimentary close. If you begin your letter with Dear Sir (s) or Dear Madam you may and it with the words “Your faithfully”. If you address a person by name the words “Yours sincerely ” are preferable.

There is a modern tendency however to use “Yours sincerely ” even to people you have never met. The signature: sing you name clearly, in full, as it should appear on the envelope of the letter addressed to you. If there are enclosures, the word ‘Encl:’ is typed at the bottom left-hand corner, with a short description of the enclosure. The postscript (P.S.) should be avoided. But sometimes ‘it has a definite, planned function. It is designed to draw special attention, to emphasize a point made elsewhere in letter, or to make a special offer. Sometimes it may serve as a reply to a further letter that has come in after the letter had been completed.

2.3 Modern Means of Business Communication

People have always tried to convey information. Now, they send letters and documents by post, by fax, by computer and they make phone calls from home or the office or, thanks to mobile phones, from wherever they happen to be. The list of services, thanks to advanced technology, is long and presumably will grow. People can phone and fax from trains and planes. They can buy things, carry out financial transactions, get information – all without leaving their chairs. This is the global information age. The worldwide computer network known as the Internet connects millions of people worldwide. It connects many computer networks and uses common addressing system. The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Using e-mail, you can send messages to anyone with an internet account.

Most businesses today have electronic address because e-mail provides cheap and rapid communication. Since the mid-1990s electronic commerce has become one of the most rapidly growing retail sectors involving the use of computer telecommunication networks for maintaining business relationships and selling information, services and commodities. Although e-commerce usually refers only to the trading of goods and services over the Internet, it actually includes broader economic activity such as business-to-consumer and business-to-business commerce as well as internal organizational transactions that support these activities.

A new form of collaboration known as a virtual company is flourishing now. This type of company is actually- a network of firms, each performing some of the processes needed to manufacture a product or deliver a service. E-mail is cheap and easy to use. E-mail is the transmission and distribution of information through personal computers linked to the telephone system, which allows subscribers to send a message directly to another subscriber that will appear in their electronic mail box. Computer use continues to grow and develop in all spheres of our life. Its applications have had a great impact on the business world. Computers have helped society by increasing productivity and simplifying many services, such as checking, credit cards, and telephone service.

Electronic Mail

Once a person gets comfortable with e-mail, it may seem like the only communication method needed. However, written media are preferred and necessary in many cases as previously described.

In many ways, e-mail messages are formatted and look similar to memos. Most of the e-mail heading portion is quite simple, most of it being handled by the e-mail program itself. The address of the recipient is filled in; addresses for those to receive copies are filled in; and a brief phase indicating the contents or purpose is added. After typing in the body of the message, an additional formatting element to add to a professional e-mail communications is a “signature”. Construct a signature containing your full name, title, company name, e-mail addresses, regular mailing address, telephone number, and other such detail. As for style in e-mail messages, here are some suggestions:

1. Typos and Mistakes. There is some controversy about how much to worry about writing mistakes in e-mail. Except for very formal electronic communications, most people disregard or even expect occasional writing glitches in the e-mail they send or receive. However, e-mail messages can be proofread and edited as easily as most other written documents. Sloppiness in writing can become a bad habit.

2. Formality. The tone of e-mail communications is generally informal. E-mail messages are normally rather short, for example, under a dozen lines, and the paragraphs are short as well. No one likes having to do a lot of extended reading on a computer screen.

3. Specific Subject Lines. If you want your e-mail to be read and have the impact you intend, make the subject line specific and compel ling. It is not uncommon for people to log-in and find 50 messages waiting.

4. Format. Whenever possible, break the message into paragraphs of less than six or seven lines and skip an extra line between them. Use only the characters on the keyboard; anything else may not format properly when the recipient views it. Use headings to identify and mark off the various subtopics. If there is a series of points, use the various forms of lists that are available.

5. Automatic Replies. The reply function in e-mail is a wonderful time-saver. However, e-mail is often addressed to multiple recipients. Know for sure that you want all listed recipients to receive the message. Particularly be careful with replying to group list-serves. It can be highly embarrassing for a sensitive message to go to unintended parties. Thus, sensitive topics probably should not be discussed via e-mail. Remember that e-mail can be quickly forwarded to a huge audience.


A memorandum can be used for most communications internal to an organization with the exception of possibly a full formal report. A memo might contain a status or progress report on a project; it might be a request to an employee to provide information; or it might be the employee’s response to a request for information. Thus, a memo can be very much like a business letter, or it can be very much like a short report. The key is the memorandum format. The memo format is commonly used for progress reports that are required in some engineering courses at ASU. These progress reports in memo format may have attachments as with a business letter. If longer than one page, memo progress reports should have subheading to help organize and present the information.

For example, a progress report on a design project might have subheadings for an introduction, accomplishments, future work, and problems.

The main header words in the memorandum format are usually in al l capital letters and are now commonly shown in bold type for appearance.

1. MEMO Heading. In most cases, the word “MEMORANDUM” is placed at the top, center of the first page. The font size is usually slightly larger than that of the text and other header words, and some provide a space between each letter of the word.

2. DATE Heading. The date used for the memo should be somewhere in the header. The example shown by Figure No. 3 shows the date as the first line, but in some designs, it may be a subsequent line.

3. TO Heading. The name of the recipient or the group name is shown following the TO: heading. Use appropriate names and titles, such as “Susie”, “Susie Jacques”, or “Mrs. Susie Jacques, Executive Secretary”, depending on your familiarity with the recipient and the formality of the situation.

4. COPIES Heading. If copies are sent to others, this heading should also be used. List the names and titles of those receiving copies of the memo.

5. FROM Heading. The sender’s name or the name of the group is placed on this line. The familiarity with the recipient and the sense of the formality dictate how the sender is addressed. In many organizations, the writer of the memo places their initials or first name just after the typed name.

6. SUBJECT Heading. A brief phrase that encapsulates the topic and purpose of the memo is placed in this space. Generally, the first letter of each word in the phrase is capitalized, and there is no punctuation at the end. The actual label for this element varies; some styles use “RE:” or “SUBJ:”

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Most of the rules that apply to business letters also apply to the body of a memo. For example, text should be single spaced with double spacing between paragraphs. In more formal styles of memoranda, writers actually insert the same kind of complimentary close and signature block as used for business letters. For continuing pages, some type of header is appropriate with the name of the recipient, date, and page number shown.


So, we defined the concept of business communication and we can surely say, that it takes a huge part in our life. Business communication is very important for every businessman, because communication with business partners, employees, clients is the ground of their success. Written communication is more frequently used type of communication in business life. An exceptional business writing skill is very important in any type of business. Clients frequently base the company’s credibility on the quality of their business communications. These people tend to have negative view of businesses that disseminate written materials with errors or businesses that use vague phrases and misspell names.

Written communication allows businesses to communicate developments, expectations and legalities to employees and contacts in the outside world. While traditional hard copies of written communication in business are still prevalent, email and online communication has become increasingly common. In this course paper we studied and described the peculiarities of business writing – letters, e-mail, memoranda. We clarified the main structural parts of business writing documents, which always are bound by certain accepted standards. Good business letter must be well-planed and built. It is very important to follow the standardized structure of the letter and corresponding language.Q 1. Describe any situation that you experienced where the communication went wrong because the listening was faulty. Analyze the situation by explaining the type of listening barrier. . How could this barrier be overcome? (10 marks).

The following example illustrates an organizational barrier to communication. By the time the message is passed down from the Chief to the lower level Executives, it is distorted completely, so much so that the original message is interpreted differently by each level in the organization.

Memo from CEO to Manager: Today at 11 o’clock there will be a total eclipse of the sun. This is when the sun disappears behind the moon for 2 minutes. As this is something that cannot be seen every day, time will be allowed for employees to view the eclipse in the parking lot. Staff should meet in the lot at ten to eleven, when I will deliver a short speech introducing the eclipse, and giving some background information. Safety goggles will be made available at a small cost.

Memo from Manager to Department Head: Today at ten to eleven, all staff should meet in the car park. This will be followed by a total eclipse of the sun, which will appear for 2 minutes. For a moderate cost, they will be made safe with goggles. The CEO will deliver a short speech beforehand to give us all some information. This is not something that can be seen everyday.

Memo from the Department Head to Floor Manager: The CEO will today deliver a speech to make the sun disappear for 2 minutes in the form of an eclipse. This is something that cannot be seen everyday so staff will meet in the car park at ten or eleven. This will be safe, if you pay a moderate cost.

Memo from Floor Manager to Supervisor: Ten or eleven staff are to go to the car park, where the CEO will eclipse the sun for 2 minutes. This does not happen everyday. It will be safe, and as usual it will cost you.

Memo from Supervisor to Staff: Some staff will go to the car park today to see the CEO disappear. It is a pity this doesn’t happen everyday.

Communication was filtered or misinterpreted because of the following barriers:

Organizational Barriers – In organizations that are too hierarchical, that is, where there are multiple “layers”, messages may have to pass through many levels before they finally reach the receiver. Each level may add to, modify or completely change the message, so much so that it becomes distorted by the time it reaches the intended receiver. In other words, there is likely to be loss of meaning and the message may not reach the receiver in the same way as it was intended by the sender.

Another type of organizational barrier is a departmental barrier. This means that each department in an organization functions in isolation and there is no co-ordination or communication between them.

This barrier could be overcome by the following methods:

1. Encourage Feedback – Organizations should try to improve the communication system by getting feedback from the messages already sent. Feedback can tell the managers whether the message has reached the receiver in the intended way or not.

2. Create a Climate of Openness – A climate of trust and openness can go a long way in removing organizational barriers to communication. All subordinates or junior employees should be allowed to air their opinions and differences without fear of being penalized.

3. Use Multiple Channels of Communication – Organizations should encourage the use of multiple channels of communication, in order to make sure that messages reach the intended receivers without fail. This means using a combination of both oral and written channels, as well as formal (official) and informal (unofficial) channels of communication. The types of channels will be discussed in detail later, in a separate unit.

Q 2. Select a business article from any business publication. Evaluate it in terms of : a) Appropriate level of readability b) Use of jargon, slang and metaphors c) Use of simple vs. complex words. Is it well or poorly written, in your opinion? Attach a copy of the article with your response. (10 marks)

World Markets Rise As Double-Dip Fears Ease: World stock markets advanced modestly Monday as investors rode momentum from Friday, when an upbeat U.S. jobs report eased fears that the global economy could slip back into recession.

With Wall Street closed for a holiday, however, trading was expected to remain light. Markets took heart after official data last week showed private employers in the U.S. added 67,000 jobs in August, more than analysts expected.

The figure bolstered optimism that the U.S. will maintain a slow but steady recovery from last year’s recession and avoid another economic contraction later this year.

By mid-afternoon in Europe, Britain’s FTSE 100 index was up 0.3 percent at 5,446.17, Germany’s DAX was 0.3 percent higher at 6,153.31 and France’s CAC-40 was up 0.3 percent at 3,684.20. Asian indexes closed higher and trading on Wall Street was to remain shut for Labor Day weekend after closing higher on Friday.

With most major governments reining in economic stimulus measures and many pushing through austerity spending cuts to reduce deficits, investors worry the global economy would be pushed into a double dip recession, particularly as the U.S. slows down quickly. Because the U.S. economy is the world’s largest and consumer spending there accounts for a fifth of global economic activity, the stronger-than-expected jobs data on Friday helped calm investors’ frayed nerves after weeks of worrying indicators.

“The renewed flight to safety we have witnessed over the past month is overdone and risks an equally large reversal when the worries over a double dip subside,” analysts from Rabobank said in a report.

“As the unexciting, steady and below-trend global recovery continues, it’s important not to confuse it with a double dip recession.”

Japan’s benchmark Nikkei 225 stock index climbed 2.1 percent, or 187.19, to 9,301.32 and South Korea’s Kospi rose 0.7 percent to 1,792.42.

Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index added 1.8 percent to 21,355.77. Australia’s S&P/ASX 200 gained 0.8 percent at 4,575.50. Markets in mainland China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia and Singapore were also higher.

The Dow Jones industrial average jumped 1.2 percent to close at 10,447.93 on Friday. The broader Standard & Poor’s 500 Index rose 1.3 percent to 1,104.51.

Shares in the U.S. ended the week in the positive, the first time that has happened in a month. The early gains in September mark a stark turnaround from August trade, when shares fell on doubts about the global economic recovery.

The dollar fell to 84.24 yen from 84.27 yen on Friday. The euro was slightly lower at $1.2880 from $1.2895.

Benchmark oil for October delivery was down 40 cents at $74.20 a barrel in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The contract fell 42 cents to settle at $74.60 on Friday.

Jargon refers to technical terms or specialized vocabulary. Some of the technical terms mentioned above are “rode momentum, Kospi, FTSE, CAC, DAX, calm investors’ frayed nerves, etc.” More complex words and phrases are written in the above article and this reduces the level of readability when read by a common man. The above article is well written, however, the reader of the article should have a certain amount of knowledge in the field of stock trading and world financial markets.

Q 3 List out and briefly explain five “do”s and “don’t’s” for each of participants and chairperson of a meeting. (10 marks).

Before the Meeting

As pointed out earlier, meetings need to be planned in advance, so that they are successful. Before any planning can be done however, a basic question to be asked is whether to hold a meeting at all. The answers to the following questions would help to decide whether a meeting is necessary in the first place – -Can the matter be decided or discussed over the telephone?

-Can the matter be expressed in writing, in the form of a memo, or an email message? -Are key people available to attend the meeting and are they prepared? -Is the time allotted for the meeting sufficient?

If the answers to the first two questions are yes and the answers to the other two questions are no, there is no purpose in calling a meeting.

Once the need for a meeting has been determined, the next step is to start planning the meeting. First of all, the type and number of participants should be decided. A problem solving meeting should include representatives from all departments, since the decision would otherwise be incomplete. Shareholders, who are the owners of the company, should also be included. In terms of numbers, the size of the group could be anywhere between seven and eleven members. An exception to this is an information sharing meeting, where the numbers could be larger, so that a maximum number of people benefit from the information.

The second and most important step in planning a meeting is to indicate the purpose or agenda of the meeting to the participants in advance. An agenda is essentially a list of topics that will be discussed during a meeting. In the words of Adler and Elmhorst, “A meeting without an agenda is like a ship at sea without a destination or compass: no one aboard knows where it is or where it is headed.” An agenda is prepared by the Chairperson of the meeting, or the person who calls the meeting.

During the Meeting:

The task of conducting and moderating the meeting rests with the chairperson. He or she must be well versed with the procedures for opening the meeting, encouraging balanced participation, and solving problems creatively, concluding the meeting and managing time efficiently. We shall discuss each of these procedures in detail.

1. Opening the Meeting – The manner in which the meeting is opened is important, since a good opening will ensure that the rest of the meeting will proceed smoothly. There are different ways of opening a meeting. Generally, it is best to sum up what has been stated in the agenda – including the goals, background information and expectations of the participants. It is also a good idea to provide an outline of how the meeting will proceed, as well as a time budget.

2. Encouraging Balanced Participation – It is also the responsibility of the chairperson to encourage silent members to contribute to the meeting and to moderate the dominant members, so that they do not “hijack” the meeting. There are several techniques to encourage participation –

· Encourage Participation in the Reverse Order of Seniority – This means getting the junior members to speak or air their opinions first. If the senior people speak first, they may feel suppressed or be afraid to disagree with their superiors.

· Nominal Group Technique – In this method, the meeting participants are encouraged to work and contribute their ideas independently

3. Managing Time – There is no prescribed length for a meeting. The duration of a meeting will depend on the type and purpose of the meeting. Generally, problem-solving meetings will take longer than other routine meetings. In any case, the chairperson should set a time budget for the meeting, depending on the agenda and ensure adherence to the time limit.

4. Keeping the Meeting Focused – Often, a lot of time is wasted during meetings by going off track and by discussing topics that are irrelevant. In such situations, it is the responsibility of the chairperson, or the person moderating the discussion to make sure that the discussion remains focused on the topics mentioned in the agenda.

5. Ensuring “Convergence” – Convergence means hearing the points of view of all the members and then arriving at a decision. It is again the responsibility of the chairperson to bring the meeting to a point where an opinion emerges on each item of the agenda.

6. Summing Up – This means summing up the different points of view, the decisions and the actions to be taken. This should be done by the chairperson, identifying the role of each person on each item of the agenda, along with a specified deadline.

Example – Chris will take the responsibility of contacting the media and sending material for advertisements and press releases by March 13th.

7. Concluding the Meeting – The way a meeting is concluded is as important as the opening, since it will influence the follow-up action taken on decisions made during the meeting. The chairperson should know when and how to conclude the meeting.

The meeting should normally be concluded at the scheduled closing time, unless important issues still remain to be discussed and members are willing to extend the meeting. Sometimes meetings may be concluded before the closing time, when key decision makers are not present, or when important information such as cost figures are not available.

8. Keeping “Minutes” of the Meeting – Since meetings are called to take important decisions concerning the organization, it is important to maintain a permanent written record of the proceedings, which can be referred to at a later stage, or serve as a guide for action. Such a record is known as “minutes” of the meeting and may be done in an informal or formal manner, depending on the type of meeting.

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Business Communication Essay

Student Name: ID: 1-:learning Outcome being assessed:

1. Choose the appropriate communication channel for a business communication event.

2. Present material in context and support claims with evidence, reasoning and professional quality.

3. Design and produce a message that is responsive and appropriate within a business context.

4. Produce clear and concise memos, letters, faxes and emails.

2-Handing in format instructions

Sign this page and put it as a cover for your assignment

Submit a copy of your work

Work must be neat and readable.

Use blue ink only (or pencil when permitted).

Number all pages etc…

3- Marks


Marks allotted

Marks obtained

Feedback to students


Formulation (ideas/ Content)







[Lecturer should give feedback to the student for all questions with awarded marks around 60%] Program Manager Approval: ——————


Business Communication


Fall 13/14




Handout date:


Due date:


Assignment # :1

Home Assignment

Maximum Mark:


Choose one of the following Tasks

TASK1: You work for X company (you decide what kind) as a (you decide what position). You want to take a course on (you decide what topic) and have the company cover the cost. Your supervisor is basically supportive but will need to get the OK from his boss. For this you will need to make the case persuasively and in writing. Write an email proposal to your supervisor requesting the company cover the cost of the course. Convince the decision maker that the course is worth the money. Try to tie to your current and future responsibilities and explain how the company will benefit. To ensure that your proposal has sufficient level of detail, you may want to do some research on the internet on courses and choose one that might be useful to your current job. TASK2:

You have been using the e-Text book for certain courses offered by McGraw Hill/KUC over the last semester. Draft a letter to the KUC management expressing your opinion on introducing the new digital books as study materials for the students. Explain for which courses you have used the e-book. How beneficial was it? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the e-book and what are your recommendations for the future. Would you like to pursue its usages, would you prefer using a print copy rather than the digital copy, or do you have any other suggestion? Use persuasive suggestion? Use persuasive arguments to support your opinion.

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can you please help me doing any of these tasks?

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Business Communication Essay



1.Communication is an essential function of Business Organizations.

2.Physiological Barriers of listening are:

Ans. (a) Hearing impairment

3.Which presentation tends to make you speak more quickly than usual? Ans. (b) Oral

4.What is the main function of Business Communication:

Ans. (c) Persuasion

5.The responsibilities of the office manager in a firm that produces electronics spares is Ans. ( d).. All of the above

6.Labov’s Storytelling Model based on:

Ans.(a) Communication through speech

7.Diagonal Communication is basically the:

Ans. (b). Communication between the CEO and the managers

8.How to make Oral Communication Effective?

Ans. (d). All of the above

9.Direct Eye contact of more than 10 seconds can create:

Ans. (a). Discomfort & Anxiety

10.10. Encoding means:

Ans. (a). Transmission

Par -2

1. 7’c of effective communication

1.Courtesy and consideration – Improves Relationship

2. Clarity-Make comprehension better

3. Credibility -Builds Trust

4. Correctness-Builds confidence

5. Completeness and consistency-Introduces stability

6. Concreteness-Reinforces Confidence

7. Conciseness-Save time

2. Space Language

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Business Communication Essay


Discuss the scope of business communication? a12 a11

State the principles of business communication? a12

Draw communication process? Discuss the importance of business communication ? s12 What are the principles of business communication? discuss any three of them ? s12 a11 Mention the ways of improving the effectiveness of communication ? a11 Discuss the characteristics of effective communication ? s11 Discuss the process of effective communication ? s11

Mention the 7e’s of business communication ? s11


discuss the types of communication ?a12

explain downward communication with advantages and disadvantages ?a12 Discuss the different situations for considering the written communication as an effective tools? a12 What are the merits of downward communication ? s12

define horizontal communication? briefly discuss the forms of horizontal communication?s12 s11 distinguish between oral communication and written communication ? s12 mention the different means of non-verbal communication with examples ? a11 briefly discuss the forms of upward communication ? a11

discuss the merits and demerits of written communication ? a11 State the demerits of oral communication ? s11

Discuss the merits of downward and upward communication ? s11 3)

What are the barriers to communication ? a12

Write a memorandum asking the employees to use the canteen only during the fixed hour ? a12 Suppose you are a manager of ABC company , write a notice informing the employees about the change in office timings during the Ramadan ?a12 Draft a memorandum to the office staff emphasizing the need of observing punctuality and adhering to lunch hour ? s12 As a secretary of business club , DBA at permanent campus write a notice to arrange a monthly Executive Committee meeting ?

s12 Briefly discuss the parts of a Business Letter with example and its specimen ? a11 s11 Suppose you are a manager of AB Bank Ltd. , CDA avenue. One of your officer , Mr. Abul Kalam has got a promotion as a senior officer, write a letter to congratulate him. A11 Define informal communication. discuss the four predictable pattern of informal communication network ? s11 What are the difference between the formal and informal communication ? s11 Briefly explain the different forms of non verbal communication ? s11


Why business letters is different from personal letters ? briefly discuss the guidelines for writing a social letters? A11 As a sales manager of Otobi Furniture Pvt. Ltd, write a letter of regret to one of your corporate clients by explaining the reasons of delay delivery of their ordered products . a12 Suppose one of your colleagues has been awarded as the best employee of your organization, draft a letter of congratulation to him . a12 As a sales manager of BSRM steel , write a letter of thanks to the purchase manager of Sanmar Properties Ltd for their large order ?

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s12 As a manager of Dhaka Bank Ltd Agrabad Branch , write a letter of appreciation to Mr Zakir Hossian – One of your sales executive for his outstanding performance to fulfill the target of bring tk 35 lac as a deposit. S12 Suppose you are a Sales Manager of Credit Card Division of EBL.. one of your sales executives has shown good sales performance by fulfilling his monthly target. Now write a letter of appreciation to recognize his well performance . s11 Short notes: a11

Process of business communication

Formal group vs. informal group


Barriers of effective communication

Sketch the types of business communication

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Business Communication Essay


In this assignment I am required to explain the different types of business information used by the business organisation that I have chosen for example; verbal, written, non-verbal, non-written, multimedia etc. I will also be writing their sources and purposes and analysing the different types of information. I will then evaluate the appropriateness of business information used to make strategic decisions. The business that I have chosen is Sainsbury’s. Sainsbury’s is a public limited company (PLC). It is the second largest chains of supermarkets in the United Kingdom in the retailing business. Sainsbury’s was first established with a shop in Drury Lane, and then became the largest grocery retailer in 1922.

Sainsbury’s provides food and drink, home and garden, technology, toys, entertainment, clothing and much more for their customers. This comes under the tertiary sector business that provides a valuable service that customers and other businesses are prepared to pay for. From where they had first started throughout the years they have expanded it by selling different varieties of products to satisfy their customers as well as giving them new products to purchase.

Types of Information




Verbal- Face to face communication about sales reports between staff and sales manager (meetings). Internal Source- Marketing Department. This is because this department deals with sales as they can give information about the results of research undertaken by Sainsbury’s. Face to face discussions could be used by the marketing department to explain/update by communicating sales promotions. Using this opportunity through the meeting the sales manager will also have an overview of how well the employees are doing their job. It is important for Sainsbury’s to have face to face meetings about sales reports often, so that the company itself knows what needs to be improved and how they are progressing currently.

Marketing department helps this type of verbal communication by updating the company using promotions and sales so they can achieve more profit for themselves and shareholders. Verbal-A telephone conversation about a customer enquiring about a product (staff helping a customer through telephone line checking if the product that customer wants is in stock).

External Source-

Customer Services Department. This is because customer services deals with customer’s issues or any enquiries they might have to do with the products or the store they can speak to a Sainsbury’s representative. A telephone conversation could be used by the customer’s services department to inform future developments on customer’s response to existing products and services. However Sainsbury’s doesn’t just deal with products, they deal with different types on insurances, mobiles, recruitment and so on. It is important for Sainsbury’s to have telephone conversations with customers because this way they are able to know customer’s opinions about certain topics and anything they would like to enquire about it e.g. products, services Sainsbury’s provide. The customer services department helps this type of communication by informing staff and managers about future developments. Verbal-Speeches about expanding on areas that needs improvement (increasing an amount of tills to avoid customers waiting for a long period of time in the queue).

Internal Source- Production Department. This is in this specific department because with production they are able to know what areas need improving and so along with past and future levels of production, this department knows how to deal with it in detail. They are able to know what kind of costs Sainsbury’s will be dealing with in order to expand tills which will then move on to the marketing department. Speeches about expanding on areas that need improvement could be used by inviting support for activities so that Sainsbury’s can avoid bad service coming from their employees. This means an explanation needs to be given to employees and others as it is important for them to know why this new improvement in the business is happening. It is important for Sainsbury’s to have speeches on areas that need improvement because in order for the company to expand and improve, improvement on amount of tills to avoid customers not only helps improve the company but attracts more new and existing customers too.

Also the production department can help as they can specify what areas need to be developed and write in detail about the costs and spacing will be needed to create the new tills for the store. Written-Web-based information about employment and recruitment (information of the company’s website about vacancies available). Internal Source- Human Resources. This is based in this department because human resources can provide information about the staffing and training within Sainsbury’s. Web-based information displays many benefits of multimedia technology. Web-based information about recruitment can be used by human resources to update knowledge and offer employment through multimedia technology. Sainsbury’s website gives different varieties of choices of job roles. They also provide specific searches to allow the people look for a specific store to work in and the kind of the job role they want. It is important for Sainsbury’s to have web based information about employment and recruitment because this helps the company employ people to work for them. It gives a chance for people to use the website find out what kind of vacancies the company has going on and what sort of rules too.

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It is important that the human resources department deals with this type of communication as they are aware of what kind of resources is needed to create/improve the website. Written-On screen information about sales, advertising, products and promotions on certain products (e.g. food, homecare, TU clothing etc). Internal Source- Marketing Department. This is sectioned in this department because marketing campaigns, promotions and information about the market, Sainsbury’s can take care of this department well. On screen information about sales and promotions could be used by inviting support for activities for a primary purpose of making a profit. By inviting support for activities they can increase more sales on other products to make more profit. It is important for Sainsbury’s to have on screen information about sales, advertising and promotions on products because with promotions on products the company not only will be able to expand by attracting more customers, but they will also be gaining more profit which means more shareholders too. It is important that the marketing department deals with advertising, sales and promotions, because they can give information about the results of research they undertake, which means they can see what their competitors are doing and how their own company can make improvements.

Written-Emails for queries regarding certain topics customer’s would like to discuss (Sainsbury’s bank, recruitment and website technical queries etc). External Source- Customer services department. This is based in the customer services department because consumers are able to discuss what kind of issues they want to with the company. Emails for queries regarding certain topics customers would like to discuss, could be used by informing future developments. This is because a business cannot develop and grow more than how much Sainsbury’s is wanting and aiming for if they do not hear what their customers have to say and so emails is one of the communication techniques so that Sainsbury’s can know their views on certain things. It is important that the company lets customers have access to emailing Sainsbury’s for any kind of queries customers would like to discuss. This is because their opinions and allowing them to express their views will help Sainsbury’s improve/expand. If Sainsbury’s do this customers will feel satisfied that their opinions are being heard and action is being taken.

Also it is important that the customer services department deal with this type of communication because Sainsbury’s can give consumers the information they are wanting to know about existing products or even providing a service. Non-Verbal-Deaf person wanting to know which isle in the store is a product in (asking a staff member). External Source-Human Resources. This is located in this department because employees within the stores can help customers who are deaf and wanting a product within the store hence asking help from a staff member. A deaf person wanting to know where a product is in the store could be used by inviting support for activities as information is very important and needs to be required through communications in order to support the business and keeping it running and successful. However for deaf people Sainsbury’s can hire employees that can communicate with deaf people using sign language.

It is important in Sainsbury’s that a deaf person wanting to know where certain things are the employees of this company can help them. By doing this Sainsbury’s are able to show that they provide a service that many other stores might not offer. It is important that it is located in the human resources department because employees who can do sign language can help give information towards the customers who are deaf. Some of these employees might need training for this and human resources department are able to sort that out for them. Multi-Media- PowerPoint presentation showing sales figures (how much profit they have made within 2 months). Internal Source- Finance Department. This is in this department because they will have information relating to Sainsbury’s performance including profit and loss figures, balance sheet and the costs of running Sainsbury’s.

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PowerPoint presentation showing sales figures could be used by updating knowledge for seeing how much profit they have made during a period of time. This is because so they can know what needs to be done IF they are making less profit. It also updates knowledge to see how well they are doing within sales figures. This is important in Sainsbury’s because PowerPoint presentations that show sales figures allows the company to know how much profit they have made and how well they are doing currently. It is important that the finance department deals with this because they will have an amount of information that includes costs, sales and how much profit the company is making.

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