In America there are so many people who live without healthcare. President Obama has tried hard to change that known fact by introducing and passing his new Obama Care Act. It is very important for people to have proper healthcare coverage, medical care, affordable medications, and for all healthcare services to be available to everyone, whether they are poor, middle class or rich. For most Americans, high quality care generally is readily accessible without long waits but at high cost.
However, the uninsured and, increasingly, the underinsured, the poor, and members of underserved minorities often have poor access to health care and poor health outcomes. The health workforce is well trained, yet the United States faces a severe shortage of primary care physicians. Approximately 45% of the U.S. population has a chronic medical condition, and about 60 million people, half of these, have multiple chronic conditions; the CDC estimated these numbers during a recent survey. 2
Most Americans 250 million (84.2%) have some form of health insurance coverage. But an estimated 47 million Americans (15.8%) were uninsured for a year, as reported for 2006 by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. A survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 43.6 million people (14.8%) of all ages were uninsured at the time of the National Health Expenditure Survey interview in 2006. However, as many as 89.5 million people under the age of 65 years lacked health insurance for a least 1 month or more during 2006-2007, according to a study by Lewin and associates published by Families USA. In addition, another 16 million people can be considered underinsured.
People without health insurance are much less likely than those with insurance to receive recommended preventive services and medications, are less likely to have access to regular care by a personal physician, and are less able to obtain needed health care services. Consequently, the uninsured are more likely to succumb to preventable illnesses, more likely to suffer complications from those illnesses, and more likely to die prematurely.
The U.S. health care system has much potential for improvement. Disparities related to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status has pervaded the U.S. health care system. In addition to the large numbers of Americans who lack adequate health insurance, the cost, quality, and utilization of health care services vary widely. Meanwhile, the need for long term care services and care coordination is increasing. Preventive care, cross discipline coordination, and proactive management of long term care might reduce the cost of care, but these services often are uncovered or poorly reimbursed.
Spending on health care in the United States has been rising at a faster pace than spending in the rest of the economy since the 1960’s. According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services- National Health Statistics Group states that in 2005, national health care spending amounted to approximately $2.0 trillion, or $6697 per person and 16% of the gross domestic product. By 2015, health care spending is expected to reach $4.0 trillion.
People with large medical care cost are often chronically ill, disabled, or poor. Our society’s inability to provide continuous, coherent patient centered care for this group of individuals is one cause of the high aggregate cost of health care and contributes to the cost of public insurance programs. Patients who enter Medicare without previous insurance but with chronic illness will be sicker and more disabled and therefore more costly to that government program.
Health insurance premiums increased drastically since the year 2005. Many have been unable to even afford health coverage. Employer based health insurance has been the basis for paying for health services since 1940, but it is fast eroding under the pressure of relentlessly rising costs of care.
Despite the growing need for coordination of health care services, government and private insures pay for health care services primarily on a episodic, visit related basis with few, if any, incentives for providing comprehensive, coordinated, and continuous care for the prevention and management of chronic illness. Primary care physicians now spend about 20% of their time in unreimbursed coordination of care tasks using the telephone or e-mail.
Despite repeated attempts to rein in federal expenditures for Medicare and Medicaid, federal have continued to increase much faster than inflation in the entire economy. 4
The Medicaid program provides medical benefits to over 52 million people who meet categorical eligibility standards. The federal government and the state share responsibility for funding Medicaid. The success of the VA system in dramatically restructuring itself indicates that major gains can be achieved in the United States in improving health care access and quality while reducing costs. One response to rising health care costs has been the adoption of consumer directed health plans in which the individual takes greater responsibility for paying for care out of pocket rather than the employer or government.
Unfortunately, for those with modest incomes, cost sharing has reduced medically necessary care, such as taking medicines for hypertension. The United States is in such a crisis when it comes to the health care system, yet is very important to see that every one of its citizens is afforded health coverage. People are sickly in this nation, like it is in other countries.
The United States is in the midst of a primary health care workforce crisis that is expected to worsen in the next decade. The population is aging, and baby boomers are at a high, and a large amount of people will soon be over 65 years and at greater risk for needing care for chronic conditions. The United States should continue to work on having national policies introduced to the health care system to help guide training, supply, and the distribution of health care providers to better assist those in need of health coverage. It is very important to make this a reality, because we the people of the United States need to be able to receive medical care, and health coverage, no matter if we are rich or poor in this society.
Social Networking or the use of specific websites or applications to interact with other users is one of the many key and driving factors today in our world. We find ourselves lost for many minutes or possibly hours at a time on any particular app or website. Looking deeper into the issue of social networking and its impact on our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all. A very smart man once said, “Time is money.” If that quote is true do we find ourselves in the twenty first century wasting money on pictures of people we don’t even know and moments we were not a part of?
As technology has evolved and become so apart of our world its effect spread to all ends of the spectrum of every day life. The generation of high school students today can’t imagine a world without a smart phone in their pocket. In an article on how technology is changing us Howard Gardner said, “This generation expects that every aspect of life will be quick, efficient, streamlined, available immediately on demand, tell you what to do, how to do it, how others feel about it, and, at least implicitly, how you should feel about it, how you should feel about yourselves.” Social networking provides this all. We as a country, and this generation have a sense of entitlement to know everything.
We justify our hours of social networking by saying we are connecting and interacting with friends and family that in no other means accessible we’d be granted that privilege. But truly are we using these devices of technology for these means, or at more times than not do you find yourself scanning any particular website or app viewing things that have no real impact or significance. According to MarketingCharts staff a survey conducted finds that the average online American spends 2 hours a day social networking from a computer, tablet and/or mobile phone. We as the human race must change and limit our time and use of social networking. Social Networking and its benefits are endless but only if used in an efficient manner.
Recent studies by multiple institutions also have found that students with access to the Internet use it to discuss or review educational assignments on a daily basis. ProCon.org reports that 59% of students with this access use social networking sites to discuss educational topics and 50% use the sites to talk about school assignments. After the student leaves school grounds he or she is still required to complete various assignments or projects. With these comes many questions or concerns on how the teacher may want a specific item completed, or even maybe how to even start an assignment. Social networking and the ability to interact with fellow teachers and students after school hours is crucial to the success of every student.
There truly is not enough time in each school day to cover or complete all work that is necessary. With Facebook and our friends just a click away we enter in a world of more focused student centered learning. Those self-driven students will seek our answers and solutions to any work assigned for outside of the classroom. Collaborating and working with like-minded people will not only benefit them in the classroom, but also be a crucial skill in the work force of our world.
Social Networking brings along a few negative but controllable aspects. There are countless stories about people of all ages who have been affected in some way or another by cyber bulling. The Story of Megan Meier was one that you will never forget. She hung herself in a closet because a certain boy on MySpace had posted multiple bulletins claiming, “The world would be a better place without you.” The opinion of one online friend took the life of a young girl who was truly innocent. Megan had created a MySpace account at the age of only fourteen. She was truly a girl of great opportunity.
She described herself as modern, enthusiastic, goofy, alluring, and neglected. This site provided her an avenue to gain attention from those around her. The monitoring of her online account done by her mother and father is truly honorable. They felt that Megan at such a stage of adolescence was not ready to navigate the Internet alone. Due to a false accusation on a social networking site Megan Meier took her own life. We truly must teach all people a sense of self-confidence and the ability to discern what is truth and what is rumor.
While not all negative effects of social networking due with life or death situations studies have shown that students who use social networking sites are much more likely to have a lower GPA (grade point average) than a student who does not use social networking. As stated previously we as people spend many hours in our daily lives looking at a screen full of events, pictures, tweets, posts, reposts, videos, and so much more. But what are we truly getting ourselves into? Do those interactions with friends and family have a negative effect on our schooling? Yes.
Counterclaims: Although social media can connect teens to the world and friends and family around them, it is actually one of the highest ranking causes of suicide amongst teenagers in the 21st century.
Social Networking Eats Up 3+ Hours Per Day For The Average American User January 9, 2013 – by MarketingCharts staff
Story of Megan Meier
Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular phones?
Driving requires a lot of concentration in order to keep the road, and ourselves safe. Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in a manner that is responsible. This raises the question of cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to accidents. Eating, drinking, reaching for fallen objects and talking to passengers are also some other elements that takes the drivers attention away from the road. Cell phones are not an exception, but they can also be very useful. However, they too present a danger for everyone, therefore, I agree that their use should be prohibited while driving.
Many people die every year from accidents. The vast majority of accidents are as a result of careless driving. In some cases the people are lucky enough to get out of it with just some bruises, others are not so lucky. When talking on a cellphone, the drivers attention is more on the conversation than on the road, and in the case of an emergency he would not have enough time to react. The education of the consequences that cellphone use has is vital, especially to the younger generation. I have come across people texting while driving. It seems unrealistic that people are doing this sort of things while operating a motor vehicle. So it’s not only phones that are a problem when it comes to using the road. Anything that takes the driver’s attention away from the road, any distraction at all is liable to cause an accident. Drivers who are using a cell phone while driving are four times more likely to get into a car crash than drivers who don’t use a phone behind the wheel. Over 800,000 vehicles in the United States are being driven by someone using a handheld cell phone.
About forty countries around the world have banned the use of phones while driving, others allow the drivers to use them as long as they wear a head set. So far it is a good idea to prohibit cell phone use in other countries, so why not here. It is unpredictable what can cause an accident, because sometimes the smallest thing can be a deadly cause. Banning the use of cell phones may cause less accidents, but hand-held cellphones are just a part of the problem. As long as we are able to take precautions, the chances will be reduced. Another factor that we should have in mind is that of drunk drivers, they are the most common cause of accidents.
To conclude, it is important that every person knows the dangers that talking on the phone has, in addition to all of the other factors mentioned above. People have to take this matter seriously, if they want to put their lives at risk it up to them, the problem here is that others could also be put in danger, because of their carelessness. On the other hand, because of the use of phones, police and ambulance can be contacted faster, and the response time reduced, which has helped to save people’s lives. Therefore, the phone has many good uses, but it is good to know when is the right time to use the phone, and when it should be put away. The negative consequences far outweigh the positive ones, for this reason, is best for phones to be prohibited from the roads for the safety of others.
Cyprus, Sheri, and Bronwyn Harris. “Is It Dangerous to Use a Cell Phone While Driving?” WiseGeek. Conjecture, 04 Oct. 2014. Web. 12 Oct. 2014.
Hanson, David J., Ph.D. “Driving While Using Cell Phone as Dangerous as Driving While Drunk.” Driving While Using Cell Phone as Dangerous as Driving While Drunk. Bitglyph, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2014.
For many years, the importance of English has increased because it has became a very common language all over the world. Owing to this situation, there are lots of argumentative topics which are about the power of English. One of them is about the medium of instruction at Turkish universities whether it should be English or not. First of all, the definition of the English as a medium of instruction can be made. Haagen – Schützenhöfer & Mathelitsch (n.d.) explain that, “English as a Medium of Instruction is a … bilingual teaching – method. The main idea of EMI is to combine the conventional instruction of content – area subjects with … a foreign language is used as a ‘tool’ for communication in different subjects” (p.1). In addition to this explanation, this type of education at Turkish universities can be very beneficial for students. Therefore, the medium of instruction should be English at universities in Turkey.
Opponents of this argument claim that the English as a medium of education is not beneficial for students in some cases. They argue that this type of education causes two main problems which are misunderstanding problems and economical problems. Firstly, in Turkey, there is a common belief that if the educational language is English at universities, it can lead to not understanding of the courses very well due to the departmental technical jargons. For example, in engineering department, because of the English educational language, student may have some difficulties in their technical courses. However, this view is highly debatable. In the beginning of the university education, there is an English proficiency exam which tests the students’ level of English for being appropriate to the departmental technical courses.
After this exam, for students who fail this exam, there is a preparatory year and the aim of this year is to prepare students their courses and to increase their level of English. Secondly, the opponents claim that, in English medium of universities, the fee of instruction can be a problem for poor students because it is higher than the other universities’. However this idea is open to debate. For poor students, there are lots of scholarship opportunities. Governments, universities and some big companies are ready to give some scholarship to poor students for rescuing them from their economical problems. Therefore, the high fee of instruction is not a problem for poor students.
English medium universities provide some advantages to students in some areas. Firstly, they are very useful for students in the most important field which is education. When the medium of education is English at universities, students have an ability to search in foreign sources. Therefore, their search area will expand and they can use the foreign sources in their researches. According to Economy Department of Istanbul University (n.d.), the English medium of instruction has lots of benefits for students. For example, in the English medium of instruction students get the chance to access and use the worldwide resources. Furthermore, this educational style makes it possible to enhance reading and comprehension skills and writing in English (p.1). Moreover, this educational style gives to students a chance to be educated in other countries. For example, many universities have Erasmus program which is the student exchange program between different countries’ universities. To apply this program the most important thing is knowing English. Due to the English medium universities, students already know English.
Hence they have an opportunity to apply this program and to be educated in different countries. Secondly, English medium of instruction also provides some economical advantages to students. Thanks to the English medium of education, students do not have to spend any money to learn English. For instance, according to TOMER (n.d.) which is a famous and qualified foreign language course, the cost of the specific purpose foreign language courses is 576.00 TL. In addition to this, in this language course, there are speaking classes and their cost is also 350.00 TL (p.1). If the medium of instruction is English, students do not have to pay these high costs for learning English. Therefore, it gives an economical advantage to them. Furthermore, this educational style is useful for students when they find and apply a job. In Turkey, knowing English is very important quality for applying any job. Most companies want from their applicants to know English very well. If the medium of education is English, this increases the chance of finding a good job.
Not only in educational and economical field, but also in social and business life, the English medium of education at universities is useful for students. Firstly, in social life, it gives to students some advantages. For instance, students may gain a chance to live abroad because when they graduate from English medium of universities, their level of English will become high. Therefore, they will not any language problems when they live abroad. Furthermore, it is also beneficial in social relationships. If students know English, they have an opportunity to communicate and have friendship relation with foreign people or students.
Hence, their social environment can expand. For example, at METU there are many foreign students and Turkish METU students have a chance to have foreign friends and communicate with foreign people. Secondly, this educational style has some advantages in business life. For instance, to work for international companies, English is very important because it is the common language in the world. If the graduates know their subjects in English very well, they automatically have a chance to work in these companies. Therefore, being a graduate from English medium of universities is a very significant advantage for students. Moreover, it gives to students an opportunity to have business life in foreign countries. For instance, lots of METU graduates maintain their business life in foreign countries. Being a graduate from METU whose educational language is English gives them to this chance.
All in all, in Turkey, if the educational language is English at universities, students gain lots of benefits from it. These are about their education, economy, social, and business life. When these benefits are thought and examined carefully, the importance of English for students can be obviously seen. Because English is the today’s global language and it gives lots of advantages to students, the medium of instruction should be English at universities.
Bölümler: İngilizce İktisat: Tanıtım. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.istanbul.edu.tr/iktisat/bolumler.php Course fees. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tomer.ankara.edu.tr/english/index.html# Haagen-Schützenhöfer, C. & Mathelitsch, L. (n.d.). English as a medium of
instruction in science-teaching. Retrieved from http://www.fisica.uniud.it/girepseminar2001/CS06/HAAGEN_03_FINAL.pdf
Malcolm X expressed the pent up anger, frustration, and bitterness of African Americans during the major phase of the civil rights movement. According to Learning to Read, “I believe it took me a day. Then, aloud, I read back, to myself, everything I’d written on the tablet. Over and over, aloud, to myself, I read my own handwriting.” (Paragraph 8) This means that he basically read his own handwriting. In Malcolm X’s, Learning to Read, he enhanced his life with reading and comprehension by having to experience his black community being treated wrong and having to go to jail.
According to Learning to Read, “Many who today hear me somewhere in person, or on television, or those who read something I’ve said, will think I went to school far beyond the eighth grade. This impression is due entirely to my prison studies.” (Paragraph 3) This means that he’s known for his famous speech. Either on television or someone who read something that he said. Malcolm X was imprisoned for a long time, and was studying while there. The qualities that he possessed while in prison were phenomenal and not worthy to the white people. But, he didn’t become intelligent in jail for them; he did it for his fellow black community.
According to Learning to Read, “It had really begun back in the Charlestown Prison, when Bimbi first made me feel envy of his stock of knowledge.” (Paragraph 4) This really means that he really didn’t start to read and comprehend until he met Bimbi. However, Bimbi was the first person he met in prison that didn’t use slang language. It was a surprise to Malcolm, because he didn’t know there would ever be anyone learning to read and comprehend like him in jail. On the other hand, how did learning to read aid him to understand the struggle of African Americans in this country? From my understanding, I believe that it aided him by it freeing him physically in his mind. And, it aided him by leading black people in the civil rights movement.
According to Learning to Read, “In my slow, painstaking, ragged handwriting, I copied into my tablet everything printed on that first page, down to the punctuation marks.” (Paragraph 7) This means that he basically was practicing his handwriting while, at the same time, reading the words and comprehending them. Also, how did it enable him to impress people of colors? In my opinion, I believe it enabled him by expanding his knowledge about blacks with the plight they were experiencing.
To conclude, the central idea of the text was that reading and comprehension helped him understand the racism in the black community. Malcolm X was basically strong and opinionated. Also, he is ambitious and anxious to get the freedom for his people and for himself. The reason being was because to awaken black people or in other words, spark them.
Every body loves the triple bacon cheeseburger from Wendy’s, extra bacon. Or the brand new Iphone that has just been released and you suddenly feel that daunting desire to be holding it in your hands. America is all about living for excess. People live for what is easily accessible no matter the cost. In reading of a Buy Nothing Day implemented and imposed on Canada, to increase the awareness of excessive consumerism, we must ask would this be beneficial to the United States?
I must agree that it would be beneficial to some in raising awareness. Though I agree, I must also strongly negate the idea of a “Buy Nothing Day” due to the low participation amongst our society in America, and the difficulty in implicated such a day. First, I agree with the idea that our nation could use a “Buy Nothing Day” and it could be very beneficial in raising the awareness of our excessive consuming. Having the opportunity to travel to a poverished country myself, I have found myself with an increasing awareness of my consumerism.
I distinctly remember walking out of the “Barra Payan” sandwich shop with a grin on my face, excited to devour the sandwich I had spent no more than 3 dollars on. As I continued to walk out, a young boy approached me, and in his broken English asked if I would give him just a bite of my sandwich. He had no shoes on, a shirt that had been worn to the seams and swim suit meant for a toddler, though he managed a crooked little smile as he asked. The disparage on his face was eminent though, and he wavered my heart.
Haphazardly, I preceded to hand him my entire sandwich. Hugging me, he ran off devour the sandwich I had just bought. Being down in the Dominican Republic for a week, I found myself aware of my extensive consumerism I display on a day to day basis, while people can hardly have enough food to survive. Though having a singular day in America may not be to this extreme, I strongly feel that it would be an important way of helping raising the awareness of this problem in America today.
Though on one hand I feel it would be a positive idea to establish an annual “Buy Nothing Day”, I must negate the idea of it. As is, America is nothing but nation living for excess and ease. No matter where we drive, or wherever we may go, there is that unsaid rule that you must aim for the best. I am sure you have had that memorable experience of driving by the cherry red Ferrari and with a little jealousy you envy to have that car. Or you go into Five Guys to get a burger and you see the guy in front of you ask for every topping on his burger.
So you say to hell with it, I am doing what I want, and all those toppings will be on my burger. I have seen this countless times. In a nation where we squander countless hours shopping and impulse buying, there is no way a vast amount of people would participate in a day such as purposed. With that stated, I must strongly negate the idea of an annual “Buy Nothing Day”, simply due to the fact of it is nothing our culture is accustomed to. Correspondingly, we as Americans are extremely narrow minded and would not be willing to integrate such a day.
Consequently, I must negate the idea of integrating a day such as this due to how consumer dependent our society is. You can hardly drive a mile these days without seeing something you can buy. I live in a town by the name of Castle Rock Colorado, and in our town we have a Home Depot, and a Lowes just a mile down the road. Why our town needs two home improvement stores is beyond me. Maybe it is the completion between each company, or possible which has more inventories. This is a classic example of what our culture is here in America.
Same goes for gas stations. There is one intersection with 3 gas stations. All of which, trying to entice you with slightly lower gas prices, or the world’s best selection of junk food. Competition is what drives our economy and in pushing to try to encourage a day to not buy anything, completely degrades the idea of our moral values as Americans whether I agree with them or not. Since our society singularly runs mostly on big business, the idea of this day exalts the things we hold so dearly as Americans.
Alongside this, the first time trying to implement such a day is near impossible, and would be strenuous to all people who live in America. In looking deeply into imposing a “Buy Nothing Day” in America, I strongly agree with the fact that for some it may raise some awareness temporarily. Though I agree, I must also negate the implementation of this day because it would be hard to gain participation as well as the strenuous tasks of difficulty in integrating a day such as this due to how consumer dependent our society is.
Governments should be more involved in citizens diets Modern age supermarkets selling off the shelve foods are normal nowadays. Unfortunately the knowledge of what is healthy and what is not had been effected by this. People should be better educated on what is healthy and what is not. Healthier diets make healthier citizens and healthier citizens will save a lot of money in health care, bad diets do cause expensive health problems. Although it is general knowledge that unhealthy products are cheaper than healthy products, it is not general knowledge that products claiming to be healthy are usually full of harmful and unhealthy ingredients. It is time the government steps in to protect the population.
Firstly, health problems caused by bad, unhealthy diets weigh heavily on health care expenses. Several population-based prevention policies can be expected to generate substantial health gains while entirely or largely paying for themselves through future reductions of health-care expenditures according to The Lancet (Cecchini et al., 2010). Just by eating healthier a reduction will be made possible, this alone should be reason enough for a government to get more involved
Secondly, people will be stimulated to choose healthier products when prices for unhealthy products will be raised. The current situation is just the other way around. The healthier choice is more expensive. “With proper nutrition and regular exercise, you can reduce the costs of health insurance premiums, the amount you spend on medicines and the number of co-pays for doctor visits” according to Livestrong (Ellyn 2011). However true this may be, as long as healthier products cost more instead of less people will be inclined to buy more unhealthy products.
Thirdly, in order to make the healthier decision, information about unhealthy ingredients should be clearer and more visible. Reading food labels is strangely enough rather difficult, excellent vision and extensive knowledge on what the ingredients mean are necessary to understand the labels. “It makes it easier to compare similar foods to see which is a healthier choice” according to the Mayo Clinic (2012), however easier to understand labelling, easier to read labelling will enable more people to making that choice.
In conclusion, if governments decide to invest in educating the population it will enable and stimulate citizens to make healthier choices. In order to reach this goal the government should demand clearer and more visible information on products concerning the ingredients put a fairer price on healthier products.
Sustainability within the construction industry.
Sustainability within the construction industry is a growing topic of concern, as the impact of previous years of negligence becomes apparent. Buildings account for a huge percentage of the world’s energy consumption and harmful green house gas discharge (Butler 2008, 520). A large percentage of the energy consumed in buildings is through the attempt to sustain a comfortable climate, a major goal of human beings within their constant fight for survival (Zuhairy and Sayigh, 1993, 521). Our current major energy sources are proving to be highly harmful to the environment as well as quickly diminishing. This depletion is resulting in rising prices that are increasingly unattainable for many people. Bioclimatic design and passive energy strategies can eliminate these problems. Bioclimatic design utilises the natural organic energy surrounding a structure to obtain optimal climatic comfort, whilst passive energy strategies provide carbon free possibilities for better utilisation and storage of this energy.
Together these design strategies can change the current pattern in energy consumption and carbon emissions. Neither bioclimatic or passive energy design are new ideas, however in recent years, with developments in technology, their value has been overlooked. Bioclimatic design and passive energy strategies are the way forward in sustainable building and it is the role of the architect to implement these methods. The initial planning and design stage of a building is fundamental to how successfully sustainable and energy efficient it will be. The role of the architect is changing dramatically, with more focus being given to sustainability in design. It can be presumed that global warming and the international concerns surrounding this are adding pressure to this change. Solomon and Krishna (2011, 7422) claim that since the start of civilisation people have been searching for different energy sources. Only when one source becomes more attractive than another through depletion, rising costs or perhaps pollution, will a change be considered.
There is enough evidence to suggest that our major energy sources are depleting, as well as that buildings account for a huge percentage of energy consumption. Butler (2008, 520) identifies that buildings across the globe account for up to 45% of energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions. However much of this can be changed if the architects initial design takes into account environmental and ethical factors. Switching the focus towards designs that no longer rely on synthetic energy sources for climatic comfort.
Bioclimatic design utilizes the freely occurring natural sources of energy of a location to obtain optimal climatic comfort within a building, as well as minimal environmental damage. Through close consideration of climatic and environmental circumstances the need for inorganic energy sources can be eliminated (Bioclimaticx, 2013). If buildings were designed to coexist with their natural environments, to take into account the natural flows of energy surrounding and entering a building, then high-energy products such as air conditioners and heaters would not be necessary.
Delancy (2004,149) suggests that environmental ethics may be one of the first moral concepts providing architects with clear design criteria. It is important that architects begin to see the need to design to coexist with nature in order to sustain all organisms, both surrounding and occupying buildings. It is the role of the architect to take into account the natural elements of a building site and design using them to their full potential. Thus reducing the level of synthetic energy required to achieve climatic comfort and the accompanying environmental damages.
Whilst bioclimatic design focuses on the immediately available natural sources of energy, passive energy design provides options to best utilize and store this energy. If the initial design is carefully thought through and simple insulation methods are applied, the level of heat fluctuation in a building can be largely reduced (Parameshwarana, et al. 2012, 2399). The technique of ‘free-cooling’ is another successful passive climate control technique, where cool air from the evening is stored and released into the building during the day as temperatures rise. Raj and Velraj (2010, 2820) contend that through using latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTES) the level of carbon emissions typically produced through cooling systems, such as air-conditioners, is greatly reduced.
Thus air provided to the building comes at a lower cost in terms of energy usage and is of a much higher quality for the environment and occupants. Free cooling and other passive energy design techniques are very specific to different regions and will not work successfully if the architect has not taken this into account. Bioclimatic design and passive energy design work together to gain optimal low energy climate control. It is important that the architect is able to use them simultaneously to gain the best possible outcome. Through implementing these techniques the architect can have a great affect on the environment as well as the quality of life and health of the occupants. Although our current sources of energy are depleting and the prices are rising, the integration of bioclimatic design can help limit this and eliminate the problems it is causing. Through the use of bioclimatic design the current pressure on our finite energy sources can be reduced through the utilization of natural and freely occurring sources of energy, such as wind and solar.
Thus making energy sources more readily available to many people from many different socio-economic classes and cultures. The energy that bioclimatic design uses is already present in every environment and available free of cost, it just requires smart architectural design to enable it’s use. With the current issue of global warming it is becoming apparent that our current major energy sources may soon be unattainable. Birkeland (2002, 3) believes that the western world is only just starting to see this as a problem, however it is a problem that has been present in many poorer, underdeveloped societies for a long period of time. The current approach of the construction industry places a huge amount of reliance on energy sources that will not always be readily available (Birkeland, 2002, 3). With the current deteriorating situation of the world, both financially and environmentally, the construction industry needs to start searching for a new approach to building design. Bioclimatic design turns away from depleting sources of energy and works from natural sources that are, for all peoples, freely available and constantly accessible.
With this in mind why wouldn’t we look towards a more bioclimatic approach to building design? In a case study of eight passive solar homes in Queensland, Australia, there is clear evidence of the positive affect bioclimatic and passive energy design can have on household energy consumption. Miller, Buys and Bell (2012, 57-58) identify the fact that in advanced cultures the amount of energy used for thermal regulation in homes is much higher than any other energy use within a household. The demand that this, along with rapid population growth puts on electricity companies is excessive and results in increased electricity prices. In this region alone prices have risen by 53% in five years (Queensland Competition Authority 2011, quoted in Miller, Buys and Bell 2012, 58). This case study looks at houses built in a residential eco-village under specific bioclimatic and passive energy design criteria. The houses are all elevated from the ground to allow for maximum wind speeds for cooling during the hotter seasons. Shading, insulation and passive solar design have been implemented alongside close locational considerations.
The buildings prove to be successful in providing a satisfactory level of comfort to the occupants throughout the year. The data collected shows that per year 77-97% of homes provided a signiﬁcant amount of hours in the comfortable temperature range of 18- 28˚c (Miller, Buys and Bell 2012, 67). These results show that bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions are affective in providing levels of comfort to households in extreme conditions. Thus reducing carbon emissions and dependence on high priced electricity. Occupants experience a lower cost of living, better air quality, and the benefit of knowing they are reducing their carbon footprint on the planet. This has all been proven possible through simple attention and consideration given by the architect, during the initial design process of the houses. It has been proven that bioclimatic residential buildings are feasible and successful, however the question may arise in regards to achieving this same sustainability in non-residential high-rise towers.
In a conversation between Yeang and Lehmann (2009, 36) Yeang describes how he has proven that it is actually possible to build high-rise bioclimatic, passive towers. Yeang, a Malaysian architect, has been described by Lehmann as “one of the foremost ecodesigners, theoreticians, and thinkers in the field of green design”. Yeang is responsible for the design of the National Library Building in Singapore, the first building in Singapore to be awarded the Green Mark Platinum award (Lehmann and Yeang 2009,36). The building combines many passive energy techniques and bioclimatic design options in order to achieve a constant and comfortable climate.
In the National Library of Singapore web site we see that strategic positioning away from the east-west sun, combined with shading around the building, is highly successful in reducing heat gain from direct sunlight. The use of natural light is enhanced in the building through simple design choices such as light shelves and daylight sensors. The national library has recorded significant financial savings in energy consumption compared to analogous buildings that don’t include these green design features (National Library Board Singapore 2013). There are many other techniques used by Yeang within the library to achieve such a high level green building and when asked about the realistic possibility of green high-rise he responds with saying:
We have demonstrated that we can build bio-climatical, sustainable high-rise towers, for instance in Kuala Lumpur. To stop sprawl and the further consumption of precious land, we need to build more densely, employing vertical typologies. There is no need to be scared by higher densities. (Yeang in Lehmann and Yeang 2009,38)
Yeang is a great example of an architect who is highly educated and interested in the techniques and possibilities of bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions. Thus he is able to easily integrate them into any structure. In a study by Maciel (2007, 186) on the affect of education and early projects, a group of architects currently employing many elements of bioclimatic design are assessed. The question of why it’s not more widely applied is considered. Whilst looking into reasons for its minimal use amongst the wider architectural community, the concept of scarce knowledge leading to insecurity and avoidance arises. Through a lack of technical knowledge on the subject architects frequently do not have the confidence to implement such specific techniques.
It has not been a major element in the syllabus of many design schools and although it is mentioned it is not necessarily enforced (Maciel 2007, 182). There is a great deal of trust put on the architect in the designing and planning of a structure (Miller, Buys and Bell 2012, 58). Hence it is vital that the architect is confident and well educated in the techniques of bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions, if they are to implement them. These design strategies can make a huge difference to our building and environmental future. Thus a great deal more needs to be done by architects to fully grasp the concepts and initiate a change. Making sustainable design a reality and conceivably one day a standard, as apposed to an option (Lehmann and Yeang 2009,40) Bioclimatic and passive energy design are not new concepts, in recent years we have just failed to see their relevance and importance. Many ancient cultures around the world designed and still design bioclimatically, using many traditional techniques. These techniques have proven to be successful, however over recent years we have turned away from the simpler, natural methods, and opted for quick fix, high energy consuming solutions. (Lehmann, 2009, 39).
In research conducted by Khoukhi and Fezzioui (2012, 1) modern construction techniques of houses in South Algeria prove to be less successful in sustainable climate control than those traditionally used. Due to the low economic situation in the area and the high demand for housing, modern-construction models foreign to the region were brought in. These structures are high-energy consumers and are not suitable to the harsh climate. Thus do not provide the level of comfort required financially or climatically (Khoukhi and Fezzioui 2012, 1). Although demands for comfort from human beings are increasing and our residential topography is becoming much denser, traditional techniques of climate control are still proving to be more affective. Bioclimatic design and passive design solutions are the way to provide all cultures with affordable comfortable housing.
This housing causes minimal harm to the natural environment whilst increasing the inhabitants’ quality of life, both financially and holistically. Successful examples of bioclimatic design almost always seem to be situated in hotter regions, however bioclimatic design and passive energy strategies are equally successful in cooler climates. Butler (2008,522) shows us that passive- house design is dispersing relatively quickly through Europe, with European countries perhaps being some of the quickest to start implementing these design techniques. Careful situational choices and high-quality insulation techniques can maximise the amount of solar energy gained and stored within buildings. A large amount of consideration needs to be given to energy loss occurring through small faults and leaks in structures located in cooler climates.
Through this the building is able to retain a maximum level of heat as well as gain energy from sources already present in the building, such as occupants and house hold appliances (Butler 2008,522). We can see that through careful planning, bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions can just as easily and successfully be implemented in buildings situated in cooler localities.
Whilst some may argue that bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions are not practical obtainable answers to sustainable design, it does not need to be the case. It has been proven through the work of many architects, both current and traditional, that bioclimatic design along with passive energy design is achievable and successful in a range of structures and climates. If added to the design, bioclimatic and passive design solutions can easily provide climatic comfort, whilst reducing energy consumption and carbon emission.
Thus decreasing the large carbon footprint buildings currently have on the planet whilst providing safer, healthier and more affordable living environments for human beings. These design solutions are not unattainable in anyway and it is through a developed understanding of the techniques, that the architect can implement them. Through extensive knowledge, architects such as Yeang are paving the way in bioclimatic and passive energy design. Proving that it is a realistic and necessary step in modern sustainable architecture. It is the role of the architect to implement bioclimatic design and passive energy solutions in order to obtain a sustainable environmental and building future.
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Hazing in American Fraternities should be illegal and should incur strict penalties. Society is ignorant to the severity of hazing within American fraternities. “Many of the rites of passage, those rituals of growing up… are in the form of such comic, practical joke affairs[,] which we ignore [believing that] they possess no deeper significance… For in them we ritualize and dramatize attitudes which contradict and often embarrass the sacred values which we proclaim through our solemn ceremonies”. (On Initiations Rites and Power)
Admittedly, hazing teaches new recruits their place in the fraternity. However, hazing also suppresses freedoms and participation of a new member within the fraternity. In addition, hazing and victimizing members can lead to mistrust and apathy, which often ignites conflicting views, arguments, and violent altercations. On the other hand, other activities, for instance sporting events and on-campus activities, are suitable alternatives to hazing that are more effective in earning trust and respect between fraternity members. (UMich)
Some believe that hazing filters out members who are not willing to make serious commitments to fraternities, However; it also intimidates potential recruits. Since the peak of fraternity membership, about 400 000 undergraduates in 1990, fraternity membership is declining by as much as 30 percent in the past two decades. (Psiu) Furthermore, a non-hazing fraternity finds that American students are reluctant to join a fraternity as “fewer students now [are willing] to [spend] hundreds of dollars… to be part of a system that has a reputation for physically abusing its pledges” (Psiu). In the end, hazing is abusive, hazing is humiliating, hazing is intimidating. (Anaphora) As a result, hazing, abusive and intimidating, is discouraging underclassmen from joining fraternities. (Interrupted movement)
One could argue that hazing is acceptable because it is a time-honoured tradition in American fraternities. Although dismissing hazing as tradition would be a valid reason in the past, each year hazing practices become increasingly malicious and dangerous. Presently, hazing rituals involve binge drinking, physical abuse and kidnapping instead of the traditional rituals such as reciting the Greek alphabet, doing push-ups, or taking a bite out of a raw onion. (USAToday) (Antithesis). In summary, the risks hazing bears are now too great to dismiss simply as “tradition”.
Most importantly, hazing is extremely harmful to participants. Consequently, 71% of hazed victims suffer injuries, emotional scarring, or both. (UMich) These victims are subjects to physical abuse, resulting in; heavy bruising, broken bones, failing organs, and in the most severe cases, death. (Climax) Likewise, physical beatings and binge drinking are the primary causes for the 104 recorded hazing related deaths in American fraternities. (NYTimes) In addition, hazing – an abusive form of bullying – also leaves victims with many emotional scars such as low self-esteem, depression, and suicidal thoughts. (UMich) (Epizeuxis) Furthermore, hazing can trigger traumatic memories in victims. With the hazardous risk of physical and emotional trauma, the negative effects of hazing outweigh any improbable benefits. (Deductive reasoning)
In conclusion, hazing, and its associated consequences, are not justifiable by any excuse. Hazing is an act of violence and cruelty that American government officials must condemn and minimize through legislation. Nevertheless, hazing is destroying the lives of fraternity pledges across the United States, making grief-stricken national headlines each year. Ever since the war on terror our government continues the abuse of human rights by, always tracking individuals and labeling them, practicing lock downs of cities for when they really need it, and always adding to the list of freedoms there taking away from us. Most people don’t see it as that many people see it still as a war against people that terrorized America. Soon after 9-11 the United States best computers where hard at work beginning a process to find and label terrorist in America and by doing so they invaded everyone’s privacy by constantly scanning emails and texts, voice recognition software on all our phones, Facebook is primarily used to profile people and find more about their personal mind sets and likes. Our cell phones can trigger words that start voice recording software so anyone can listen in on our calls. Right after the Boston bombing the government exercised martial law by having everyone clear the streets and clearing house by house, no one could be outside without being considered a threat, that’s putting people on lockdown and testing out how well it works on big American city’s or towns and to see how well the people listened.
One by one our freedoms are being taken away and no one can stop it, it’s part of the new technology and life we will have to grow and live into and our children. Ever since the terrorist act most of our freedoms where taken away right there, and as time goes on and we continue to let our government control us pretty soon we will have no freedoms what so ever and will be under full control as a people. Everyday new and better technology comes out that can help control America one way at a time. The war on terror has contributed to the growing abuse of human rights and no one will do anything to stop it. If we don’t come together as a hole to stop it people will soon be robots living under the control of one ruler or a group of people that decide everything about us.